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Hormonal Health: Severe Program

Hormonal Health: Severe Program

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Just $69.95

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Severe Symptoms - 30-day program

This program is for you if:

  • You are struggling with miserable symptoms that feel as if they’re taking over your life.
  • You feel “out of sorts” and it’s affecting the people you care about most.
  • Your body is trying to manage lots of demands without the support it needs.

Many women see results in 30 days, for optimal results we recommend 60 days.

What you get with your program

  • Women's Health Network Eating Plan and Recipes — detailed, practical information that helps you tap into the natural, healing power of food. No deprivation or traditional dieting — just delicious, wholesome food you will enjoy. The e-Guide is delivered via e-mail, usually within one week of purchase.
  • Nurse-Educator consultation — A one-on-one consultation with one of our insightful and experienced nurses to help ensure you get the results you want. This is included with your program at no additional cost.
  • Satisfaction guaranteed with no questions asked.
  • Free phone support — from our Advisors whenever you need it. One of the hallmarks of the Women's Health Network.
  • Essential Nutrients — our popular multivitamin/mineral nutritional foundation, formulated just for women.
  • Herbal Equilibrium — our exclusive phytotherapy-based endocrine support formula to restore hormonal balance and help relieve your symptoms.
  • Bioidentical USP Progesterone Cream — Our advanced progesterone formula is naturally-balancing, adaptogenic and 100% toxin-free. It offers just the balancing support women need — especially in the years before menopause. Made to the FDA’s highest standards and batch-tested, it’s also non-greasy, non-staining and dose-controlled. This bioidentical progesterone can be utilized by your body as a building block for other hormones, helping it to make what it needs, when it needs it.
  • Exclusive webinars — a 15-minute webcast with the pearls of wisdom you need to get the results you want.

Continued support

  • Also available — optional consultations with our Nurse-Educators, just $19 for 20 minutes.
  • Access to all of our exclusive formulas — order additional supplements to customize your program as needed.
  • Automatic resupply — After you complete your 30–day Program, you’ll want to maintain the symptom relief and well-being you’ve achieved. For your convenience, we’ll automatically ship another 30-day supply of Essential Nutrients, Herbal Equilibrium and Bioidentical USP Progesterone Cream each month for just $69.95 a monh. There’s never any purchase commitment and you may cancel at any time.
Notice for Residents of California

California Proposition 65 WARNING: This product contains progesterone, a chemical known to the State of California to cause cancer. Consult with your physician before using this product.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
Hormonal Health: Severe Program Ingredients

Product References

Essential Nutrients

Our Essential Nutrients is a comprehensive nutritional supplement that is doctor-formulated to be complete, bioavailable, and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.

The following articles and studies, arranged in order of recency, provide information about the clinical basis for using our Essential Nutrients.

Geohas, J., et al. 2007. Chromium picolinate and biotin combination reduces atherogenic index of plasma in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Am. J. Med. Sci., 333, 145–153.

Grobbee, D., & van der Graaf, Y. 2007. Vitamin K intake and calcifications in breast arteries. Maturitas, 56, 273–279.

Knight, J., et al. 2007. Vitamin D and reduced risk of breast cancer: A population-based case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 16, 422–429.

Lin, J., et al. 2007. Intakes of calcium and vitamin D and breast cancer risk in women. Arch. Intern. Med., 167, 1050–1059.

Pendas–Franco, N., et al. 2007. Vitamin D regulates the phenotype of human breast cancer cells. Differentiation, 75, 193–207.

Robien, K., et al. 2007. Vitamin D intake and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: The Iowa Women’s Health Study. Cancer Causes Control, 18, 775–782.

Schurgers, L., et al. 2007. Vitamin K-containing dietary supplements: Comparison of synthetic vitamin K1 and natto-derived menaquinone-7. Blood, 109, 3279-3283.

Ball, G. 2006. Chapter 11: Pantothenic Acid. In Vitamins in Foods: Analysis, Bioavailability, and Stability, 211–219. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Bischoff-Ferrari, H., et al. 2006. Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 84, 18–28.

Colli, E., et al. 2006. BXL628, a novel vitamin D3 analog arrests prostate growth in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: A randomized clinical trial. Eur. Urol., 49, 82–86.

Clarke, R. 2006. Vitamin B12, folic acid, and the prevention of dementia. NEJM, 354, 2817–2819.

Garland, C., et al. 2006. The role of vitamin D in cancer prevention. Am. J. Pub. Health, 96, 252–261.

Murray, M., & Pizzorno, J. 2006. Chapter 174: Herpes Simplex. In Textbook of Natural Medicine, vol. 2, 1723–1726. St. Louis, MO: Churchill Livingston.

Revilla–Monsalve, C., et al. 2006. Biotin supplementation reduces plasma triacylglycerol and VLDL in type 2 diabetic patients and in nondiabetic subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. Biomed. Pharmacother., 60, 182–185.

Adams, J., & Pepping, J. 2005. Vitamin K in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis and arterial calcification. Am. J. Health-Syst. Pharm, 62, 1574–1581.

Akbaraly, N., et al. 2005. Selenium and mortality in the elderly: Results from the EVA study. Clin. Chem., 51, 2117–2123.

Bischoff-Ferrari, H., et al. 2005. Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA, 293, 2257–2264.

Coppen, A., & Bolander-Gouaille, C. 2005. Treatment of depression: Time to consider folic acid and vitamin B12. J. Psychopharm., 19, 59–65.

DiSilvestro, R. 2005. Handbook of Minerals as Nutritional Supplements. NY: CRC Press.

Eussen, S., et al. 2005. Oral cyanocobalamin supplementation in older people with vitamin B12 deficiency: A dosefinding trial. Arch. Intern. Med., 165, 1167–1172.

Gropper, S., et al. 2005. Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

Mathieu, C., et al. 2005. Vitamin D and diabetes. Diabetologia, 48, 1247–1257.

Miller, E., et al. 2005. Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Ann. Intern. Med., 142, 37–46.

Simon, L. 2005. Osteoporosis. Clin. Geriatr. Med., 21, 603–629.

Srivastava, A., & Mehdi, M. 2005. Insulino-mimetic and anti-diabetic effects of vanadium compounds. Diab. Med., 22, 2–13.

Van Guelpen, B., et al. 2005. Folate, vitamin B12, and risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke: A prospective, nested case-referent study of plasma concentrations and dietary intake. Stroke, 36, 1426–1431.

Baez–Saldana, A., et al. 2004. Effects of biotin on pyruvate carboxylase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, propionyl-CoA carboxylase, and markers for glucose and lipid homeostasis in type 2 diabetic patients and nondiabetic subjects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 79, 238–243.

Bendich, A. 2004. From 1989 to 2001: What have we learned about the “biological actions of beta-carotene”? J. Nutr., 134, 225S–230S.

Bischoff-Ferrari, H., et al. 2004. Effect of Vitamin D on falls: A meta-analysis. JAMA, 291, 1999–2006.

Crescioli, C., et al. 2004. Inhibition of prostate cell growth by BXL-628, a calcitriol analogue selected for a phase II clinical trial in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia. Eur. J. Endocrinol., 150, 591–603.

Flynn, C. 2004. Calcium supplementation in postmenopausal women. Am. Fam. Phys., 69, 2822–2823.

Geleijnse, J., et al. 2004. Dietary intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: The Rotterdam Study. J. Nutr., 134, 3100–3105.

Holick, M. 2004. Vitamin D: Importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 79, 362–371.

Hyun, T., et al. 2004. Zinc intakes and plasma concentrations in men with osteoporosis: The Rancho Bernardo Study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 80, 715–721.

Lee, B., et al. 2004. Folic acid and vitamin B12 are more effective than vitamin B6 in lowering fasting plasma homocysteine concentration in patients with coronary artery disease. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 58, 481–487.

Levine, S., & Saltzman, A. 2004. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) neurotoxicity: Enhancement by protein-deficient diet. J. Appl. Toxicol., 24, 497–500.

Millen, A., et al. 2004. Diet and melanoma in a case-control study. Cancer Epidem., Biomark. & Prevent., 13, 1042–1051.

Miller, J. 2004. Folate, cognition, and depression in the era of folic acid fortification. J. Food Sci., 69, 61–64.

Nielsen, F., & Milne, D. 2004. A moderately high intake compared to a low intake of zinc depresses magnesium balance and alters indices of bone turnover in postmenopausal women. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 58, 703–710.

Pattison, D., et al. 2004. Vitamin C and the risk of developing inflammatory polyarthritis: Prospective nested case-control study. Ann. Rheum. Dis., 63, 843–847.

Shekelle, P., et al. 2004. Effect of supplemental vitamin E for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. J. Gen. Intern. Med., 19, 380–389.

Stabler, S., & Allen, R. 2004. Vitamin B12 deficiency as a worldwide problem. Annu. Rev. Nutr., 24, 299–326.

Vermeer, C., et al. 2004. Beyond deficiency: Potential benefits of increased intakes of vitamin K for bone and vascular health. Eur. J. Nutr., 43, 325–335.

VanAmerongen, B., et al. 2004. Multiple sclerosis and vitamin D: An update. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 58, 1095–1109.

Yasuda, S., et al. 2004. Suppressive effects of ascorbate derivatives on ultraviolet-B-induced injury in HaCaT human keratinocytes. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim., 40, 71–73.

Bodiwala, D., et al. 2003. Susceptibility to prostate cancer: Studies on interactions between UVR exposure and skin type. Carcinogenesis, 24, 711–717.

Borissova, A., et al. 2003. The effect of vitamin D3 on insulin secretion and peripheral insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients. Int. J. Clin. Pract., 57, 258–261.

Crescioli, C., et al. 2003. Inhibition of spontaneous and androgen-induced prostate growth by a nonhypercalcemic calcitriol analog. Endocrinol., 144, 3046–3057.

Devirian, T., & Volpe, S. 2003. The physiological effects of dietary boron. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 43, 219–231.

Grau, M., et al. 2003. Vitamin D, calcium supplementation, and colorectal adenomas: Results of a randomized trial. J. Nat. Canc. Inst., 95, 1765–1771.

Heinrich, U., et al. 2003. Supplementation with beta-carotene or a similar amount of mixed carotenoids protects humans from UV-induced erythema. J. Nutr., 133, 98–101.

Hintikka, J., et al. 2003. High vitamin B12 level and good treatment outcome may be associated in major depressive disorder. BMC Psych., 3, 17.

Kohlmeier, M., Ed. 2003. Nutrient Metabolism. Food International and Technology International Series. NY: Academic Press.

Lewerin, C., et al. 2003. Reduction of plasma homocysteine and serum methylmalonate concentrations in apparently healthy elderly subjects after treatment with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6: A randomised trial. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 57, 1426–1436.

Maggio, D., et al. 2003. Marked decrease in plasma antioxidants in aged osteoporotic women: Results of a cross-sectional study. J. Clin. Endocrin. Metab., 88, 1523–1527.

Rampersaud, G., et al. 2003. Folate: A key to optimizing health and reducing disease risk in the elderly. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 22, 1–8.

Stabler, T., & Kraus, V. 2003. Ascorbic acid accumulates in cartilage in vivo. Clin. Chim. Acta, 334, 157–62.

Trivedi, D., et al. 2003. Effect of four monthly oral vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation on fractures and mortality in men and women living in the community: Randomised double blind controlled trial. BMJ, 326, 469.

Watson, R., & Preedy, V. 2003. Nutrition and Alcohol. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Czap, K., Ed. 2002. Alternative Medicine Review: Monographs. Dover, ID: Thorne Research, Inc.

Duan, W., et al. 2002. Dietary folate deficiency and elevated homocysteine levels endanger dopaminergic neurons in models of Parkinson’s disease. J. Neurochem., 80, 101–110.

Knekt, P., et al. 2002. Flavonoid intake and risk of chronic diseases. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 76, 560–568.

Mock, D., et al. 2002. Marginal biotin deficiency during normal pregnancy. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 75, 295–299.

Morris, M. 2002. Folate, homocysteine, and neurological function. Nutr. Clin. Care, 5, 124–132.

Rico, H., et al. 2002. Influence of boron supplementation on vertebral and femoral bone mass in rats on strenuous treadmill exercise. A morphometric, densitometric, and histomorphometric study. J. Clin. Densitomet., 5, 187–192.

Shealy, C. 2002. Correction of low body temperature with iodine supplementation. Front. Perspect., 11, 6–8.

Sigmund, C. 2002. Regulation of renin expression and blood pressure by vitamin D(3). J. Clin. Invest., 110, 155–156.

Chang, N., et al. 2001. Study of the relation between proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy metabolites in the brain regions and the B vitamin status in alcoholics. Nutr. Res., 21, 811–820.

Chatterjee, M. 2001. Vitamin D and genomic stability. Mutat. Res., 475, 69–87.

Hartwig, A. 2001. Role of magnesium in genomic stability. Mutat. Res., 475, 113–121.

Helmy, M., et al. 2001. Antioxidants as adjuvant therapy in rheumatoid disease. A preliminary study. Arzneimittelforschung, 51, 293–298.

Hendler, S., & Rorvik, D. 2001. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company.

Klipstein-Grobusch, K., et al. 2001. Dietary antioxidants and peripheral arterial disease: The Rotterdam Study. Am. J. Epidemiol., 154, 145–149.

Pfeifer, M., et al. 2001. Effects of a short-term vitamin D(3) and calcium supplementation on blood pressure and parathyroid hormone levels in elderly women. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 86, 1633–1637.

Takahashi, M., et al. 2001. Effect of vitamin K and/or D on undercarboxylated and intact osteocalcin in osteoporotic patients with vertebral or hip fractures. Clin. Endocrin., 54, 219–224.

Berchtold, M., et al. 2000. Calcium ion in skeletal muscle: Its crucial role for muscle function, plasticity, and disease. Phys. Res., 80, 1215–1265.

Brubaker, R., et al. 2000. Ascorbic acid content of human corneal epithelium. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 41, 1681–1683.

Christen, W., et al. 2000. Design of Physicians’ Health Study II — a randomized trial of beta-carotene, vitamins E and C, and multivitamins, in prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and eye disease, and review of results of completed trials. Ann. Epidemiol., 10, 125–134.

Coppen, A., & Bailey, J. 2000. Enhancement of the antidepressant action of fluoxetine by folic acid: A randomised, placebo controlled trial. J. Affect. Disord., 60, 121–130.

De la Fuente, M., et al. 2000. Changes in macrophage and lymphocyte functions in guinea-pigs after different amounts of vitamin E ingestion. Br. J. Nutr., 84, 25–29.

Glerup, H., et al. 2000. Commonly recommended daily intake of vitamin D is not sufficient if sunlight exposure is limited. J. Int. Med., 247, 260–268.

Heaney, R. 2000. Calcium, dairy products and osteoporosis. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 19, 83S–99S.

Hetzel, B. 2000. Iodine and neuropsychological development. J. Nutr., 130, 493S–495S.

Ilich, J., & Kerstetter, J. 2000. Nutrition in bone health revisited: A story beyond calcium. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 19, 715–737.

Kugelmas, M. 2000. Preliminary observation: Oral zinc sulfate replacement is effective in treating muscle cramps in cirrhotic patients. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 19, 13–15.

Platz, E., et al. 2000. Plasma 1,25-dihydroxy- and 25-hydroxyvitamin D and adenomatous polyps of the distal colorectum. Cancer Epidem. Biomark. Prev., 9, 1059–1065.

Preuss, H., et al. 2000. Effects of niacin-bound chromium and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on the lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic subjects: A pilot study. J. Med., 31, 227–246.

Stahl, W., et al. 2000. Carotenoids and carotenoids plus vitamin E protect against ultraviolet light-induced erythema in humans. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 71, 795–798.

Youdim, K., & Deans, S. 2000. Effect of thyme oil and thymol dietary supplementation on the antioxidant status and fatty acid composition of the ageing rat brain. Br. J. Nutr., 83, 87–93.

Zempleni, J., & Mock, D. 2000. Marginal biotin deficiency is teratogenic. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 223, 14–21.

Anderson, J., et al. 1999. Breast-feeding and cognitive development: A meta-analysis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 70, 525–535.

Bailey, L.. & Gregory, J. 1999. Folate metabolism and requirements. J. Nutr., 129, 779–782.

Baker, A., et al. 1999. Effect of dietary copper intakes on biochemical markers of bone metabolism in healthy adult males. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 53, 408–412.

Bendich, A., et al. 1999. Supplemental calcium for the prevention of hip fracture: Potential health-economic benefits. Clin. Ther., 21, 1058–1072.

Bland, J., et al. 1999. Chapter 3: Proteins and Amino Acids. In Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach, 42-53. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine.

Bronner, F., & Pansu, D. 1999. Nutritional aspects of calcium absorption. J. Nutr., 129, 9–12.

Celotti, F., & Bignamini, A. 1999. Dietary calcium and mineral/vitamin supplementation: A controversial problem. J. Int. Med. Res., 27, 1–14.

Crawford, V., et al. 1999. Effects of niacin-bound chromium supplementation on body composition in overweight African-American women. Diab. Obes. Metabol., 1, 331–337.

Creedon, A., et al. 1999. The effect of moderately and severely restricted dietary magnesium intakes on bone composition and bone metabolism in the rat. Br. J. Nutr., 82, 63–71.

Feskanich, D., et al. 1999. Vitamin K intake and hip fractures in women: A prospective study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 69, 74–79.

Green, A., et al. 1999. Daily sunscreen application and betacarotene supplementation in prevention of basal-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas of the skin: A randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 354, 723–729.

Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell’Infarto miocardico. 1999. Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: Results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Lancet, 354: 447–455.

Hassing, L., et al. 1999. Further evidence on the effects of vitamin B12 and folate levels on episodic memory functioning: A population-based study of healthy very old adults. Biol. Psych., 45, 1472–1480.

Jacques, P. 1999. The potential preventive effects of vitamins for cataract and age-related macular degeneration. Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res., 69, 198–205.

John, E., et al. 1999. Vitamin D and breast cancer risk: The NHANES I Epidemiologic follow-up study, 1971-1975 to 1992. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 8, 399–406.

LeBoff, M., et al. 1999. Occult vitamin D deficiency in postmenopausal US women with acute hip fracture. JAMA, 281, 1505–1511.

Lee, K., et al. 1999. Too much versus too little: The implications of current iodine intake in the United States. Nutr. Rev., 57, 177–181.

Meunier, P., et al. 1999. Diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: Clinical guidelines. International Committee for Osteoporosis Clinical Guidelines. Clin. Ther., 21, 1025–1044.

Patrick, L. 1999. Comparative absorption of calcium sources and calcium citrate malate for the prevention of osteoporosis. Altern. Med. Rev., 4, 74–85.

Venkatraman, J., & Chu, W.-C. 1999. Effects of dietary ?3 and ?6 lipids and vitamin E on proliferative response, lymphoid cell subsets, production of cytokines by spleen cells, and splenic protein levels for cytokines and oncogenes in MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr mice. J. Nutr. Biochem., 10, 582-597.

Vieth, R. 1999. Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 69, 842–856.

Zempleni, J., & Mock, D. 1999. Bioavailability of biotin given orally to humans in pharmacologic doses. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 69, 504–508.

Berdanier, C. D. 1998. Advanced Nutrition Micronutrients. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc.

Castelo-Branco, C. 1998. Management of osteoporosis. An overview. Drugs Aging, 12, 25–32.

Chapin, R., et al. 1998. The effects of dietary boric acid on bone strength in rats. Biol. Trace Elem. Res., 66, 395–399.

Falch, J., et al. 1998. Low levels of serum ascorbic acid in elderly patients with hip fracture. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest., 58, 225–228.

Hall, S., & Greendale, G. 1998. The relation of dietary vitamin C intake to bone mineral density: Results from the PEPI study. Calc. Tiss. Int., 63, 183–189.

Lakshmi, A. 1998. Riboflavin metabolism — relevance to human nutrition. Indian J. Med. Res., 108, 182-190.

Lin, Y., et al. 1998. Estimating the concentration of beta-carotene required for maximal protection of low-density lipoproteins in women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 67, 837-845.

Lukkarinen, M., et al. 1998. Varicella and varicella immunity in patients with lysinuric protein intolerance. J. Inherit.Metab. Dis., 21, 103–111.

Maas, A., et al. 1998. Riboflavin and vitamin B-6 intakes and status and biochemical response to riboflavin supplementation in free-living elderly people. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 68, 389–395.

Masse, P., et al. 1998. A cartilage matrix deficiency experimentally induced by vitamin B6 deficiency. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 217, 97–103.

Mathai, K. 1998. Vitamin E continuing education module. Nutr. Sci. News, 3, 8 pp.

Moriguchi, S. 1998. The role of vitamin E in T-cell differentiation and the decrease of cellular immunity with aging. Biofactors, 7, 77–86.

Nielsen, F. 1998. The justification for providing dietary guidance for the nutritional intake of boron. Biol. Trace Elem. Res., 66, 319–330.

O’Brien, K. 1998. Combined calcium and vitamin D supplementation reduces bone loss and fracture incidence in older men and women. Nutr. Rev., 56, 148–150.

Reid, I. 1998. The roles of calcium and vitamin D in the prevention of osteoporosis. Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am., 27, 389–398.

Rose, R., et al. 1998. Ocular oxidants and antioxidant protection. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 217, 397-407.

Tessier, F., et al. 1998. Decrease in vitamin C concentration in human lenses during cataract progression. Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res., 68, 309–315.

Urano, et al. 1998. Aging and oxidative stress in neurodegeneration. Biofactors, 7, 103–112.

Balch, J., & Balch, P. 1997. Prescription for Nutritional Healing (4th Ed.): A Practical A-to-Z Reference to Drug-Free Remedies Using Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs & Food Supplements, 12–21. Garden City Park, NJ: Avery Publishing Group.

Chapin, R., et al. 1997. The effects of dietary boron on bone strength in rats. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol., 35, 205–215.

Edmonds, S., et al. 1997. Putative analgesic activity of repeated oral doses of vitamin E in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Results of a prospective placebo controlled double blind trial. Ann. Rheum. Dis., 56, 649–655.

Gaby, A. 1997. Panthothenic acid: All-purpose vitamin, a member of the B-complex vitamin group. Nutr. Healing, 3 (4), 11.

Grant, K. et al. 1997. Chromium and exercise training: Effect on obese women. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 29, 992–998.

Shivakumar, K., & Kumar, B. 1997. Magnesium deficiency enhances oxidative stress and collagen synthesis in vivo in the aorta of rats. Int. J. Biochem. Cell. Biol., 29, 1273–1278.

van Poppel, G., & van den Berg, H. 1997. Vitamins and cancer. Cancer Letters, 114, 195–202.

Zhang, H., et al. 1997. Biotin administration improves the impaired glucose tolerance of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (Tokyo), 43, 271-280.

Albanes, D., et al. 1996. Alpha-tocopherol and beta carotene supplements and lung cancer incidence in the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cancer prevention study: Effects of base-line characteristics and study compliance. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 88, 1560–1570.

Cravo, M., et al. 1996. Hyperhomocysteinemia in chronic alcoholism: Correlation with folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 status. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 63, 220–224.

McAlindon, T., et al. 1996. Do antioxidant micronutrients protect against the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis? Arthritis. Rheum., 39, 648–656.

Murray, M. 1996. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing.

Omenn, G., et al. 1996. Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. NEJM, 334, 1150–1155.

Riggs, K., et al. 1996. Relations of vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, folate, and homocysteine to cognitive performance in the Normative Aging Study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 63, 306–314.

Bendich, A., & Langseth, L. 1995. The health effects of vitamin C supplementation: A review. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 14, 124–136.

Boucher, B., et al. 1995. Glucose intolerance and impairment of insulin secretion in relation to vitamin D deficiency in east London Asians. Diabetologia, 38, 1239–1245.

Dreosti, I. 1995. Magnesium status and health. Nutr. Rev., 53, S23–S27.

Groff, J., et al. 1995. Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.

Jie, K., et al. 1995. Vitamin K intake and osteocalcin levels in women with and without aortic atherosclerosis: A population-based study. Atherosclerosis, 116, 117-123.

Meacham, S., et al. 1995. Effect of boron supplementation on blood and urinary calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus, and urinary boron in athletic and sedentary women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 61, 341–345.

Nachbar, F., & Korting, H. 1995. The role of vitamin E in normal and damaged skin. J. Mol. Med., 73, 7–17.

Sojka, J., & Weaver, C. 1995. Magnesium supplementation and osteoporosis. Nutr. Rev., 53, 71–74.

Wilson, B., & Gondy, A. 1995. Effects of chromium supplementation on fasting insulin levels and lipid parameters in healthy, non-obese young subjects. Diabet. Res. Clin. Pract., 28, 179–184.

Barger–Lux, M., & Heaney, R. 1994. The role of calcium intake in preventing bone fragility, hypertension, and certain cancers. J. Nutr., 124, 1406S–1411S.

Bronner, F. 1994. Calcium and osteoporosis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 60, 831–836.

De Caterina R., et al. 1994. n-3 fatty acids and renal diseases. Am. J. Kidney Dis., 24, 397–415.

Masse, P., et al. 1994. Vitamin B6 deficiency experimentally-induced bone and joint disorder: Microscopic, radiographic and biochemical evidence. Br. J. Nutr., 71: 919–932.

Newnham, R. 1994. Essentiality of boron for healthy bones and joints. Environ. Health Perspect., 102 (Suppl. 7). 83-85.

Abbott, L., & Rude, R. 1993. Clinical manifestations of magnesium deficiency. Miner. Electrolyte Metab. 19, 314–322.

Beattie, J., & Peace, H. 1993. The influence of a low-boron diet and boron supplementation on bone, major mineral and sex steroid metabolism in postmenopausal women. Br. J. Nutr., 69, 871–884.

Hochman, L., et al. 1993. Brittle nails: Response to daily biotin supplementation. Cutis, 51, 303–305.

Hodges, S., et al. 1993. Circulating levels of vitamins K1 and K2 decreased in elderly women with hip fracture. J. Bone Miner. Res., 8, 1241–1245.

Saltman, P., & Strause, L. 1993. The role of trace minerals in osteoporosis. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 12, 384–389.

Volpe, S., et al. 1993. The relationship between boron and magnesium status and bone mineral density in the human: A review. Magnesium Res., 6, 291–296.

Chapuy, M., et al. 1992. Vitamin D3 and calcium to prevent hip fractures in the elderly women. NEJM, 327, 1637–1642.

Combs, G., 1992. Vitamin B6 (Chapter 13), and Vitamin B12 (Chapter 17). In The Vitamins: Fundamental Aspects in Nutrition and Health, 331–347; 403–419. San Diego: Academic Press.

Hankinson, S., et al. 1992. Nutrient intake and cataract extraction in women: A prospective study. BMJ, 305, 335–339.

Paunier, L. 1992. Effect of magnesium on phosphorus and calcium metabolism. Monatsschr. Kinderheilkd., 140, S17–S20.

Reynolds, T., et al. 1992. Hip fracture patients may be vitamin B6 deficient. Controlled study of serum pyridoxal-5’-phosphate. Acta Orthop. Scand., 63, 635–638.

Simon, J., et al. 1992. Calcium intake and blood pressure in elderly women. Am. J. Epidemiol., 136, 1241–1247.

Mock, D. 1991. Skin manifestations of biotin deficiency. Semin. Dermatol., 10, 296-302.

Tahiliani, A., & Beinlich, C. 1991. Pantothenic acid in health and disease. Vitam. Horm., 46, 165–228.

Anderson, J. 1990. Dietary calcium and bone mass through the lifecycle. Nutr. Today, 25 (2),9–14.

Colombo, V., et al. 1990. Treatment of brittle fingernails and onychoschizia with biotin: Scanning electron microscopy. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., 23, 1127–1132.

Davis, R., et al. 1990. Vitamin C influence on localized adjuvant arthritis. J. Am. Podiatr. Med. Assoc., 80, 414–418.

Koutsikos, D., et al. 1990. Biotin for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Biomed. Pharmacother., 44, 511–514.

Masse, P., et al. 1990. Morphological abnormalities in vitamin B6 deficient tarsometatarsal chick cartilage. Scanning Microsc., 4, 667–673; discussion 674.

Meydani, S., et al. 1990. Vitamin E supplementation enhances cell-mediated immunity in healthy elderly subjects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 52, 557-563.

Song, W. 1990. Pantothenic acid: How much do we know about this B-complex vitamin? Nutr. Today, 25 (2), 19–26.

Floersheim, G. 1989. [Treatment of brittle fingernails with biotin]. Z. Hautkr., 64, 41–48.

Frei, B., et al. 1989. Ascorbate is an outstanding antioxidant in human blood plasma. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 86, 6377–6381.

Mountokalakis, T. 1987. Effects of aging, chronic disease, and multiple supplements on magnesium requirements. Magnesium, 6, 5-11.

Nyhan, W. 1987. Inborn errors of biotin metabolism. Arch. Dermatol., 123, 1696–1698a.

Bendich, A., et al. 1986. Dietary vitamin E requirement for optimum immune responses in the rat. J. Nutr., 116, 675–681.

Misir, R., & Blair, R. 1986. Effect of biotin supplementation of a barley-wheat diet on restoration of healthy feet, legs and skin of biotin deficient sows. Res. Vet. Sci., 40, 212-218.

Kremer, J., et al. 1985. Effects of manipulation of dietary fatty acids on clinical manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet, 1, 184–187.

Cranton, E. & Frackleton, J. 1984. Free radical pathology in age-associated disease: Treatment with EDTA chelation, nutrition, and antioxidants. J. Holistic Med., 6, 1–36.

Wolf, G. 1984. Multiple functions of vitamin A. Physiol. Rev., 64, 873–937.

Atik, O. 1983. Zinc and senile osteoporosis. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc., 31, 790–791.

Ensminger, A., et al. 1983. Foods and Nutrition Encyclopedia: Vol. 2. Clovis, CA: Pegus Press.

Holmes, R., & Kummerow, F. 1983. The relationship of adequate and excessive intake of vitamin D to health and disease. Am. Coll. Nutr., 2, 172–199.

Davis, B., et al. 1982. Enhanced absorption of oral vitamin B12 from a resin ascorbate administered to normal subjects. Manip. Physiol. Ter., 5, 123–127.

Eisenstein, A. 1982. Nutritional and metabolic effects of alcohol. J. Am. Diet. Assoc., 81, 247–251.

Epstein, O., et al. 1982. Vitamin D, hydroxyapatite, and calcium gluconate in treatment of cortical bone thinning in postmenopausal women with primary biliary cirrhosis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 36, 426–430.

Bonjour, J. 1980. Vitamins and alcoholism. V. Riboflavin; VI. Niacin; VII. Pantothenic acid; VIII. Biotin. Int. J. Vit. Nutr. Res., 50, 425–440.

Wang, J. 1979. Vitamin C: Dr. Pauling was right. New York, 51–54.

Wilkins, E., & Wilkins, M. 1979. Effect of aspirin and vitamins C and E on synovial rheumatoid arthritic and other cells. Experientia, 35: 244–246.

Fry, P., et al. 1976. Metabolic response to a pantothenic acid deficient diet in humans. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (Tokyo), 22, 339–346.

Mullen, A., & Wilson, C. 1976. The metabolism of ascorbic acid in rheumatoid arthritis. Proc. Nutr. Soc., 35, 8A–9A.

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Baker, H., et al. 1975. Inability of chronic alcoholics with liver disease to use food as a source of folates, thiamin and vitamin B6. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 28, 1377–1380.

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Herbal Equilibrium references

Our Herbal Equilibrium is doctor-formulated to be complete, natural, bioavailable, and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.

The following articles, reviews and studies, arranged in order of ingredient and recency, provide information concerning the clinical basis for using Herbal Equilibrium. Click on the ingredients listed below to review pertinent studies and articles.


Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera / W. ashwagandha)

Alam, N., et al. 2011. High catechin concentrations detected in Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 11, 65. URL: (accessed 09.23.2011).

Kumar, A., et al. 2011. Utility of a multidisciplinary approach for genome diagnostics of cultivated and wild germplasm resources of medicinal Withania somnifera, and the status of new species, W. ashwagandha, in the cultivated taxon URL: (accessed 09.06.2011).

Sinha, S., et al. 2011. In vivo anti-tussive activity and structural features of a polysaccharide fraction from water extracted Withania somnifera. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Mar 24;134 (2), 510-513. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.23.2011).

“CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a scientific basis for the past and present ethnomedical uses of this plant.”

Dog, T. 2010. Smart Talk on supplements and botanicals: Ginseng and other adaptogenic herbs. Alt. Complement. Ther., 16 (1), 1–4. URL (paid access): (accessed 01.17.2011).

Ven Murthy, M., et al. 2010. Scientific basis for the use of Indian ayurvedic medicinal plants in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders: Ashwagandha. Cent. Nerv. Syst. Agents Med. Chem., 10 (3), 238-246. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.23.2011).

Yadav, B., et al. 2010. In vitro anticancer activity of the root, stem and leaves of Withania somnifera against various human cancer cell lines. Indian J. Pharm. Sci., 72 (5), 659-663. URL: (accessed 09.23.2011).

Widido, N., et al. 2007. Selective killing of cancer cells by leaf extract of Ashwagandha: Identification of a tumor-inhibitory factor and the first molecular insights to its effect. Clin. Cancer Res., 13 (7), 2298–2306. URL: (accessed 02.23.2011).

Naidu, P., et al. 2006. Effect of Withania somnifera root extract on reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia and cognitive dysfunction. Phytother. Res., 20 (2), 140–146. URL: (accessed 02.23.2011).

Winters, M. 2006. Ancient medicine, modern use: Withania somnifera and its potential role in integrative oncology. Altern. Med. Rev., 11 (4), 269-277. URL (PDF): (accessed 09.23.2011).

“…As modern medicine continues to expand, so do the uses of botanical medicines. Withania somnifera shows great potential as a safe and effective antineoplastic agent.”

Kuboyama, T., et al. 2005. Neuritic regeneration and synaptic reconstruction induced by withanolide A. Br. J. Pharmacol., 144 (7), 961–971. URL: (accessed 02.23.2011).

Misra, L., et al. 2005. Unusually sulfated and oxygenated steroids from Withania somnifera. Phytochemistry, 66, 2702–2707. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

[No authors listed.] 2004. Monograph. Withania somnifera. Altern. Med. Rev., 9 (2), 211–214. URL: (accessed 02.23.2011).

Sreerekha, M., et al. 2004. Distribution of total withanolides in various plant parts of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) accessions as influenced by light and dark reaction cycle. J. Med. Aromatic Plant Sci., 26, 681–683. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.06.2011).

Bhattacharya, S., & Muruganandam, A. 2003. Adaptogenic activity of Withania somnifera: An experimental study using a rat model of chronic stress. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 75, 547–555. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Iuvone, T., et al. 2003. Induction of nitric oxide synthase expression by Withania somnifera macrophages. Life Sci., 72 (14), 1617-1625. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.25.2011).

Ilayperuma, I., et al. 2002. Effect of Withania somnifera root extract on the sexual behaviour of male rats. Asian J. Androl., 4, 295–298. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Rajpal, V. 2002. Standardization of botanicals. New Delhi: Eastern Publishers.

Abdel–Magied, E., et al. 2001. The effect of aqueous extracts of Cynomorium coccineum and Withania somnifera on testicular development in immature Wistar rats. J. Ethnopharmacol., 75 (1), 1–4. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Dhuley, J. 2001. Nootropic-like effect of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L.) in mice. Phytother Res., 15 (6), 524–528. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Jain, S., et al. 2001. Neuroprotective effects of Withania somnifera Dunn. in hippocampal sub-regions of female albino rat. Phytother. Res., 15 (6), 544–548. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Singh, B., et al. 2001. Adaptogenic activity of a glyco-peptido-lipid fraction from the alcoholic extract of Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn. Phytomedicine, 8, 283–291. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Singh, G., et al. 2001. Adaptogenic activity of a novel, withanolide-free aqueous fraction from the roots of Withania somnifera Dunn. Phytother. Res., 15 (4), 311–318. URL (PDF): (accessed 02.24.2011).

Battacharya, S., et al. 2000. Anxiolytic-antidepressant activity of Withania somnifera glycowithanolides: An experimental study. Phytomedicine, 7 (6), 463–469. URL: (accessed 01.25.2011).

Dhuley, J. 2000. Adaptogenic and cardioprotective action of ashwagandha in rats and frogs. J. Ethnopharmacol., 70 (1), 57–63. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Mishra, L-C., et al. 2000. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Withania somnifera (ashwagandha): A review. Altern. Med. Rev., 5 (4), 334–346. URL (PDF): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Archana, R., & Namasivayam, A. 1999. Antistressor effect of Withania somnifera. J. Ethnopharmcol., 64 (1), 91–93. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.26.2011).

Rege, N.-N., et al. 1999. Adaptogenic properties of six rasayana herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine. Phytother Res., 13 (4), 275–291. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Schauss, A., et al. 1998. Therapeutic applications of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) — popular ayurvedic botanical medicine. Nat. Med. J., 1, 16–19.

Schliebs, R., et al. 1997. Systemic administration of defined extracts from Withania somnifera (Indian Ginseng) and Shilajit differentially affects cholinergic but not glutamatergic and GABAnergic markers in rat brain. Neurochem. Int., 30 (2), 181–190. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

al-Hindawi, M., et al. 1992. Anti-granuloma activity of Iraqi Withania somnifera. J. Ethnopharmacol., 37 (2), 113–116. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Mehta, A., et al. 1991. Pharmacologic effects of Withania somnifera root extract on GABAA receptor complex. Indian J. Med. Res., 94, 312–315. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Singh, N., et al. 1982. Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), a rejuvenating herbal drug which enhances survival during stress (an adaptogen). Int. J. Crude Drug Res., 20, 29–35.


Black cohosh (Cimicifuga / Actaea racemosa)

Jiang, B., et al. 2011. Phytochemical fingerprinting to thwart black cohosh adulteration: A 16 Actaea species analysis. Phytochem. Anal. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): (accessed 03.14.2011).

Shams, T., et al. 2010. Efficacy of black cohosh-containing preparations on menopausal symptoms: A meta-analysis. Alt. Ther., 16 (1), 36–44. URL: (accessed 01.08.2010).

Einbond, L., et al. 2009. Actein activates stress- and statin-associated responses and is bioavailable in Sprague–Dawley rats. Fundam. Clin. Pharmacol., 23 (3), 311–3212. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.02.2010).

Geller, S., et al. 2009. Safety and efficacy of black cohosh and red clover for the management of vasomotor symptoms: A randomized controlled trial. Menopause, 16 (6), 1156–1166. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2009).

Palacio C., et al. 2009. Black cohosh for the management of menopausal symptoms: A systematic review of clinical trials. Drugs Aging, 26 (1), 23–36. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.30.2009).

Wong, V., et al. 2009. Current alternative and complementary therapies used in menopause. Gynecol. Endocrinol., 25 (3), 166–174. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2009).

Borelli, F., & Ernst, E. 2008. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) for menopausal symptoms: A systematic review of its efficacy. Pharmacol. Res., 58 (1), 8-14. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.30.2009).

Ju, Y., et al. 2008. A dietary supplement for female sexual dysfunction, Avlimil, stimulates the growth of estrogen-dependcnt breast tumors (MCF-7) implanted in ovariectomized athymic nude mice. Food Chern. Toxicol., 46, 310-320. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.04.2010).

Mahady, G., et al. 2008. United States Pharmacopeia review of the black cohosh case reports of hepatotoxicity. Menopause, 15 (4 Pt. 1), 628-638. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2009).

Rachón, D., et al. 2008. Effects of black cohosh extract on body weight gain, intra-abdominal fat accumulation, plasma lipids and glucose tolerance in ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats. Maturitas, 60 (3–4), 209–215. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.04.2010).

Reed, S., et al. 2008. Vaginal, endometrial, and reproductive hormone findings: Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of black cohosh, multibotanical herbs and dietary soy for vasomotor symptoms: The Herbal Alternatives for Menopause (HALT) study. Menopause, 15 (1), 51–58. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2009).

Kanadys, W., et al. 2008. [Efficacy and safety of black cohosh (Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa) in the treatment of vasomotor symptoms — review of clinical trials.] Ginekol. Pol., 79 (4), 287–296. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.30.2009).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2008. Phytoestrogens: Endocrine disrupters or replacement for hormone replacement therapy? Maturitas, 61 (1–2), 159–170. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2009).

Bai, W., et al. 2007. Efficacy and tolerability of a medicinal product containing an isopropanolic black cohosh extract in Chinese women with menopausal symptoms: A randomized, double blind, parallel-controlled study versus tibolone. Maturitas. [Epub ahead of print.]

Cheema, D., et al. 2007. Non-hormonal therapy of post-menopausal vasomotor symptoms: A structured evidence-based review. Arch. Gynecol. Obstet., 276 (5), 463–469. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.04.2010).

Chu, W. et al. 2007. Association between CYP3A4 genotype and risk of endometrial cancer following tamoxifen use. Carcinogenesis, 28 (10), 2139–2142. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.26.2007).

Meyer, S. et al. 2007. Cutaneous pseudolymphoma induced by Cimicifuga racemosa. Dermatology, 214 (1), 94–96. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.18.2011).

Nisslein, T. & Freudenstein, J. 2007. Coadministration of the aromatase inhibitor formestane and an isopropanolic extract of black cohosh in a rat model of chemically induced mammary carcinoma. Planta Med., 73 (4), 318–322. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.27.2007).

Rebbeck, T. et al. 2007. A retrospective case-control study of the use of hormone-related supplements and association with breast cancer. Int. J. Cancer., 120 (7), 1523-1528. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.27.2007).

Ruhlen, R., et al. 2007. Black cohosh does not exert an estrogenic effect on the breast. Nutr. Cancer, 59 (2), 269–277. URL (abstract): (accessed 11.28.2007).

Spangler, L., et al. 2007. The effects of black cohosh therapies on lipids, fibrinogen, glucose and insulin. Maturitas, 57 (2), 195–204. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.04.2010).

Walji, R., et al. 2007. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa [L.] Nutt.): Safety and efficacy for cancer patients. Support. Care Cancer, 15 (8), 913–921. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2009).

Zepelin, H. et al. 2007. Isopropanolic black cohosh extract and recurrence-free survival after breast cancer. Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 45 (3), 143–154. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.26.2007).

Carroll, D. 2006. Nonhormonal therapies for hot flashes in menopause. Am. Fam. Physician, 73 (3), 457–464. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2009).

Li, J., & Yu, Z. 2006. Cimicifugae rhizoma: From origins, bioactive constituents to clinical outcomes. Curr. Med. Chem., 13 (24), 2927–2951. URL: (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Minciullo, P., et al. 2006. Muscle damage induced by black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa). Phytomedicine, 13, 115–118. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Newton, K., et al. 2006. Treatment of vasomotor symptoms of menopause with black cohosh, multibotanicals, soy, hormone therapy, or placebo: A randomized trial. Ann. Intern. Med., 145, 869–879. URL: (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Letters to the editor. 2007. Ann. Int. Med., 147 (5), 347. URL (PDF): (accessed 10.17.2007).

Pockaj, B. et al. 2006. Phase III double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial of black cohosh in the management of hot flashes: NCCTG Trial N01CC1. J. Clin. Oncol., 24 (18), 2836–2841. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.27.2007).

Radowicki, S., et al. 2006. [Effectiveness and safety of the treatment of menopausal syndrome with Cimicifuga racemosa dry extract.] Ginekol. Pol., 77 (9), 678–683. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Raus, K., et al. 2006. First-time proof of endometrial safety of the special black cohosh extract (Actaea or Cimicifuga racemosa extract) CR BNO 1055. Menopause, 13 (4), 678–691. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2006. Effects of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) on bone turnover, vaginal mucosa, and various blood parameters in postmenopausal women: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, and conjugated estrogens-controlled study. Menopause, 13 (2), 185–196. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Frei-Kleiner, S., et al. 2005. Cimicifuga racemosa dried ethanolic extract in menopausal disorders: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Maturitas, 51, 397–404. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Low Dog, T. 2005. Menopause: A review of botanical dietary supplements. Am. J. Med., 118 (Suppl. 12B), 98–108. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2009).

Mahady, G. 2005. Black cohosh (Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa): Review of the clinical data for safety and efficacy in menopausal symptoms. Treat. Endocrinol., 4 (3), 177–184. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Nappi, R., et al. 2005. Efficacy of Cimicifuga racemosa on climacteric complaints: A randomized study versus low-dose transdermal estradiol. Gynecol. Endocrinol., 20, 30–35. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Ulbricht, C., & Basch, E., Eds. 2005. Natural Standard Herb & Supplement Reference: Evidence-based Clinical Reviews. Natural Standard Research Collaboration. NY: Elsevier Mosby.

Vermes, G., et al. 2005. The effects of Remifemin on subjective symptoms of menopause. Adv. Ther., 22 (2), 148–154. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.24.2011).

Viereck, V., et al. 2005. Black cohosh: Just another phytoestrogen? Trends Endocrinol. Metab., 16 (5), 214-221. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.25.2011).

Pockaj, B., et al. 2004. Pilot evaluation of black cohosh for the treatment of hot flashes in women. Cancer Invest., 22 (4), 515–521. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.24.2011).

Cohen, S., et al. 2004. Autoimmune hepatitis associated with the use of black cohosh: A case study. Menopause, 11, 575–577. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.24.2011).

Nisslein, T., & Freudenstein, J. 2004. Concomitant administration of an isopropanolic extract of black cohosh and tamoxifen in the in vivo tumor model of implanted RUCA-I rat endometrial adenocarcinoma cells. Toxicol. Lett., 150 (3), 271–275. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.26.2007).

Lontos, S., et al. 2003. Acute liver failure associated with the use of herbal preparations containing black cohosh. Med. J. Aust., 179, 390–391. URL: (accessed 02.24.2011).

Bland, J. 2003. Position on black cohosh safety. Metagenics, Inc. URL: (accessed 01.25.2011).

Hernández Muñoz, G., & Pluchino, S. 2003. Cimicifuga racemosa for the treatment of hot flushes in women surviving breast cancer. Maturitas, 44 (Suppl. 1), S59–S65. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.13.2010).

Low Dog, T., et al. 2003. Critical evaluation of the safety of Cimicifuga racemosa in menopause symptom relief. Menopause, 10 (4), 299-313. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.13.2010).

Seidlová–Wuttke, D., et al. 2003. Evidence for selective estrogen receptor modulator activity in a black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) extract: Comparison with estradiol17b. Eur. J. Endocrinol., 149 (4), 351–362. URL (PDF): (accessed 02.24.2011).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2003. Phytoestrogens: Endocrine disrupters or replacement for hormone replacement therapy? Maturitas, 44 (Suppl. 1), S9–S20. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.24.2011).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2003. The Cimicifuga preparation BNO 1055 vs. conjugated estrogens in a double-blind placebo-controlled study: Effects on menopause symptoms and bone markers. Maturitas, 44 (Suppl. 1), S67–S77. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.24.2011)

[No authors listed.] 2003. Monograph. Cimicifuga racemosa. Altern. Med. Rev., 8 (2), 186-189. URL (PDF): (accessed 01.25.2011).

Bodinet, C., & Freudenstein, J. 2002. Influence of Cimicifuga racemosa on the proliferation of estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res. Treat., 76 (1), 1-10. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.25.2011).

Liske, E., et al. 2002. Physiological investigation of a unique extract of black cohosh (Cimicifugae racemosae rhizoma): A 6-month clinical study demonstrates no systemic estrogenic effect. J. Women’s Health Gend. Based Med., 11, 163–174. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.24.2011).

Mahady, G. et al. 2002. Black cohosh: an alternative therapy for menopause? Nutr. Clin. Care, 5 (6), 283-289. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.26. 2007).

Winterhoff, H., et al. 2002. [Pharmacologic and clinical studies using Cimicifuga racemosa in climacteric complaints.] Wien Med. Wochenschr., 152 (15–16), 360–363. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.24.2011).

Whiting, P., et al. 2002. Black cohosh and other herbal remedies associated with acute hepatitis. Med. J. Aust., 177, 440–443. URL: (accessed 2.24.2011).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2002. Phytoestrogens for hormone replacement therapy? J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 83 (1–5), 133–147. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.16.2010).

Zierau, O. et al. 2002. Antiestrogenic activities of Cimicifuga racemosa extracts. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 80 (1), 125–130. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.26.2007). URL (abstract): (accessed 06.26.2007).

Jacobson, J., et al. 2001. Randomized trial of black cohosh for the treatment of hot flashes among women with a history of breast cancer. J. Clin. Oncol., 19 (10), 2739–2745. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.27. 2007).

Duker, E., et al. 1991. Effects of extracts from Cimicifuga racemosa on gonadotropin release in menopausal women and ovariectomized rats. Planta Med., 57 (5), 420–424. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.27.2007).

McAllister, J., & Hornsby, P. 1987. TPA inhibits the synthesis of androgens and cortisol and enhances the synthesis non-17 alpha-hydroxylated steroids in cultured human adrenocortical cells. Endocrinology, 121 (5), 1908–1910.


Chastetree berry (Vitex agnus–castus)

[No author.] 2009. Vitex agnus-castus. Monograph. Alt. Med. Rev., 14 (2), 67–70. URL (PDF): (accessed 01.26.2011).

Reed, S., et al. 2008. Vaginal, endometrial, and reproductive hormone findings: Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of black cohosh, multibotanical herbs and dietary soy for vasomotor symptoms: The Herbal Alternatives for Menopause (HALT) study. Menopause, 15 (1), 51–58. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2009).

Hu, Y., et al. 2007. Anti-nociceptive and anti-hyperprolactinemia activities of Fructus Viticis and its effective fractions and chemical constituents. Phytomedicine, 14 (10), 668-674. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.16.2007).

Rotem, C., & Kaplan, B. 2007. Phyto-Female Complex for the relief of hot flushes, night sweats and quality of sleep: Randomized, controlled, double-blind pilot study. Gynecol. Endocrinol., 23 (2), 117-122. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.06.2007).

Webster, D., et al. 2006. Activation of the mu-opiate receptor by Vitex agnus-castus methanol extracts: Implication for its use in PMS. J. Ethnopharmacol., 106 (2), 216-221. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.16.2007).

Tandon, V., et al. 2006. Vitex negundo Linn. (VN) leaf extract as an adjuvant therapy to standard anti-inflammatory drugs. Indian J. Med. Res., 124 (4), 447-450. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.16.2007).

Villasenor, I., & Lamadrid, M. 2006. Comparative anti-hyperglycemic potentials of medicinal plants. J. Ethnopharmacol., 104 (1-2), 128-131. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.16.2007).

Daniele, et al., 2005. Vitex agnus castus: A systematic review of adverse events. Drug Saf., 28, 319–332.

Natural Standard Research Collaboration. 2005. Chasteberry. In C. Ulbricht & E. Basch (Eds.), Natural standard herb and supplement reference: Evidence-based clinical reviews. NY: Mosby.

Roemheld–Hamm, B. 2005. Chasteberry. Am. Fam. Phys., 72 (5), 821-824. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.16.2007).

Zhang, C. et al. 2005. In vitro estrogenic activities of Chinese medicinal plants traditionally used for the management of menopausal symptoms. J. Ethnopharmacol., 98 (3), 295-300. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.16.2007).

Liu, et al. 2004. Isolation of linoleic acid as an estrogenic compound from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L. (chaste-berry). Phytomedicine, 11, 18–23. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.24.2011).

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Kudzu (Pueraria mirifica)

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Aoyagi, N., et al. 1974. Studies on Passiflora incarnata dry extract. I. Isolation of maltol and pharmacological action of maltol and ethyl maltol. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo), 22 (5), 1008–1013). URL (no abstract available): (accessed 01.28.2011).


Red clover (Trifolium pratense)

Lipovac, M., et al. 2011. The effect of red clover isoflavone supplementation over vasomotor and menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women. Gynecol. Endocrinol. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): (accessed 08.31.2011).

Chen, Y, et al. 2010. Biochanin A induction of sulfotransferases in rats. J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol., 24 (2), 102–114. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.17.2010).

El Touny, L., et al. 2010. Biochanin A reduces drug-induced p75NTR expression and enhances cell survival: A new in vitro assay for screening inhibitors of p75NTR expression. Rejuvenation Res. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): (accessed 09.17.2010).

Lipovac, M., et al. 2010. Improvement of postmenopausal depressive and anxiety symptoms after treatment with isoflavones derived from red clover extracts. Maturitas, 65 (3), 258–261. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04.2010).

Rountree, R. 2010. RoundocRx. Phytoestrogens. Altern. Complement. Ther., 16 (1), 5–10. URL (abstract): :// (accessed 03.10.2010).

Shams, T., et al. 2010. Efficacy of black cohosh-containing preparations on menopausal symptoms: A meta-analysis. Alt. Ther., 16 (1), 36–44. URL (PDF): (accessed 01.08.2010).

Sklenickova, O., etal. 2010. Selective growth inhibitory effect of biochanin A against intestinal tract colonizing bacteria. Molecules, 15 (3), 1270–1279. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.17.2010).

Thors, L., et al. 2010. Biochanin A, a naturally occurring inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase. Br. J. Pharmacol., 160 (3), 549–560. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.17.2010).

Geller, S., et al. 2009. Safety and efficacy of black cohosh and red clover for the management of vasomotor symptoms: A randomized controlled trial. Menopause, 16 (6), 1156–1166. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2009).

Kawakita, S., et al. 2009. Effect of an isoflavones-containing red clover preparation and alkaline supplementation on bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. Clin. Interv. Aging, 4, 91–100. URL: (accessed 01.04.2010).

Mu, H., et al. 2009. Research on antioxidant effects and estrogenic effect of formononetin from Trifolium pratense (red clover). Phytomedicine, 16 (4), 314–319. URL (abstract): 01.04.2009).

Pakalapati, G., et al. 2009. Influence of red clover (Trifolium pratense) isoflavones on gene and protein expression profiles in liver of ovariectomized rats. Phytomedicine, 16 (9), 845–855. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.14.2010).

Sehdev, V., et al. 2009. Biochanin A modulates cell viability, invasion, and growth promoting signaling pathways in HER-2-positive breast cancer cells. J. Oncol., 121458. URL: (accessed 09.17.2010).

Terzic, M., et al. 2009. Influence of red clover-derived isoflavones on serum lipid profile in postmenopausal women. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res., 35 (6), 1091–1095. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.14.2010).

Adaikan, P., et al. 2008. Efficacy of red clover isoflavones in the menopausal rabbit model. Fertil. Steril., 92 (6), 2008–2013. URL: (abstract): (accessed 01.04.2010).

Ju, Y., et al. 2008. A dietary supplement for female sexual dysfunction, Avlimil, stimulates the growth of estrogen-dependcnt breast tumors (MCF-7) implanted in ovariectomized athymic nude mice. Food Chern ToxicoI., 46, 310-320. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.04.2010).

Medjakovic, S., & Jungbauer, A. 2008. Red clover isoflavones biochanin A and formononetin are potent ligands of the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 108 (1–2), 171–177. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.17.2010).

Mense, S., et al. 2008. Phytoestrogens and breast cancer prevention: Possible mechanisms of action. Environ. Health Perspect., 116 (4), 426–433. URL: (accessed 09.16.2010).

Mishra, P., et al. 2008. Chemoprevention of mammary tumorigenesis and chemomodulation of the antioxidative enzymes and peroxidative damage in prepubertal Sprague Dawley rats by Biochanin A. Mol. Cell. Biochem., 312 (1–2), 1–9. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.17.2010).

Moon, Y., et al. 2008. Biochanin A inhibits breast cancer tumor growth in a murine xenograft model. Pharmaceutical Res., 25 (9), 2158–2163. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.17.2010).

Oseni, T., et al. 2008. Selective estrogen receptor modulators and phytoestrogens. Planta Med., 74 (13), 1656-1665. URL: (accessed 01.05.2010).

Overk, C., et al. 2008. In vivo estrogenic comparisons of Trifolium pratense (red clover), Humulus lupulus (hops), and the pure compounds isoxanthohumol and 8-prenylnaringenin. Chern. Biol. Interact., 176, 30-39. URL:> (accessed 01.04.2010.

Powles, T., et al. 2008. Red clover isoflavones are safe and well tolerated in women with a family history of breast cancer. Menopause Int., 14 (1), 6–12. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.04.2010).

Wang, S., et al. 2008. Variable isoflavone content of red clover products affects intestinal disposition of biochanin A, formononetin, genistein, and daidzein. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 14 (3), 287–297. URL: (accessed 09.17.2010).

Wang, Y., et al. 2008. The red clover (Trifolium pratense) isoflavone biochanin A inhibits aromatase activity and expression. Br. J. Nutr., 99 (2), 303–310. URL (abstract): > (accessed 09.17.2010).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2008. Phytoestrogens: Endocrine disrupters or replacement for hormone replacement therapy? Maturitas, 61 (1–2), 159–170. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2009).

Chan M., et al. 2007. Oestrogen receptor alpha is required for biochanin A-induced apolipoprotein A-1 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells. Br. J. Nutr., 98 (3), 534–539. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.17.2010).

Coon, J., et al. 2007. Trifolium pratense isoflavones in the treatment of menopausal hot flushes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Phytomedicine, 14 (2–3), 153–159.URL (abstract): (accessed 09.16.2010).

Friedman, J., et al. 2007. Multifocal and recurrent subarachnoid hemorrhage due to an herbal supplement containing natural coumarins. Neurocrit. Care, 7 (1), 76–80. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2009).

Kaminska, B., et al. 2007. Phytoestrogens alter cortisol and androstenedione secretion by porcine adrenocortical cells. Acta Vet. Hung., 55 (3), 359–367. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.21.2010).

Lethaby, A., et al. 2007. Phytoestrogens for vasomotor menopausal symptoms. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev., (4), CD001395. URL (abstract): > (accessed 09.17.2010)

Moon, Y., et al. 2007. Effects of the flavonoid biochanin A on gene expression in primary human hepatocytes and human intestinal cells. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 51 (3), 317–323. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.17.2010).

Moon, Y., et al. 2007. Effects of flavonoids genistein and biochanin A on gene expression and their metabolism in human mammary cells. Nutr. Cancer., 57 (1), 48-58. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.17.2010).

Occhiuto, F., et al. 2007. Effects of phytoestrogenic isoflavones from red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) on experimental osteoporosis. Phytother. Res., 21 (2), 130–134. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.16.2010).

Rimoldi, G., et al. 2007. Effects of chronic genistein treatment in mammary gland, uterus, and vagina. Environ. Health Perspect., 115 (Suppl. 1), 62–68. URL: (accessed 01.04.2010).

Booth, N., et al. 2006. Clinical studies of red clover (Trifolium pratense) dietary supplements in menopause: A literature review. Menopause, 13 (2), 251–264. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04.2010).

Booth, N., et al. 2005. Seasonal variation of red clover (Trifolium pratense L., Fabaceæ) isoflavones and estrogenic activity. J. Agric. Food Chem., 54 (4), 1277–1282. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.21.2010).

Carroll, D. 2006. Nonhormonal therapies for hot flashes in menopause. Am. Fam. Physician, 73 (3), 457–464. URL: (accessed 12.11.2009).

Geller, S., & Studee, L. 2006. Soy and red clover for midlife and aging. Climacteric, 9 (4), 245–263. URL: (accessed 01.04.2010).

Han, E., et al. 2006. Effect of biochanin A on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and cytochrome P450 1A1 in MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells. Arch. Pharm. Res., 29 (7), 570–576. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.16.2010).

Imhof, M., et al. 2006. Effects of a red clover extract (MF11RCE) on endometrium and sex hormones in postmenopausal women. Maturitas, 55 (1), 76–81.URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04.2010).

Moon, Y., et al. 2006. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of the isoflavone biochanin A in rats. AAPS J., 8 (3), E433–E442. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.17.2010).

Nelson, H., et al. 2006. Nonhormonal therapies for menopausal hot flashes: Systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA, 295 (17), 2057–2071. URL: (accessed 12.11.2009).

Park, J., et al. 2006. Up-regulation of interleukin-4 production via NF-AT/AP-1 activation in T cells by biochanin A, a phytoestrogen and its metabolites. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 212 (3), 188–199. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.20.2010).

Rice, S., et al. 2006. Phytoestrogens and their low dose combinations inhibit mRNA expression and activity of aromatase in human granulosa-luteal cells. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 101 (4–5), 2160150225. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.17.2010).

Schrepfer, S., ET AL. 2006. The selective estrogen receptor-beta agonist biochanin A shows vasculoprotective effects without uterotrophic activity. Menopause, 13 (3), 489–499. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.20.2010).

Tsao, R., et al. 2006. Isoflavone profiles of red clovers and their distribution in different parts harvested at different growing stages. J. Agric. Food Chem., 54 (16), 5797–5805. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.21.2010).

Wang, H-P., et al. 2006. Endothelium-independent vasorelaxant effect of the phyto-oestrogen biochanin A on rat thoracic aorta. Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc., 3, 2244–2247. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.17.2010).

Beck, V., et al. 2005. Phytoestrogens derived from red clover: An alternative to (accessed 09.16.2010).

Hidalgo, L. 2005. The effect of red clover isoflavones on menopausal symptoms, lipids and vaginal cytology in menopausal women: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Gynecol. Endocrinol., 21 (5), 257–264. URL (abstract): 01.04.2010).

Lee, K-H., & Choi, E-M. 2005. Biochanin A stimulates osteoblastic differentiation and inhibits hydrogen peroxide-induced production of inflammatory mediators in MC3T3-E1 cells. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 28 (10), 1948–1953. URL: (accessed 09.20.2010).

Low Dog, T. 2005. Menopause: A review of botanical dietary supplements. Am. J. Med., 118 (Suppl. 12B), 98-108. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2009).

Lukaczer, D., et al. 2005. Clinical effects of a proprietary combination isoflavone nutritional supplement in menopausal women: A pilot trial. Altern. Ther. Health Med., 11 (5), 60–65. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.17.2010).

Simoncini, T., et al. 2005. Activation of nitric oxide synthesis in human endothelial cells by red clover extracts. Menopause, 12 (1), 69–77. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.17.2010).

Somjen, D., et al. 2005. Membranal effects of phytoestrogens and carboxy derivatives of phytoestrogens on human vascular and bone cells: New insights ased on studies with carboxy-biochanin A. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 93 (2–5), 293–303. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.21.2010).

Ulbricht, C., & Basch, E., Eds. 2005. Natural Standard Herb & Supplement Reference: Evidence-based Clinical Reviews. Natural Standard Research Collaboration. NY: Elsevier Mosby.

Atkinson, C., et al. 2004. Red-clover-derived isoflavones and mammographic breast density: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial [ISRCTN42940165]. Breast Cancer Res., 6 (3), R170–R179.ver-derived isoflavone supplementation on insulin-like growth factor, lipid and antioxidant status in healthy female volunteers: A pilot study. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 58, 173–179. URL: (accessed 09.20.2010).

Atkinson, C., et al. 2004. The effects of phytoestrogen isoflavones on bone density in women: A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 79, 326–333. URL: (accessed 09.20.2010).

Campbell, M., et al. 2004. Effect of red clover-derived isoflavone supplementation on insulin-like growth factor, lipid and antioxidant status in healthy female volunteers: A pilot study. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 58, 173–179. URL: (accessed 09.20.2010).

Huntley, A. 2004. Drug-herb interactions with herbal medicines for menopause. J. Br. Menopause Soc., 10 (4), 162–165. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2009).

Krebs, E., et al. 2004. Phytoestrogens for treatment of menopausal symptoms: A systematic review. Obstet. Gynecol., 104 (10), 824–836. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.16.2010).

Lam, A., et al. 2004. Effect of red clover isoflavones on cox-2 activity in murine and human monocyte/macrophage cells. Nutr. Cancer, 49 (1), 89–93. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.20.2010).

Piersen, C., 2004. Chemical and biological characterization and clinical evaluation of botanical dietary supplements: A phase I red clover extract as a model. Curr. Med. Chem., 11 (11), 1361–1374. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.16.2010).

Powles, T. 2004. Isoflavones and women’s health. Breast Cancer Res., 6, 140–142. URL: (accessed 09.20.2010).

Roberts, D., et al. 2004. Inhibition of extrahepatic human cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1B1 by metabolism of isoflavones found in Trifolium pratense (red clover). J. Agric. Food Chem., 52 (21), 6623–6632. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.16.2010).

Blakesmith, S., et al. 2003. Effects of supplementation with purified red clover (Trifolium pratense) isoflavones on plasma lipids and insulin resistance in premenopausal women. Br. J. Nutr., 89 (4), 467–474. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.20.2010).

Boué, et al. 2003. Evaluation of the estrogenic effects of legume extracts containing phytoestrogens. J. Agric. Food Chem., 51 (8), 2193–2199. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.16.2010).

Chan, H., et al. 2003. The red clover (Trifolium pratense) isoflavone biochanin A modulates the biotransformation pathways of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Br. (1), 87–92. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.16.2010).

Mallis, L., et al. 2003. Determination of rat oral bioavailability of soy-derived phytoestrogens using an automated on-column extraction procedure and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci., 796, 71–86. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.17.2010).

Tice, J., et al. 2003. Phytoestrogen supplements for the treatment of hot flashes: The Isoflavone Clover Extract (ICE) Study: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 290 (2), 207–214. URL: > (accessed 03.04.2010).

Abebe, W. 2002. Herbal medication: Potential for adverse interactions with analgesic drugs. J. Clin. Pharm. Ther., 27 (6), 391–401. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2009).

Adlercreutz, J. 2002. Phyto-oestrogens and cancer. Lacet Oncol., 3 (6), 364–373. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.21.2010).

Burdette, J., et al. 2002. Trifolium pratense (red clover) exhibits estrogenic effects in vivo in ovariectomized Sprague–Dawley rats. J. Nutr., 132 (1), 27–30. URL: (accessed 09.21.2010).

Nelsen, J., et al. 2002. Red clover (Trifolium pratense) monograph: A clinical decision support tool. J. Herb. Pharm., 2 (3), 49–72. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.21.2010).

Peter, H. et al. 2002. Isoflavones from red clover (Promensil) significantly reduce menopausal hot flush symptoms compared with placebo. Maturitas., 42 (3), 187-193. URL (abstract): 01.19.2011).

van de Weijer, P., & Barentsen, R. 2002. Isoflavones from red clover (Promensil) significantly reduce menopausal hot flush symptoms compared with placebo. Maturitas, 42 (3), 187–193. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.21.2010).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2002. Phytoestrogens for hormone replacement therapy? J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 83 (1–5), 133–147. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.16.2010).

Clifton–Bligh, P., et al. 2001. The effect of isoflavones extracted from red clover (Rimostil) on lipid and bone metabolism. Menopause, 8 (4), 259–265. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.21.2010).

Dornstauder, E., et al. 2001. Estrogenic activity of two standardized red clover extracts (Menoflavon) intended for large scale use in hormone replacement therapy. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 78 (1), 67–75. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.21.2010).

Fugh–Berman, A., & Kronenberg, F. 2001. Red clover (Trifolium pratense) for menopausal women: Current state of knowledge. Menopause, 8 (5), 333–337. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.20.2010).

Hale G., et al. 2001. A double-blind randomized study on the effects of red clover isoflavones on the endometrium. Menopause, 8, 338-346. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.04.2010). URL (abstract): (accessed 09.21.2010).

Ashby, J., et al. 1999. Induction of hyperplasia and increased DNA content in the uterus of immature rats exposed to coumestrol. Environ. Health Perspect., 107 (10), 819–822. URL: (accessed 12.11.2009).

Hsu, J–T., et al. 1999. Effects of the dietary phytoestrogen biochanin A on cell growth in the mammary carcinoma cell line MCF-7. J. Nutr. Biochem., 10 (9), 510–517. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.17.2010).

Boyd, N., et al. 1998. Mammographic densities and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers, 7 (12), 1133-1144. URL: (accessed 01.19.2011).

Kelly, G., et al. 1998. Standardized red clover extract clinical monograph, pp 3–12. Seattle, WA: Natural Products Research Consultants, Inc.

Zava, D., et al. 1998. Estrogen and progestin bioactivity of foods, herbs, and spices. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 217 (3), 369–378. URL (abstract): (accessed 08.24.2010).


Wild yam ( Dioscorea villosa)

Yoshikawa, M., et al. 2007. Medicinal flowers. XII. (1). New spirostane-type steroid saponins with antidiabetogenic activity from Borassus flabellifer. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo), 55 (2), 308–316.

Jeon, J., et al. 2006. Effect of ethanol extract of dried Chinese yam (Dioscorea batatas) flour containing dioscin on gastrointestinal function in rat model. Arch. Pharm. Res., 29 (5), 348–353.

Sarchielli, P., et al. 2006. Practical considerations for the treatment of elderly patients with migraine. Drugs Aging, 23 (6), 461–489.

Ulbricht, C., & Basch, E., Eds. 2005. Natural Standard Herb & Supplement Reference: Evidence-based Clinical Reviews. Natural Standard Research Collaboration. NY: Elsevier Mosby.

Wu, W., et al. 2005. Estrogenic effect of yam ingestion in healthy postmenopausal women. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 24, 235–243.

[No authors listed.] 2004. Final report of the amended safety assessment of Dioscorea villosa (wild yam) root extract. Int. J. Toxicol., 23 (Suppl. 2), 49–54.

Rahmintoola, H., et al. 2004. Reduction in the therapeutic intensity of abortive migraine drug use during ACE inhibition therapy — a pilot study. Pharmacoepidemiol. Drug Saf., 13 (1), 41–47.

Benghuzzi, H., et al. 2003. The effects of sustained delivery of diosgenin on the adrenal gland of female rats. Biomed. Sci. Instrum., 39, 335–340.

Kwon, C., et al. 2003. Anti-obesity effect of Dioscorea nipponica Makino with lipase-inhibitory activity in rodents. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 67 (7), 1451–1456.

Hsu, F., et al. 2002. Both dioscorin, the tuber storage protein of yam (Dioscorea alata cv. Tainong No. 1), and its peptic hydrolysates exhibited angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activities. J. Agric. Food Chem., 50 (21) 6109-6113. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.26.2007).

Bender, W. 1995. ACE inhibitors for prophylaxis of migraine headaches. Headache, 35 (8), 470–471.

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