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Radiance Formula

Radiance Formula

The best way to have healthy skin, hair and nails is to work from the inside out. Our Radiance Formula is formulated to provide your body with a powerful combination of vitamins, antioxidants and botanical extracts to support radiant skin, and beautiful hair and nails.

Top ingredients:

  • Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) — this vitamin-like compound acts like an antioxidant to help repair and protect your skin from environmental damage
  • Biotin — helps with brittle, thin, or splitting nails and hair loss
  • Choline bitartate — helps brittle hair and nails
  • Coenzyme Q-10 — This vitamin-like antioxidant substance supports collagen production, the protein that supports skin elasticity and firmness
  • Horsetail (Equisetum arvense) — long valued as an herbal remedy, horsetail contains silica, and has traditionally been used to improve hair and nail quality and promote skin healing.
  • Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) — this antioxidant is widely used for a number of concerns, including hair loss, wrinkles, and to help counter skin damage caused by the environment, including sun and wind burn
  • Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) — used most often to help support the liver, the seed of this plant helps protect the skin from environmental damage inflicted by the sun, pollution, and cigarette smoke and is a well-known antioxidant
  • Vitamin A — a key vitamin necessary for proper development and function of skin and other organs, vitamin A is commonly used for its protective and supportive effects in a variety of skin concerns
  • Vitamin C — among its many benefits, vitamin C helps protect the skin from sun, pollutants and other environmental hazards
  • Vitamin E — this antioxidant protects skin against the signs of aging
  • Blueberry — this fruit is known to contain polyphenols that support and protect healthy skin and hair

Our Radiance Formula is:

  • Safe & natural.
  • Based on the latest medical research.
  • Made from the highest quality ingredients without yeast, wheat, soy, milk/dairy, corn, sugar, starch, or artificial colors, preservatives or flavors.
  • Laboratory-assayed to ensure purity and quality – the same rigorous procedure that is used for pharmaceutical drugs.
  • Made in a facility validated by NSF International to meet or exceed all governmental requirements for Good Manufacturing Practices (the FDA's GMP's).

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
Radiance Formula Ingredients

Product References

Radiance Formula is doctor-formulated to be complete, natural, bioavailable, and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.

The following articles represent a sampling of the research on the constituents of this product.

Alpha Lipoic Acid

Ghibu, S., et al. 2009. Antioxidant properties of alpha-lipoic acid: Effects on red blood membrane permeability and adaptation of isolated rat heart to reversible ischemia. Mol. Cell Biochem., 320 (1–2), 141–148. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18839280 (accessed 1.20.2014).

Bagh, M., et al. 2008. Dietary supplementation with N-acetylcysteine, alpha-tocopherol and alpha-lipoic acid prevents age related decline in Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity and associated peroxidative damage in rat brain synaptosomes. Biogerontology, 9 (6), 421–428. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18787974 (accessed 1.20.2014).

Biewenga, G., et al. 1997. The pharmacology of the antioxidant lipoic acid. Gen Pharmacol., 29 (3), 315–331. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9378235 (accessed 1.20.2014).

Ghibu, S., et al. 2008. [An endogenous dithiol with antioxidant properties: alpha-lipoic acid, potential uses in cardiovascular diseases.] Ann. Cardiol. Angeiol. (Paris), 57 (3), 161–165. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18571145 (accessed 1.20.2014).

González–Pérez, O., et al. 2008. [Alpha-tocopherol and alpha-lipoic acid. An antioxidant synergy with potential for preventive medicine.] Rev. Invest. Clin., 60 (1), 58–67. Review. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18589588 (accessed 1.20.2014).

Jia, Z., et al. 2008. Alpha-lipoic acid potently inhibits peroxynitrite-mediated DNA strand breakage and hydroxyl radical formation: Implications for the neuroprotective effects of alpha-lipoic acid. Mol. Cell Biochem. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19082545 (accessed 1.20.2014).

Karakoyun, B., et al. 2008. Alpha-lipoic acid improves acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer healing in rats. Inflammation. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19051000 (accessed 1.20.2014).

Petersen Shay, K., et al. 2008. Is alpha-lipoic acid a scavenger of reactive oxygen species in vivo? Evidence for its initiation of stress signaling pathways that promote endogenous antioxidant capacity. IUBMB Life, 60 (6), 362–367. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18409172 (accessed 1.20.2014).

Petersen Shay, K., & Hagen, T. 2008. Age-associated impairment of Akt phosphorylation in primary rat hepatocytes is remediated by alpha-lipoic acid through PI3 kinase, PTEN, and PP2A. Biogerontology. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18931933 (accessed 1.20.2014).

Shirpoor, A., et al. 2008. Alpha-lipoic acid decreases DNA damage and oxidative stress induced by alcohol in the developing hippocampus and cerebellum of rat. Cell Physiol. Biochem., 22 (5-6), 769–776. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19088458 (accessed 1.20.2014).

Vanasco, V., et al. 2008. The oxidative stress and the mitochondrial dysfunction caused by endotoxemia are prevented by alpha-lipoic acid. Free Radic. Res., 42 (9), 815–823. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19051079 (accessed 1.20.2014).

Bilska, A., & Wlodek, L. 2005. Lipoic acid — the drug of the future? Pharmacol. Rep., 57 (5), 570–577. URL (PDF): http://www.if-pan.krakow.pl/pjp/pdf/2005/5_570.pdf (accessed 1.20.2014).

Smith, A., et al. 2004. Lipoic acid as a potential therapy for chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress. Curr. Med. Chem., 11 (9), 1135–1146. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15134511 (accessed 1.20.2014).

Packer, L., et al. 1995. Alpha-lipoic acid as a biological antioxidant. Free Radic. Biol. Med., 19 (2), 227–250. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7649494 (accessed 1.20.2014).

Liu J, Head E, Gharib AM, Yuan W, Ingersoll RT, Hagen TM, Cotman CW, Ames BN. Memory loss in old rats is associated with brain mitochondrial decay and RNA/DNA oxidation: partial reversal by feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and/or R-alpha -lipoic acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Feb 19;99(4):2356-61. Erratum in: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002 May 14;99(10):7184-5. PubMed PMID: 11854529; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC122369. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11854529 (accessed 1.20.2014).

Hagen TM, Liu J, Lykkesfeldt J, Wehr CM, Ingersoll RT, Vinarsky V, Bartholomew JC, Ames BN. Feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid to old rats significantly improves metabolic function while decreasing oxidative stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Feb 19;99(4):1870-5. Erratum in: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002 May 14;99(10):7184. PubMed PMID: 11854487; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC122286. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11854487 (accessed 1.20.2014).

Liu J, Killilea DW, Ames BN. Age-associated mitochondrial oxidative decay: improvement of carnitine acetyltransferase substrate-binding affinity and activity in brain by feeding old rats acetyl-L- carnitine and/or R-alpha -lipoic acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Feb 19;99(4):1876-81. Erratum in: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002 May 14;99(10):7184. PubMed PMID: 11854488; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC122287. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11854488 (accessed 1.20.2014).

Activity of Alpha-Lipoic Acid in the Protection against Oxidative Stress in Skin

Podda M. • Zollner T.M. • Grundmann-Kollmann M. • Thiele J.J. • Packer L. • Kaufmann R.

Thiele J, Elsner, P (eds): Oxidants and Antioxidants in Cutaneous Biology.Curr Probl Dermatol. Basel, Karger, 2001, vol 29, pp 43-51 (DOI: 10.1159/000060652) http://www.karger.com/Article/PDF/60652

Ziegler D, Hanefeld M, Ruhnau KJ, Meissner HP, Lobisch M, Schütte K, Gries FA. Treatment of symptomatic diabetic peripheral neuropathy with the anti-oxidant alpha-lipoic acid. A 3-week multicentre randomized controlled trial (ALADIN Study). Diabetologia. 1995 Dec;38(12):1425-33. PubMed PMID: 8786016. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8786016 (accessed 2.14.2014)

Baillie JK, Thompson AA, Irving JB, Bates MG, Sutherland AI, Macnee W, Maxwell SR, Webb DJ. Oral antioxidant supplementation does not prevent acute mountain sickness: double blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. QJM. 2009 May;102(5):341-8. doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hcp026. Epub 2009 Mar 9. PubMed PMID: 19273551 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19273551

Dietrich M, Block G, Hudes M, Morrow JD, Norkus EP, Traber MG, Cross CE, Packer L. Antioxidant supplementation decreases lipid peroxidation biomarker F(2)-isoprostanes in plasma of smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002 Jan;11(1):7-13. Erratum in: Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002 May;11(5):501. PubMed PMID: 11815395. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11815395

Galasko DR, Peskind E, Clark CM, Quinn JF, Ringman JM, Jicha GA, Cotman C, Cottrell B, Montine TJ, Thomas RG, Aisen P; Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study. Antioxidants for Alzheimer disease: a randomized clinical trial with cerebrospinal fluid biomarker measures. Arch Neurol. 2012 Jul;69(7):836-41. PubMed PMID: 22431837; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3661272. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22431837

Mantovani G, Macciò A, Madeddu C, Gramignano G, Lusso MR, Serpe R, Massa E, Astara G, Deiana L. A phase II study with antioxidants, both in the diet and supplemented, pharmaconutritional support, progestagen, and anti-cyclooxygenase-2 showing efficacy and safety in patients with cancer-related anorexia/cachexia and oxidative stress. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006 May;15(5):1030-4. PubMed PMID: 16702388. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16702388

Sharman JE, Gunaruwan P, Knez WL, Schmitt M, Marsh SA, Wilson GR, Cockcroft JR, Coombes JS. Alpha-lipoic acid does not acutely affect resistance and conduit artery function or oxidative stress in healthy men. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2004 Sep;58(3):243-8. PubMed PMID: 15327583; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1884561. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15327583

Wray DW, Uberoi A, Lawrenson L, Bailey DM, Richardson RS. Oral antioxidants and cardiovascular health in the exercise-trained and untrained elderly: a radically different outcome. Clin Sci (Lond). 2009 Mar;116(5):433-41. doi: 10.1042/CS20080337. PubMed PMID: 18795893. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18795893

Zembron-Lacny A, Slowinska-Lisowska M, Szygula Z, Witkowski K, Stefaniak T, Dziubek W. Assessment of the antioxidant effectiveness of alpha-lipoic acid in healthy men exposed to muscle-damaging exercise. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009 Jun;60(2):139-43. PubMed PMID: 19617657. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19617657

Arck PC, Overall R, Spatz K, Liezman C, Handjiski B, Klapp BF, Birch-Machin MA, Peters EM. Towards a "free radical theory of graying": melanocyte apoptosis in the aging human hair follicle is an indicator of oxidative stress induced tissue damage. FASEB J. 2006 Jul;20(9):1567-9. Epub 2006 May 24. PubMed PMID: 16723385. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16723385 (accessed 3/13/2014)

Trüeb RM. Oxidative stress in ageing of hair. Int J Trichology. 2009 Jan;1(1):6-14. doi: 10.4103/0974-7753.51923. PubMed PMID: 20805969; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2929555. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20805969 (accessed 3/13/2014)

Berger MM. Can oxidative damage be treated nutritionally? Clin Nutr. 2005 Apr;24(2):172-83. Review. PubMed PMID: 15784476. (accessed 3/13/2014)

Amino Acid Blend

L-Lysine

Tomé, D., & Bos, C. 2007. Lysine requirement through the human life cycle. J. Nutr., 137 (6 Suppl. 2), 1642S–1645S. URL: http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/full/137/6/1642S (accessed 2.14.2014).

Flakoll, P., et al. 2004. Effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, arginine, and lysine supplementation on strength, functionality, body composition, and protein metabolism in elderly women. Nutrition, 20 (5), 445–451. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15105032 (accessed 2.14.2014).

Datta, D., et al. 2001. Lysine: Is it worth more? Cytotechnology, 36 (1–3), 3–32. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19003311 (accessed 2.14.2014).

Tipton, K., et al. 1999. Postexercise net protein synthesis in human muscle from orally administered amino acids. Am. J. Physiol. Endo. Met., 276 (4 Pt. 1), E628–E634. URL: http://ajpendo.physiology.org/cgi/content/full/276/4/E628 (accessed 2.14.2014).

Prusiewicz-Witaszek U. [Changes in the biosynthesis of keratin in the hair following supplementing rabbits' basic feed with methionine and lysine]. Pol Arch Weter. 1975;17(4):659-66. Polish. PubMed PMID: 1178544. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1178544 (Accessed 2.5.14)

Theytaz F, Noguchi Y, Egli L, Campos V, Buehler T, Hodson L, Patterson BW, Nishikata N, Kreis R, Mittendorfer B, Fielding B, Boesch C, Tappy L. Effects of supplementation with essential amino acids on intrahepatic lipid concentrations during fructose overfeeding in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Nov;96(5):1008-16. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.035139. Epub 2012 Oct 3. PubMed PMID: 23034968.

Smriga M, Ando T, Akutsu M, Furukawa Y, Miwa K, Morinaga Y. Oral treatment with L-lysine and L-arginine reduces anxiety and basal cortisol levels in healthy humans. Biomed Res. 2007 Apr;28(2):85-90. PubMed PMID: 17510493.

Ghosh S, Smriga M, Vuvor F, Suri D, Mohammed H, Armah SM, Scrimshaw NS. Effect of lysine supplementation on health and morbidity in subjects belonging to poor peri-urban households in Accra, Ghana. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Oct;92(4):928-39. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.28834. Epub 2010 Aug 18. PubMed PMID: 20720257.

Godard MP, Williamson DL, Trappe SW. Oral amino-acid provision does not affect muscle strength or size gains in older men. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002 Jul;34(7):1126-31. PubMed PMID: 12131252.

di Luigi L, Guidetti L, Pigozzi F, Baldari C, Casini A, Nordio M, Romanelli F. Acute amino acids supplementation enhances pituitary responsiveness in athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999 Dec;31(12):1748-54. PubMed PMID: 10613424.

Ooe M, Seki T, Miura T, Takada A. Comparative evaluation of wrinkle treatments. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2013 Apr;37(2):424-33. doi: 10.1007/s00266-012-0029-5. Epub 2013 Feb 9. PubMed PMID: 23397058.

Mariggiò MA, Cassano A, Vinella A, Vincenti A, Fumarulo R, Lo Muzio L, Maiorano E, Ribatti D, Favia G. Enhancement of fibroblast proliferation, collagen biosynthesis and production of growth factors as a result of combining sodium hyaluronate and aminoacids. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2009 Apr-Jun;22(2):485-92. PubMed PMID: 19505400. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19505400 (accessed 3/6/2014)

Rhoads, R.E. and Udenfriend, S. (1968). "Decarboxylation of a-ketoglutarate coupled to collagen proline hydroxylase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 60 (4): 1473–1478. PMC 224943. PMID 5244754. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC224943/

Reiser K, McCormick RJ, Rucker RB. Enzymatic and nonenzymatic cross-linking of collagen and elastin. FASEB J. 1992 Apr;6(7):2439-49. Review. PubMed PMID: 1348714. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1348714 (accessed 3/6/2014)

Rucker RB, Murray J. Cross-linking amino acids in collagen and elastin. Am J Clin Nutr. 1978 Jul;31(7):1221-36. Review. PubMed PMID: 27088. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27088 (accessed 3/6/2014)

Yamauchi M, Shiiba M. Lysine hydroxylation and cross-linking of collagen. Methods Mol Biol. 2008;446:95-108. doi: 10.1007/978-1-60327-084-7_7. PubMed PMID: 18373252. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18373252 (accessed 3/6/2014)

Yamauchi M, Sricholpech M. Lysine post-translational modifications of collagen. Essays Biochem. 2012;52:113-33. doi: 10.1042/bse0520113. Review. PubMed PMID: 22708567; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3499978. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22708567 (accessed 3/6/2014)

Rushton DH. Nutritional factors and hair loss. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2002 Jul;27(5):396-404. Review. PubMed PMID: 12190640. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12190640 (accessed 3/6/2014)

Rushton DH, Norris MJ, Dover R, Busuttil N. Causes of hair loss and the developments in hair rejuvenation. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2002 Feb;24(1):17-23. doi: 10.1046/j.0412-5463.2001.00110.x. PubMed PMID: 18498491. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18498491 (accessed 3/6/2014)

Bailey AJ, Paul RG, Knott L. Mechanisms of maturation and ageing of collagen. Mech Ageing Dev. 1998 Dec 1;106(1-2):1-56. Review. PubMed PMID: 9883973. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9883973 (accessed 3/6/2014)

L-Proline

Bernard S. Gould and J. Frederick Woessner BIOSYNTHESIS OF COLLAGEN: THE INFLUENCE OF ASCORBIC ACID ON THE PROLINE, HYDROXYPROLINE, GLYCINE, AND COLLAGEN CONTENT OF REGENERATING GUINEA PIG SKIN J. Biol. Chem. 1957 226: 289-300. http://www.jbc.org/content/226/1/289.long (accessed 2.14.2014)

Massé, P., et al. 2008. Cardiovascular disease-risk factors in middle-aged osteopaenic women treated with calcium alone or combined to three nutrients essential to artery and bone collagen. J. Hum. Nutr. Diet, 21 (2), 117–128. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18339052 (accessed 2.17.2014).

Phang, J., et al. 2008. The metabolism of proline as microenvironmental stress substrate. J. Nutr., 138 (10), 2008S–2015S. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18806116 (accessed 2.17.2014).

Graf R, Kock M, Bock A, Schubert-Zsilavecz M, Steinhilber D, Kaufmann R, Gassenmeier T, Beschmann H, Bernd A, Kippenberger S. Lipophilic prodrugs of amino acids and vitamin E as osmolytes for the compensation of hyperosmotic stress in human keratinocytes. Exp Dermatol. 2009 Apr;18(4):370-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0625.2008.00798.x. Epub 2008 Oct 4. PubMed PMID: 19054053. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19054053 (Accessed 2.6.2014)

Babraj, J., et al. 2005. Human bone collagen synthesis is a rapid, nutritionally modulated process. J. Bone Min. Res., 20 (6), 930–937. URL (abstract): http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=16840064 (accessed 2.4.2014).

Mariggiò MA, Cassano A, Vinella A, Vincenti A, Fumarulo R, Lo Muzio L, Maiorano E, Ribatti D, Favia G. Enhancement of fibroblast proliferation, collagen biosynthesis and production of growth factors as a result of combining sodium hyaluronate and aminoacids. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2009 Apr-Jun;22(2):485-92. PubMed PMID: 19505400. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19505400 (accessed 3/6/2014)

Wu G, Bazer FW, Burghardt RC, Johnson GA, Kim SW, Knabe DA, Li P, Li X, McKnight JR, Satterfield MC, Spencer TE. Proline and hydroxyproline metabolism: implications for animal and human nutrition. Amino Acids. 2011 Apr;40(4):1053-63. doi: 10.1007/s00726-010-0715-z. Epub 2010 Aug 10. Review. PubMed PMID: 20697752; PubMed Central PMCID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20697752 (accessed3/6/2014)

Ohara H, Ichikawa S, Matsumoto H, Akiyama M, Fujimoto N, Kobayashi T, Tajima S. Collagen-derived dipeptide, proline-hydroxyproline, stimulates cell proliferation and hyaluronic acid synthesis in cultured human dermal fibroblasts. J Dermatol. 2010 Apr;37(4):330-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1346-8138.2010.00827.x. PubMed PMID: 20507402. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20507402 (accessed 3/6/2014)

Barbul A. Proline precursors to sustain Mammalian collagen synthesis. J Nutr. 2008 Oct;138(10):2021S-2024S. PubMed PMID: 18806118. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18806118 (accessed 3/6/2014)

L-Leucine

May ME, Buse MG. Effects of branched-chain amino acids on protein turnover. Diabetes Metab Rev. 1989 May;5(3):227-45. Review. PubMed PMID: 2656154. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2656154 (accessed 2.17.2014)

Zhang XJ, Chinkes DL, Wolfe RR. Leucine supplementation has an anabolic effect on proteins in rabbit skin wound and muscle. J Nutr. 2004 Dec;134(12):3313-8. PubMed PMID: 15570031. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15570031 (accessed 2.24.2014)

Matthews DE. Observations of branched-chain amino acid administration in humans. J Nutr. 2005 Jun;135(6 Suppl):1580S-4S. Review. PubMed PMID: 15930473; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2268017. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15930473 (accessed 2.24.2014)

Garlick PJ. The role of leucine in the regulation of protein metabolism. J Nutr. 2005 Jun;135(6 Suppl):1553S-6S. Review. PubMed PMID: 15930468. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15930468 (accessed 2.24.2014)

Pitkänen HT, Oja SS, Rusko H, Nummela A, Komi PV, Saransaari P, Takala T, Mero AA. Leucine supplementation does not enhance acute strength or running performance but affects serum amino acid concentration. Amino Acids. 2003 Jul;25(1):85-94. PubMed PMID: 12836063. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12836063 (accessed 2.24.2014)

Godard MP, Williamson DL, Trappe SW. Oral amino-acid provision does not affect muscle strength or size gains in older men. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002 Jul;34(7):1126-31. PubMed PMID: 12131252.

MacLean DA, Graham TE. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation augments plasma ammonia responses during exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1993 Jun;74(6):2711-7. PubMed PMID: 8365971. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12131252 (accessed 2.24.2014)

Schena F, Guerrini F, Tregnaghi P, Kayser B. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation during trekking at high altitude. The effects on loss of body mass, body composition, and muscle power. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1992;65(5):394-8. PubMed PMID: 1425642. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1425642 (accessed 2.24.2014)

Churchward-Venne TA, Breen L, Di Donato DM, Hector AJ, Mitchell CJ, Moore DR, Stellingwerff T, Breuille D, Offord EA, Baker SK, Phillips SM. Leucine supplementation of a low-protein mixed macronutrient beverage enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis in young men: a double-blind, randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Feb;99(2):276-86. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.068775. Epub 2013 Nov 27. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24284442 (accessed 3/6/2014)

L-Valine

Oku H, Yagi N, Nagata J, Chinen I. Precursor role of branched-chain amino acids in the biosynthesis of iso and anteiso fatty acids in rat skin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994 Oct 6;1214(3):279-87. PubMed PMID: 7918610. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7918610 (accessed 2.24.2014)

Guttuso T, McDermott MP, Su H, Kieburtz K. Effects of L-isoleucine and L-valine on hot flushes and serum homocysteine: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Jul;112(1):109-15. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31817d53b6. PubMed PMID: 18591315; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2742338. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18591315 (accessed 2.24.2014)

Godard MP, Williamson DL, Trappe SW. Oral amino-acid provision does not affect muscle strength or size gains in older men. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002 Jul;34(7):1126-31. PubMed PMID: 12131252. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12131252 (accessed 2.24.2014)

di Luigi L, Guidetti L, Pigozzi F, Baldari C, Casini A, Nordio M, Romanelli F. Acute amino acids supplementation enhances pituitary responsiveness in athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999 Dec;31(12):1748-54. PubMed PMID: 10613424. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10613424 (accessed 2.24.2014)

MacLean DA, Graham TE. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation augments plasma ammonia responses during exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1993 Jun;74(6):2711-7. PubMed PMID: 8365971. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8365971 (accessed 2.24.2014)

Schena F, Guerrini F, Tregnaghi P, Kayser B. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation during trekking at high altitude. The effects on loss of body mass, body composition, and muscle power. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1992;65(5):394-8. PubMed PMID: 1425642. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1425642 (accessed 2.24.2014)

Areces F, Salinero JJ, Abian-Vicen J, González-Millán C, Gallo-Salazar C, Ruiz-Vicente D, Lara B, Del Coso J. A 7-day oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acids was ineffective to prevent muscle damage during a marathon. Amino Acids. 2014 Jan 30. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 24477835. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24477835 (accessed 3/6/2014)

Biotin

Select Committee on GRAS Substances (SCOGS) Opinion: Biotin. (2013, 05 31). Retrieved 02 04, 2014, from www.FDA.gov: http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/GRAS/SCOGS/ucm260871.htm

Scheinfeld, N., et al. 2007. Vitamins and minerals: Their role in nail health and disease. J. Drugs Dermatol., 6 (8), 782–787. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17763607 (accessed 02.04.2014).

Revilla–Monsalve, C., et al. 2006. Biotin supplementation reduces plasma triacylglycerol and VLDL in type 2 diabetic patients and in nondiabetic subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. Biomed. Pharmacother., 60 (4), 182–185. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16677798 (accessed 02.04.2014).

Fernández–Mejía, C. 2005. Pharmacologic effects of biotin. J. Nutr. Biochem., 16 (7), 424–427. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15992683 (accessed 02.04.2014).

Zempleni, J., & Mock, D. 1999. Bioavailability of biotin given orally to humans in pharmacologic doses. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 69 (3), 504–508. URL: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/69/3/504 (accessed 2.14.2014).

Hochman, L., et al. 1993. Brittle nails: Response to daily biotin supplementation. Cutis, 51, 303–305. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8477615 (accessed 2.14.2014).

Mock, D. 1991. Skin manifestations of biotin deficiency. Semin. Dermatol., 10 (4), 296–302. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1764357 (accessed 2.14.2014).

Colombo, V., et al. 1990. Treatment of brittle fingernails and onychoschizia with biotin: Scanning electron microscopy. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., 23 (6 Pt. 1), 1127–1132. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2273113 (accessed 2.14.2014).

Floersheim, G. 1989. [Treatment of brittle fingernails with biotin]. Z. Hautkr., 64 (1), 41–48. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2648686 (accessed 2.14.2014).

Said, H. 2008. Cell and molecular aspects of human intestinal biotin absorption. J. Nutr. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19056639 (accessed 2.14.2014).

Báez–Saldaña, A., et al. 2004. Effects of biotin on pyruvate carboxylase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, propionyl-CoA carboxylase, and markers for glucose and lipid homeostasis in type 2 diabetic patients and nondiabetic subjects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 79 (2), 238–243. URL: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/79/2/238 (accessed 2.14.2014

Misir, R., & Blair, R. 1986. Effect of biotin supplementation of a barley–wheat diet on restoration of healthy feet, legs and skin of biotin deficient sows. Res. Vet. Sci., 40 (2), 212–218. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3704339 (accessed 2.14.2014).

Choline bitartate

Select Committee on GRAS Substances (SCOGS) Opinion: Choline Bitartrate. (2013, 04 18). Retrieved 02 04, 2014, from www.FDA.gov: http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/GRAS/SCOGS/ucm261250.htm

Barel A, Calomme M, Timchenko A, De Paepe K, Demeester N, Rogiers V, Clarys P, Vanden Berghe D. Effect of oral intake of choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid on skin, nails and hair in women with photodamaged skin. Arch Dermatol Res. 2005 Oct;297(4):147-53. Epub 2005 Oct 26. Erratum in: Arch Dermatol Res. 2006 Apr;297(10):481. Dosage error in article text. Arch Dermatol Res. 2006 Feb;297(8):381. Paepe, K De [corrected to De Paepe, K]. PubMed PMID: 16205932. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16205932 (Accessed 02.04.2014).

Chiuve, S., et al. 2007. The association between betaine and choline intakes and the plasma concentrations of homocysteine in women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 86 (4), 1073–1081. URL: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/86/4/1073 (accessed 02.04.2014).

Cho, E., et al. 2006. Dietary choline and betaine assessed by food-frequency questionnaire in relation to plasma total homocysteine concentration in the Framingham Offspring Study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 83 (4), 905–911. URL: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/83/4/905 (accessed 02.04.2014).

Olthof, M., et al. 2005. Choline supplemented as phosphatidylcholine decreases fasting and postmethionine-loading plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 82 (1), 111–117. URL: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/82/1/111 (accessed 02.04.2014).

Daily JW 3rd, Sachan DS. Choline supplementation alters carnitine homeostasis in humans and guinea pigs. J Nutr. 1995 Jul;125(7):1938-44. PubMed PMID: 7616311. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7616311 (accessed 2.24.2014)

Deuster PA, Singh A, Coll R, Hyde DE, Becker WJ. Choline ingestion does not modify physical or cognitive performance. Mil Med. 2002 Dec;167(12):1020-5. PubMed PMID: 12502178. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12502178 (accessed 2.24.2014)

Dodson WL, Sachan DS. Choline supplementation reduces urinary carnitine excretion in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996 Jun;63(6):904-10. PubMed PMID: 8644685. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8644685 (accessed 2.24.2014)

Fischer LM, daCosta KA, Kwock L, Stewart PW, Lu TS, Stabler SP, Allen RH, Zeisel SH. Sex and menopausal status influence human dietary requirements for the nutrient choline. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 May;85(5):1275-85. PubMed PMID: 17490963; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2435503. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17490963 (accessed 2.24.2014)

Hongu N, Sachan DS. Carnitine and choline supplementation with exercise alter carnitine profiles, biochemical markers of fat metabolism and serum leptin concentration in healthy women. J Nutr. 2003 Jan;133(1):84-9. PubMed PMID: 12514272. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12514272 (accessed 2.24.2014)

Sachan DS, Hongu N, Johnsen M. Decreasing oxidative stress with choline and carnitine in women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2005 Jun;24(3):172-6. PubMed PMID: 15930482. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15930482 (accessed 2.24.2011)

Wallace JM, McCormack JM, McNulty H, Walsh PM, Robson PJ, Bonham MP, Duffy ME, Ward M, Molloy AM, Scott JM, Ueland PM, Strain JJ. Choline supplementation and measures of choline and betaine status: a randomised, controlled trial in postmenopausal women. Br J Nutr. 2012 Oct;108(7):1264-71. Epub 2011 Dec 15. PubMed PMID: 22172554. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22172554 (accessed 2.24.2014)

Coenzyme Q-10

Kunitomo, M., et al. 2008. Beneficial effect of coenzyme Q10 on increased oxidative and nitrative stress and inflammation and individual metabolic components developing in a rat model of metabolic syndrome. J. Pharmacol. Sci., 107 (2), 128–137. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jphs/107/2/107_FP0072365/_pdf (accessed 2.4.14).

Wölfle U, Haarhaus B, Schempp CM. The photoprotective and antioxidative properties of luteolin are synergistically augmented by tocopherol and ubiquinone. Planta Med. 2013 Jul;79(11):963-5. doi: 10.1055/s-0032-1328716. Epub 2013 Jul 9. PubMed PMID: 23839819. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23839819 (accessed 2.4.14).

Wang, H., et al. 2008. [Effects of coenzyme Q10 or combined with micronutrients on antioxidant defense system in rats.] Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, 37 (3), 311–313. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18646530 (accessed 2.4.14).

Littarru, G., & Tiano, L. 2007. Bioenergetic and antioxidant properties of coenzyme Q10: Recent developments.

Mol. Biotechnol., 37 (1), 31–37. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17914161 (accessed 2.4.14).

Miles, L., et al. 2005. Ubiquinol: A potential biomarker for tissue energy requirements and oxidative stress. Clin.Chim. Acta, 360 (1–2), 87–96. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15935338 (accessed 2.17.2014).

Hodgson, J., & Watts, G. 2003. Can coenzyme Q10 improve vascular function and blood pressure? Potential for effective therapeutic reduction in vascular oxidative stress. Biofactors, 18 (1–4), 129–136. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12428181 (accessed 2.17.2014).

Udompataikul M, Sripiroj P, Palungwachira P. An oral nutraceutical containing antioxidants, minerals and glycosaminoglycans improves skin roughness and fine wrinkles. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2009 Dec;31(6):427-35. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2494.2009.00513.x. Epub 2009 Jun 30. PubMed PMID: 19570098. Lima XT, Alora-Palli MB, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19570098 (Accessed 2.5.2014)

Beck S, Kimball AB. A double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial to quantitate photoprotective effects of an antioxidant combination product. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2012 Apr;5(4):29-32. PubMed PMID: 22708005; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3366441. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22708005 & http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3366441/pdf/jcad_5_4_29.pdf (full text) (accessed 2.17.2014)

Kunitomo M, Yamaguchi Y, Kagota S, Otsubo K. Beneficial effect of coenzyme Q10 on increased oxidative and nitrative stress and inflammation and individual metabolic components developing in a rat model of metabolic syndrome. J Pharmacol Sci. 2008 Jun;107(2):128-37. Epub 2008 Jun 5. PubMed PMID: 18544898.

Hodgson JM, Watts GF, Playford DA, Burke V, Croft KD. Coenzyme Q10 improves blood pressure and glycaemic control: a controlled trial in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Nov;56(11):1137-42. PubMed PMID: 12428181.

Yubero-Serrano EM, et al.Postprandial antioxidant gene expression is modified by Mediterranean diet supplemented with coenzyme Q(10) in elderly men and women. Age (Dordr). 2013 Feb;35(1):159-70. doi: 10.1007/s11357-011-9331-4. Epub 2011 Nov 6. PubMed PMID: 22057896; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3543746. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22057896 (accessed 2.24.2014)

Shojaei M, Djalali M, Khatami M, Siassi F, Eshraghian M. Effects of carnitine and coenzyme Q10 on lipid profile and serum levels of lipoprotein(a) in maintenance hemodialysis patients on statin therapy. Iran J Kidney Dis. 2011 Mar;5(2):114-8. PubMed PMID: 21368390. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21368390 (accessed 2.24.2014)

Hamilton SJ, Chew GT, Watts GF. Coenzyme Q10 improves endothelial dysfunction in statin-treated type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 2009 May;32(5):810-2. doi: 10.2337/dc08-1736. Epub 2009 Feb 19. PubMed PMID: 19228872; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2671099. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19228872 (accessed 2.24.2014)

Niklowitz P, Sonnenschein A, Janetzky B, Andler W, Menke T. Enrichment of coenzyme Q10 in plasma and blood cells: defense against oxidative damage. Int J Biol Sci. 2007 Apr 5;3(4):257-62. PubMed PMID: 17479158; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1852397. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17479158 (accessed 2.24.2014)

Baumann, L Skin ageing and its treatment The Journal of Pathology 2007 J. Pathol.v 211 2 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 1096-9896 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/path.2098/full (accessed 3/7/2014)

Arck PC, Overall R, Spatz K, Liezman C, Handjiski B, Klapp BF, Birch-Machin MA, Peters EM. Towards a "free radical theory of graying": melanocyte apoptosis in the aging human hair follicle is an indicator of oxidative stress induced tissue damage. FASEB J. 2006 Jul;20(9):1567-9. Epub 2006 May 24. PubMed PMID: 16723385. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16723385 (accessed 3/13/2014)

Trüeb RM. Oxidative stress in ageing of hair. Int J Trichology. 2009 Jan;1(1):6-14. doi: 10.4103/0974-7753.51923. PubMed PMID: 20805969; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2929555. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20805969 (accessed 3/13/2014)

Berger MM. Can oxidative damage be treated nutritionally? Clin Nutr. 2005 Apr;24(2):172-83. Review. PubMed PMID: 15784476.

Horsetail (Equisetum arvense)(entire plant, standardized to 7% silica)

Select Committee on GRAS Substances (SCOGS) Opinion: Silicon dioxides (2013, 04 18). Retrieved 02 19, 2014, from www.FDA.gov: http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/GRAS/SCOGS/ucm261095.htm

Stajner D, Popovic BM, Canadanovic-Brunet J, Anackov G. Exploring Equisetum arvense L., Equisetum ramosissimum L. and Equisetum telmateia L. as sources of natural antioxidants. Phytother Res. 2009 Apr;23(4):546-50. doi: 10.1002/ptr.2682. PubMed PMID: 19067388. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19067388 (accessed 2.11.14)

Stajner D, Popovic BM, Canadanovic-Brunet J, Boza P. Free radical scavenging activity of three Equisetum species from Fruska gora mountain. Fitoterapia. 2006 Dec;77(7-8):601-4. Epub 2006 Jul 6. PubMed PMID: 16934417. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16934417 (accessed 2.19.2014)

Graefe EU, Veit M. Urinary metabolites of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids in humans after application of a crude extract from Equisetum arvense. Phytomedicine. 1999 Oct;6(4):239-46. PubMed PMID: 10589442. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10589442 (accessed 2.19.2014)

Martin, K. 2007. The chemistry of silica and its potential health benefits. J. Nutr. Health Aging, 11 (2), 94–97. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17435951 (accessed 02.10.2014).

McNaughton, S., et al. 2005. Dietary silicon intake in post-menopausal women. Br. J. Nutr., 94 (5), 813–817. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16277786 (accessed 02.10.2014).

Reffitt, D., et al. 2003. Orthosilicic acid stimulates collagen type 1 synthesis and osteoblastic differentiation in human osteoblast-like cells in vitro. Bone, 32 (2), 127–135. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12633784 (accessed 02.10.2014).

Scheinfeld, N., et al. 2007. Vitamins and minerals: Their role in nail health and disease. J. Drugs Dermatol., 6 (8), 782–787. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17763607 (accessed 02.04.2014).

Cetojevic-Simin DD, Canadanovic-Brunet JM, Bogdanovic GM, Djilas SM, Cetkovic GS, Tumbas VT, Stojiljkovic BT. Antioxidative and antiproliferative activities of different horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.) extracts. J Med Food. 2010 Apr;13(2):452-9. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2008.0159. PubMed PMID: 20170379. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20170379 (accessed 2.11.2014)

Schwarz K. A bound form of silicon in glycosaminoglycans and polyuronides. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1973 May;70(5):1608-12. PubMed PMID: 4268099; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC433552. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4268099 (accessed 3/4.2014)

Lassus A. Colloidal silicic acid for oral and topical treatment of aged skin, fragile hair and brittle nails in females. J Int Med Res. 1993 Jul-Aug;21(4):209-15. PubMed PMID: 8112478. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8112478 (accessed 3/4/2014)

Herreros FO, Cintra ML, Adam RL, de Moraes AM, Metze K. Remodeling of the human dermis after application of salicylate silanol. Arch Dermatol Res. 2007 Apr;299(1):41-5. Epub 2007 Feb 28. PubMed PMID: 17333223. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17333223 (accessed 3/4/2014)

Barel A, Calomme M, Timchenko A, De Paepe K, Demeester N, Rogiers V, Clarys P, Vanden Berghe D. Effect of oral intake of choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid on skin, nails and hair in women with photodamaged skin. Arch Dermatol Res. 2005 Oct;297(4):147-53. Epub 2005 Oct 26. Erratum in: Arch Dermatol Res. 2006 Apr;297(10):481. Dosage error in article text. Arch Dermatol Res. 2006 Feb;297(8):381. Paepe, K De [corrected to De Paepe, K]. PubMed PMID: 16205932. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16205932 (accessed 3/4/2014)

Wickett RR, Kossmann E, Barel A, Demeester N, Clarys P, Vanden Berghe D, Calomme M. Effect of oral intake of choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid on hair tensile strength and morphology in women with fine hair. Arch Dermatol Res. 2007 Dec;299(10):499-505. Epub 2007 Oct 25. PubMed PMID: 17960402. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17960402 (accessed 3/4/2014)

Arck PC, Overall R, Spatz K, Liezman C, Handjiski B, Klapp BF, Birch-Machin MA, Peters EM. Towards a "free radical theory of graying": melanocyte apoptosis in the aging human hair follicle is an indicator of oxidative stress induced tissue damage. FASEB J. 2006 Jul;20(9):1567-9. Epub 2006 May 24. PubMed PMID: 16723385. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16723385 (accessed 3/13/2014)

Trüeb RM. Oxidative stress in ageing of hair. Int J Trichology. 2009 Jan;1(1):6-14. doi: 10.4103/0974-7753.51923. PubMed PMID: 20805969; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2929555. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20805969 (accessed 3/13/2014)

Berger MM. Can oxidative damage be treated nutritionally? Clin Nutr. 2005 Apr;24(2):172-83. Review. PubMed PMID: 15784476.

Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM)

[No authors listed.] 2003. Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM). Monograph. Alt. Med. Rev., 8 (4), 438–441. URL (PDF): http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/8/4/438.pdf (accessed 2.10.2014).

Magnuson BA, Appleton J, Ryan B, Matulka RA. Oral developmental toxicity study of methylsulfonylmethane in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007 Jun;45(6):977-84. Epub 2006 Dec 13. PubMed PMID: 17258373. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17258373 (accessed 2.19.2014)

Barrager E, Veltmann JR Jr, Schauss AG, Schiller RN. A multicentered, open-label trial on the safety and efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Apr;8(2):167-73. PubMed PMID: 12006124. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12006124 (accessed 2.10.2014).

Berardesca E, Cameli N, Cavallotti C, Levy JL, Piérard GE, de Paoli Ambrosi G. Combined effects of silymarin and methylsulfonylmethane in the management of rosacea: clinical and instrumental evaluation. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2008 Mar;7(1):8-14. doi: 10.1111/j.1473-2165.2008.00355.x. PubMed PMID: 18254805. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18254805 (accessed 2.10.2014).

Horváth K, Noker PE, Somfai-Relle S, Glávits R, Financsek I, Schauss AG. Toxicity of methylsulfonylmethane in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2002 Oct;40(10):1459-62. PubMed PMID: 12387309. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12387309 (accessed 2.19.2014)

Barmaki S, Bohlooli S, Khoshkhahesh F, Nakhostin-Roohi B. Effect of methylsulfonylmethane supplementation on exercise - Induced muscle damage and total antioxidant capacity. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2012 Apr;52(2):170-4. PubMed PMID: 22525653 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22525653 (accessed 2.11.2014)

Nakhostin-Roohi B, Barmaki S, Khoshkhahesh F, Bohlooli S. Effect of chronic supplementation with methylsulfonylmethane on oxidative stress following acute exercise in untrained healthy men. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2011 Oct;63(10):1290-4. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-7158.2011.01314.x. Epub 2011 Aug 1. PubMed PMID: 21899544.

Kim LS, Axelrod LJ, Howard P, Buratovich N, Waters RF. Efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) in osteoarthritis pain of the knee: a pilot clinical trial. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2006 Mar;14(3):286-94. Epub 2005 Nov 23. PubMed PMID: 16309928. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16309928 (accessed 2.19.2014) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12006124

Arck PC, Overall R, Spatz K, Liezman C, Handjiski B, Klapp BF, Birch-Machin MA, Peters EM. Towards a "free radical theory of graying": melanocyte apoptosis in the aging human hair follicle is an indicator of oxidative stress induced tissue damage. FASEB J. 2006 Jul;20(9):1567-9. Epub 2006 May 24. PubMed PMID: 16723385. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16723385 (accessed 3/13/2014)

Trüeb RM. Oxidative stress in ageing of hair. Int J Trichology. 2009 Jan;1(1):6-14. doi: 10.4103/0974-7753.51923. PubMed PMID: 20805969; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2929555. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20805969 (accessed 3/13/2014)

Berger MM. Can oxidative damage be treated nutritionally? Clin Nutr. 2005 Apr;24(2):172-83. Review. PubMed PMID: 15784476.

Milk Thistle

(Silybum marianum) Extract (seed) (standardized to 80% sylimarin)

Mamalis A, Nguyen DH, Brody N, Jagdeo J. The active natural anti-oxidant properties of chamomile, milk thistle, and halophilic bacterial components in human skin in vitro. J Drugs Dermatol. 2013 Jul 1;12(7):780-4. PubMed PMID: 23884490. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23884490 (accessed 2.19.2014)

Vaid M, Katiyar SK. Molecular mechanisms of inhibition of photocarcinogenesis by silymarin, a phytochemical from milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaertn.) (Review). Int J Oncol. 2010 May;36(5):1053-60. Review. PubMed PMID: 20372777; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2852174. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20372777 (accessed 2.19.2014)

Katiyar SK, Meleth S, Sharma SD. Silymarin, a flavonoid from milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.), inhibits UV-induced oxidative stress through targeting infiltrating CD11b+ cells in mouse skin. Photochem Photobiol. 2008 Mar-Apr;84(2):266-71. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2007.00241.x. Epub 2007 Nov 28. PubMed PMID: 18221354; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2394725. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18221354 (accessed 2.19.2014)

Katiyar SK. Silymarin and skin cancer prevention: anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects (Review). Int J Oncol. 2005 Jan;26(1):169-76. Review. PubMed PMID: 15586237. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15586237 (accessed 2.19.2014)

Nichols JA, Katiyar SK. Skin photoprotection by natural polyphenols: anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and DNA repair mechanisms. Arch Dermatol Res. 2010 Mar;302(2):71-83. doi: 10.1007/s00403-009-1001-3. Epub 2009 Nov 7. Review. PubMed PMID: 19898857; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2813915. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19898857 (accessed 2.19.2014)

Kiruthiga PV, Shafreen RB, Pandian SK, Devi KP. Silymarin protection against major reactive oxygen species released by environmental toxins: exogenous H2O2 exposure in erythrocytes. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007 Jun;100(6):414-9. PubMed PMID: 17516996. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17516996 (accessed 2.19.2014)

Mulrow C, Lawrence V, Jacobs B, Dennehy C, Sapp J, Ramirez G, Aguilar C, Montgomery K, Morbidoni L, Arterburn JM, Chiquette E, Harris M, Mullins D, Vickers A, Flora K. Milk thistle: effects on liver disease and cirrhosis and clinical adverse effects. Evid Rep Technol Assess (Summ). 2000;(21):1-3. PubMed PMID: 11262867. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11262867 (accessed 2.10.2014).

Tamayo C, Diamond S. Review of clinical trials evaluating safety and efficacy of milk thistle (Silybum marianum [L.] Gaertn.). Integr Cancer Ther. 2007 Jun;6(2):146-57. Review. PubMed PMID: 17548793. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17548793 (accessed 2.10.2014)

Post-White J, Ladas EJ, Kelly KM. Advances in the use of milk thistle (Silybum marianum). Integr Cancer Ther. 2007 Jun;6(2):104-9. Review. PubMed PMID: 17548789. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17548789 (accessed 2.10.2014)

Baumann, L Skin ageing and its treatment The Journal of Pathology 2007 J. Pathol.v 211 2 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 1096-9896 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/path.2098/full (accessed 3/7/2014)

Arck PC, Overall R, Spatz K, Liezman C, Handjiski B, Klapp BF, Birch-Machin MA, Peters EM. Towards a "free radical theory of graying": melanocyte apoptosis in the aging human hair follicle is an indicator of oxidative stress induced tissue damage. FASEB J. 2006 Jul;20(9):1567-9. Epub 2006 May 24. PubMed PMID: 16723385. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16723385 (accessed 3/13/2014)

Trüeb RM. Oxidative stress in ageing of hair. Int J Trichology. 2009 Jan;1(1):6-14. doi: 10.4103/0974-7753.51923. PubMed PMID: 20805969; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2929555. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20805969 (accessed 3/13/2014)

Berger MM. Can oxidative damage be treated nutritionally? Clin Nutr. 2005 Apr;24(2):172-83. Review. PubMed PMID: 15784476.

Vitamin A (as beta carotene)

Select Committee on GRAS Substances (SCOGS) Opinion: Vitamin A. (2013, 04 13). Retrieved 02 11, 2014, from www.FDA.gov: http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/GRAS/SCOGS/ucm261336.htm

Select Committee on GRAS Substances (SCOGS) Opinion: Carotene (beta-carotene). (2013, 04 18). Retrieved 02 11, 2014, from www.FDA.gov: http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/GRAS/SCOGS/ucm261245.htm

Césarini JP, Michel L, Maurette JM, Adhoute H, Béjot M. Immediate effects of UV radiation on the skin: modification by an antioxidant complex containing carotenoids. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2003 Aug;19(4):182-9. PubMed PMID: 12925189. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12925189

Köpcke W, Krutmann J. Protection from sunburn with beta-Carotene--a meta-analysis. Photochem Photobiol. 2008 Mar-Apr;84(2):284-8. Epub 2007 Dec 15. PubMed PMID: 18086246. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18086246

Stahl W, Sies H. ß-Carotene and other carotenoids in protection from sunlight. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Nov;96(5):1179S-84S. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.034819. Epub 2012 Oct 10. Review. PubMed PMID: 23053552. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23053552

Stahl W, Sies H. Carotenoids and flavonoids contribute to nutritional protection against skin damage from sunlight. Mol Biotechnol. 2007 Sep;37(1):26-30. Review. PubMed PMID: 17914160. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17914160

Stahl W, Krutmann J. [Systemic photoprotection through carotenoids]. Hautarzt. 2006 Apr;57(4):281-5. Review. German. PubMed PMID: 16463037. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16463037

Garmyn M, Ribaya-Mercado JD, Russel RM, Bhawan J, Gilchrest BA. Effect of beta-carotene supplementation on the human sunburn reaction. Exp Dermatol. 1995 Apr;4(2):104-11. PubMed PMID: 7640875. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7640875

Lee J, Jiang S, Levine N, Watson RR. Carotenoid supplementation reduces erythema in human skin after simulated solar radiation exposure. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 2000 Feb;223(2):170-4. PubMed PMID: 10654620. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10654620

Heinrich U, Gärtner C, Wiebusch M, Eichler O, Sies H, Tronnier H, Stahl W. Supplementation with beta-carotene or a similar amount of mixed carotenoids protects humans from UV-induced erythema. J Nutr. 2003 Jan;133(1):98-101. PubMed PMID: 12514275. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12514275

Stahl W, Heinrich U, Jungmann H, Sies H, Tronnier H. Carotenoids and carotenoids plus vitamin E protect against ultraviolet light-induced erythema in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Mar;71(3):795-8. PubMed PMID: 10702175. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10702175

Ergin V, Hariry RE, Karasu C. Carbonyl stress in aging process: role of vitamins and phytochemicals as redox regulators. Aging Dis. 2013 Oct 1;4(5):276-94. doi: 10.14336/AD.2013.0400276. Review. PubMed PMID: 24124633; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3794724. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24124633

Bendich, A. 2004. From 1989 to 2001: What have we learned about the “biological actions of beta-carotene”? J. Nutr., 134 (1), 225S–230S. URL: http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/full/134/1/225S (accessed 2.11.2014).

Heinrich, U., et al. 2003. Supplementation with beta-carotene or a similar amount of mixed carotenoids protects humans from UV-induced erythema. J. Nutr., 133 (1), 98–101. URL: http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/full/133/1/98 (accessed 2.11.2014).

Semba, R., et al. 2003. Carotenoid and vitamin E status are associated with indicators of sarcopenia among older women living in the community. Aging Clin. Exp. Res., 15 (6), 482–487. URL (abstract) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14959951 (accessed 2.11.2014).

Klipstein–Grobusch, K., et al. 2001. Dietary antioxidants and peripheral arterial disease: The Rotterdam Study. Am. J. Epidemiol., 154 (2), 145–149. URL: http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/154/2/145 (accessed 2.11.2014).

Christen, W., et al. 2000. Design of Physicians’ Health Study II — a randomized trial of beta-carotene, vitamins E and C, and multivitamins, in prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and eye disease, and review of results of completed trials. Ann. Epidemiol., 10 (2), 125–134. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10691066 (accessed 2.11.2014).

Meyers DG, Maloley PA, Weeks D. Safety of antioxidant vitamins. Arch Intern Med. 1996 May 13;156(9):925-35. Review. PubMed PMID: 8624173. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8624173 (accessed 2.11.2014)

Green, A., et al. 1999. Daily sunscreen application and betacarotene supplementation in prevention of basal-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas of the skin: A randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 354 (9180), 723–729. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10475183 (accessed 2.20.2014).

Lin, Y., et al. 1998. Estimating the concentration of beta-carotene required for maximal protection of low-density lipoproteins in women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 67 (5), 837-845. URL (PDF): http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/reprint/67/5/837.pdf (accessed 2.11.2014)

Albanes, D., et al. 1996. Alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements and lung cancer incidence in the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cancer prevention study: Effects of base-line characteristics and study compliance. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 88 (21), 1560–1570. URL: http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/88/21/1560.pdf (2.11.2014).

Lima XT, Alora-Palli MB, Beck S, Kimball AB. A double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial to quantitate photoprotective effects of an antioxidant combination product. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2012 Apr;5(4):29-32. PubMed PMID: 22708005; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3366441. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22708005 (accessed 2.11.2014)

Poljsak B, Dahmane R, Godic A. Skin and antioxidants. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2013 Apr;15(2):107-13. doi: 10.3109/14764172.2012.758380. Epub 2013 Feb 5. Review. PubMed PMID: 23384037. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23384037 (accessed 2.11.2014)

Greul AK, Grundmann JU, Heinrich F, Pfitzner I, Bernhardt J, Ambach A, Biesalski HK, Gollnick H. Photoprotection of UV-irradiated human skin: an antioxidative combination of vitamins E and C, carotenoids, selenium and proanthocyanidins. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol. 2002 Sep-Oct;15(5):307-15. PubMed PMID: 12239424. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12239424 (accessed 2.12.14)

Reichrath J, Lehmann B, Carlberg C, Varani J, Zouboulis CC. Vitamins as hormones. Horm Metab Res. 2007 Feb;39(2):71-84. Review. PubMed PMID: 17326003. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17326003 (accessed 3/7/2014)

Amann PM, Merk HF, Baron JM. [Retinoids in dermatopharmacology]. Hautarzt. 2014 Feb;65(2):98-105. doi: 10.1007/s00105-013-2649-3. German. PubMed PMID: 24419474. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24419474 (accessed 3/7/2014)

Varani J, Warner RL, Gharaee-Kermani M, Phan SH, Kang S, Chung JH, Wang ZQ, Datta SC, Fisher GJ, Voorhees JJ. Vitamin A antagonizes decreased cell growth and elevated collagen-degrading matrix metalloproteinases and stimulates collagen accumulation in naturally aged human skin. J Invest Dermatol. 2000 Mar;114(3):480-6. PubMed PMID: 10692106. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10692106 (accessed 3/7/2014)

Kockaert M, Neumann M. Systemic and topical drugs for aging skin. J Drugs Dermatol. 2003 Aug;2(4):435-41. PubMed PMID: 12884471. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12884471 (accessed 3/7/2014)

Ganceviciene R, Liakou AI, Theodoridis A, Makrantonaki E, Zouboulis CC. Skin anti-aging strategies. Dermatoendocrinol. 2012 Jul 1;4(3):308-19. doi: 10.4161/derm.22804. PubMed PMID: 23467476; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3583892. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23467476 (accessed 3/7/2014)

Arck PC, Overall R, Spatz K, Liezman C, Handjiski B, Klapp BF, Birch-Machin MA, Peters EM. Towards a "free radical theory of graying": melanocyte apoptosis in the aging human hair follicle is an indicator of oxidative stress induced tissue damage. FASEB J. 2006 Jul;20(9):1567-9. Epub 2006 May 24. PubMed PMID: 16723385. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16723385 (accessed 3/13/2014)

Trüeb RM. Oxidative stress in ageing of hair. Int J Trichology. 2009 Jan;1(1):6-14. doi: 10.4103/0974-7753.51923. PubMed PMID: 20805969; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2929555. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20805969 (accessed 3/13/2014)

Chopra DP, Flaxman BA. The effect of vitamin A on growth and differentiation of human keratinocytes in vitro. J Invest Dermatol. 1975 Jan;64(1):19-22. PubMed PMID: 1167216.

Berger MM. Can oxidative damage be treated nutritionally? Clin Nutr. 2005 Apr;24(2):172-83. Review. PubMed PMID: 15784476.

Vitamin C (as calcium ascorbate)

Select Committee on GRAS Substances (SCOGS) Opinion: Calcium L-ascorbate (2013, 04 18). Retrieved 02 11, 2014, from www.FDA.gov: http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/GRAS/SCOGS/ucm260889.htm

Lima XT, Alora-Palli MB, Beck S, Kimball AB. A double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial to quantitate photoprotective effects of an antioxidant combination product. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2012 Apr;5(4):29-32. PubMed PMID: 22708005; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3366441. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22708005 (accessed 2.11.2014)

Verhamme C, de Haan RJ, Vermeulen M, Baas F, de Visser M, van Schaik IN. Oral high dose ascorbic acid treatment for one year in young CMT1A patients: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II trial. BMC Med. 2009 Nov 12;7:70. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-7-70. PubMed PMID: 19909499; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2784478. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19909499 (accessed 2.11.2014)

Handog EB, Galang DA, de Leon-Godinez MA, Chan GP. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral procyanidin with vitamins A, C, E for melasma among Filipino women. Int J Dermatol. 2009 Aug;48(8):896-901. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2009.04130.x. PubMed PMID: 19659873. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19659873 (accessed 2.11.2014)

Hathcock JN, Azzi A, Blumberg J, Bray T, Dickinson A, Frei B, Jialal I, Johnston CS, Kelly FJ, Kraemer K, Packer L, Parthasarathy S, Sies H, Traber MG. Vitamins E and C are safe across a broad range of intakes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Apr;81(4):736-45. Review. PubMed PMID: 15817846. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15817846 (accessed 2.11.2014)

Meyers DG, Maloley PA, Weeks D. Safety of antioxidant vitamins. Arch Intern Med. 1996 May 13;156(9):925-35. Review. PubMed PMID: 8624173. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8624173 (accessed 2.11.2014)

Greul AK, Grundmann JU, Heinrich F, Pfitzner I, Bernhardt J, Ambach A, Biesalski HK, Gollnick H. Photoprotection of UV-irradiated human skin: an antioxidative combination of vitamins E and C, carotenoids, selenium and proanthocyanidins. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol. 2002 Sep-Oct;15(5):307-15. PubMed PMID: 12239424. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12239424 (accessed 2.12.14)

Poljsak B, Dahmane R, Godic A. Skin and antioxidants. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2013 Apr;15(2):107-13. doi: 10.3109/14764172.2012.758380. Epub 2013 Feb 5. Review. PubMed PMID: 23384037. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22505880 (accessed 2.12.2014)

Switzer BR, Summer GK. Collagen synthesis in human skin fibroblasts: effects of ascorbate, -ketoglutarate and ferrous ion on proline hydroxylation. J Nutr. 1972 Jun;102(6):721-8. PubMed PMID: 4337638. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4337638 (accessed 2.12.2014)

Brody S, Preut R, Schommer K, Schürmeyer TH. A randomized controlled trial of high dose ascorbic acid for reduction of blood pressure, cortisol, and subjective responses to psychological stress. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2002 Jan;159(3):319-24. Epub 2001 Nov 20. PubMed PMID: 11862365. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11862365 (accessed 2.20.2014)

Lauer AC, Groth N, Haag SF, Darvin ME, Lademann J, Meinke MC. Dose-dependent vitamin C uptake and radical scavenging activity in human skin measured with in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2013;26(3):147-54. doi: 10.1159/000350833. Epub 2013 May 24. PubMed PMID: 23689595. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23689595 (accessed 2.11.2014)

Peterkofsky B. Ascorbate requirement for hydroxylation and secretion of procollagen: relationship to inhibition of collagen synthesis in scurvy. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Dec;54(6 Suppl):1135S-1140S. Review. PubMed PMID: 1720597. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1720597 (accessed 2.12.2014)

Maggio, D., et al. 2003. Marked decrease in plasma antioxidants in aged osteoporotic women: Results of a cross-sectional study. J. Clin. Endocrin. Metab., 88 (4), 1523–1527. URL: http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/88/4/1523 (accessed 2.14.2014).

Pinnel SR, Murad S, Darr D. Induction of collagen synthesis by ascorbic acid. A possible mechanism. Arch Dermatol. 1987 Dec;123(12):1684-6. Review. PubMed PMID: 2825607. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2825607 (accessed 3/4/2014)

Pinnell SR. Regulation of collagen biosynthesis by ascorbic acid: a review. Yale J Biol Med. 1985 Nov-Dec;58(6):553-9. PubMed PMID: 3008449; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2589959. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3008449 (accessed 3/4/2014)

Booth BA, Uitto J. Collagen biosynthesis by human skin fibroblasts. III. The effects of ascorbic acid on procollagen production and prolyl hydroxylase activity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1981 Jun 11;675(1):117-22. PubMed PMID: 6266492. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6266492 (accessed 3/4/2014)

Boyera N, Galey I, Bernard BA. Effect of vitamin C and its derivatives on collagen synthesis and cross-linking by normal human fibroblasts. Int J Cosmet Sci. 1998 Jun;20(3):151-8. doi: 10.1046/j.1467-2494.1998.171747.x. PubMed PMID: 18505499. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18505499 (accessed 3/4/2014)

Grosso G, Bei R, Mistretta A, Marventano S, Calabrese G, Masuelli L, Giganti MG, Modesti A, Galvano F, Gazzolo D. Effects of vitamin C on health: a review of evidence. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2013 Jun 1;18:1017-29. Review. PubMed PMID: 23747864. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23747864 (accessed 3/4/2014)

Kishimoto Y, Saito N, Kurita K, Shimokado K, Maruyama N, Ishigami A. Ascorbic acid enhances the expression of type 1 and type 4 collagen and SVCT2 in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013 Jan 11;430(2):579-84. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.11.110. Epub 2012 Dec 7. PubMed PMID: 23228664. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23228664 (accessed 3/4/2014)

Park HJ, Ock SM, Kim HJ, Park HJ, Lee YB, Choi JM, Cho CS, Lee JY, Cho BK, Cho DH. Vitamin C attenuates ERK signalling to inhibit the regulation of collagen production by LL-37 in human dermal fibroblasts. Exp Dermatol. 2010 Aug;19(8):e258-64. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0625.2010.01070.x. PubMed PMID: 20163451. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20163451 (accessed 3/4/2014)

Tajima S, Pinnell SR. Ascorbic acid preferentially enhances type I and III collagen gene transcription in human skin fibroblasts. J Dermatol Sci. 1996 Mar;11(3):250-3. PubMed PMID: 8785178. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8785178 (accessed 3/4/2014)

Sørensen LT, Toft BG, Rygaard J, Ladelund S, Paddon M, James T, Taylor R, Gottrup F. Effect of smoking, smoking cessation, and nicotine patch on wound dimension, vitamin C, and systemic markers of collagen metabolism. Surgery. 2010 Nov;148(5):982-90. doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2010.02.005. Epub 2010 Mar 29. PubMed PMID: 20347467. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20347467 (accessed 3/4/2014)

Kockaert M, Neumann M. Systemic and topical drugs for aging skin. J Drugs Dermatol. 2003 Aug;2(4):435-41. PubMed PMID: 12884471. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12884471 (accessed 3/7/2014)

Ganceviciene R, Liakou AI, Theodoridis A, Makrantonaki E, Zouboulis CC. Skin anti-aging strategies. Dermatoendocrinol. 2012 Jul 1;4(3):308-19. doi: 10.4161/derm.22804. PubMed PMID: 23467476; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3583892. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23467476 (accessed 3/7/2014)

Arck PC, Overall R, Spatz K, Liezman C, Handjiski B, Klapp BF, Birch-Machin MA, Peters EM. Towards a "free radical theory of graying": melanocyte apoptosis in the aging human hair follicle is an indicator of oxidative stress induced tissue damage. FASEB J. 2006 Jul;20(9):1567-9. Epub 2006 May 24. PubMed PMID: 16723385. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16723385 (accessed 3/13/2014)

Trüeb RM. Oxidative stress in ageing of hair. Int J Trichology. 2009 Jan;1(1):6-14. doi: 10.4103/0974-7753.51923. PubMed PMID: 20805969; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2929555. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20805969 (accessed 3/13/2014)

Berger MM. Can oxidative damage be treated nutritionally? Clin Nutr. 2005 Apr;24(2):172-83. Review. PubMed PMID: 15784476.

Vitamin E (as d-alpha tocopheryl succinate plus mixed tocopherols)

Select Committee on GRAS Substances (SCOGS) Opinion: alpha-Tocopherols (2013, 04 18). Retrieved 02 12, 2014, from www.FDA.gov: http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/GRAS/SCOGS/ucm260988.htm

Hathcock JN, Azzi A, Blumberg J, Bray T, Dickinson A, Frei B, Jialal I, Johnston CS, Kelly FJ, Kraemer K, Packer L, Parthasarathy S, Sies H, Traber MG. Vitamins E and C are safe across a broad range of intakes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Apr;81(4):736-45. Review. PubMed PMID: 15817846. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15817846 (accessed 2.11.2014)

Meyers DG, Maloley PA, Weeks D. Safety of antioxidant vitamins. Arch Intern Med. 1996 May 13;156(9):925-35. Review. PubMed PMID: 8624173. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8624173 (accessed 2.11.2014)

Greul AK, Grundmann JU, Heinrich F, Pfitzner I, Bernhardt J, Ambach A, Biesalski HK, Gollnick H. Photoprotection of UV-irradiated human skin: an antioxidative combination of vitamins E and C, carotenoids, selenium and proanthocyanidins. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol. 2002 Sep-Oct;15(5):307-15. PubMed PMID: 12239424. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12239424 (accessed 2.12.14)

Poljsak B, Dahmane R, Godic A. Skin and antioxidants. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2013 Apr;15(2):107-13. doi: 10.3109/14764172.2012.758380. Epub 2013 Feb 5. Review. PubMed PMID: 23384037. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23384037 (accessed 2.12.14)

González–Pérez, O., et al. 2008. [Alpha-tocopherol and alpha-lipoic acid. An antioxidant synergy with potential for preventive medicine.] Rev. Invest. Clin., 60 (1), 58–67. Review. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18589588 (accessed 2.12.2014).

Ruiz–Ramos, M., et al. 2010. Supplementation of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol is useful to preventing bone loss linked to oxidative stress in elderly. J. Nutr. Health Aging, 14 (6), 467–472. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20617290 (accessed 2.12.2014).

Edmonds, S., et al. 1997. Putative analgesic activity of repeated oral doses of vitamin E in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Results of a prospective placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Ann. Rheum. Dis., 56 (11), 649–655. URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=9462166 (accessed 2.12.2014)

Lima XT, Alora-Palli MB, Beck S, Kimball AB. A double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial to quantitate photoprotective effects of an antioxidant combination product. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2012 Apr;5(4):29-32. PubMed PMID: 22708005; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3366441. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22708005 (accessed 2.14.2014)

Semba, R., et al. 2003. Carotenoid and vitamin E status are associated with indicators of sarcopenia among older women living in the community. Aging Clin. Exp. Res., 15 (6), 482–487. URL (abstract) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14959951 (accessed 2.11.2014).

Meydani, S., et al. 1990. Vitamin E supplementation enhances cell-mediated immunity in healthy elderly subjects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 52 (3), 557-563. URL (PDF): http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/reprint/52/3/557 (accessed 2.12.2014).

Miller, E., et al. 2005. Meta-analysis: High-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Ann. Intern. Med., 142 (1), 37–46. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15537682 (accessed 2.20.2014).

Christen, W., et al. 2000. Design of Physicians’ Health Study II — a randomized trial of beta-carotene, vitamins E and C, and multivitamins, in prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and eye disease, and review of results of completed trials. Ann. Epidemiol., 10 (2), 125–134. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10691066 (accessed 2.20.2014).

Moriguchi, S. 1998. The role of vitamin E in T-cell differentiation and the decrease of cellular immunity with aging. Biofactors, 7 (1–2), 77–86. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9523031 (accessed 2.20.2014).

Nachbr, F., & Korting, H. 1995. The role of vitamin E in normal and damaged skin. J. Mol. Med., 73 (1), 7–17. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7633944 (accessed 2.20.2014).

Stahl, W., et al. 2000. Carotenoids and carotenoids plus vitamin E protect against ultraviolet light-induced erythema in humans. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 71 (3), 795–798. URL: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/71/3/795 (accessed 2.20.2014).

Wölfle U, Haarhaus B, Schempp CM. The photoprotective and antioxidative properties of luteolin are synergistically augmented by tocopherol and ubiquinone. Planta Med. 2013 Jul;79(11):963-5. doi: 10.1055/s-0032-1328716. Epub 2013 Jul 9. PubMed PMID: 23839819. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23839819 (accessed 2.20.2014)

Ganceviciene R, Liakou AI, Theodoridis A, Makrantonaki E, Zouboulis CC. Skin anti-aging strategies. Dermatoendocrinol. 2012 Jul 1;4(3):308-19. doi: 10.4161/derm.22804. PubMed PMID: 23467476; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3583892. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23467476 (accessed 3/7/2014)

Arck PC, Overall R, Spatz K, Liezman C, Handjiski B, Klapp BF, Birch-Machin MA, Peters EM. Towards a "free radical theory of graying": melanocyte apoptosis in the aging human hair follicle is an indicator of oxidative stress induced tissue damage. FASEB J. 2006 Jul;20(9):1567-9. Epub 2006 May 24. PubMed PMID: 16723385. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16723385 (accessed 3/13/2014)

Berger MM. Can oxidative damage be treated nutritionally? Clin Nutr. 2005 Apr;24(2):172-83. Review. PubMed PMID: 15784476.

Ruiz-Ramos M, Vargas LA, Fortoul Van der Goes TI, Cervantes-Sandoval A, Mendoza-Nunez VM. Supplementation of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol is useful to preventing bone loss linked to oxidative stress in elderly. J Nutr Health Aging. 2010 Jun;14(6):467-72.

Trüeb RM. Oxidative stress in ageing of hair. Int J Trichology. 2009 Jan;1(1):6-14. doi: 10.4103/0974-7753.51923. PubMed PMID: 20805969; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2929555.

Bluberry

Bagchi D, Sen CK, Bagchi M, Atalay M. Anti-angiogenic, antioxidant, and anti-carcinogenic properties of a novel anthocyanin-rich berry extract formula. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2004 Jan;69(1):75-80, 1 p preceding 75. Review. PubMed PMID: 14972022. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14972022 (accessed 2.20.2014)

Bornsek SM, Ziberna L, Polak T, Vanzo A, Ulrih NP, Abram V, Tramer F, Passamonti S. Bilberry and blueberry anthocyanins act as powerful intracellular antioxidants in mammalian cells. Food Chem. 2012 Oct 15;134(4):1878-84. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.03.092. Epub 2012 Mar 30. PubMed PMID: 23442633. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23442633 (accessed 2.20.2014)

Burdulis D, Sarkinas A, Jasutiené I, Stackevicené E, Nikolajevas L, Janulis V. Comparative study of anthocyanin composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruits. Acta Pol Pharm. 2009 Jul-Aug;66(4):399-408. PubMed PMID: 19702172. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19702172 (accessed 2.20.2014)

Chen CF, Li YD, Xu Z. [Chemical principles and bioactivities of blueberry]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2010 Apr;45(4):422-9. Review. Chinese. PubMed PMID: 21355205. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21355205 (accessed 2.20.2014)

Chen L, Xin X, Yuan Q, Su D, Liu W. Phytochemical properties and antioxidant capacities of various colored berries. J Sci Food Agric. 2014 Jan 30;94(2):180-8. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.6216. Epub 2013 Jul 4. PubMed PMID: 23653223. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23653223 (accessed 2.20.2014)

Del Bo' C, Martini D, Vendrame S, Riso P, Ciappellano S, Klimis-Zacas D, Porrini M. Improvement of lymphocyte resistance against H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage in Sprague-Dawley rats after eight weeks of a wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium)-enriched diet. Mutat Res. 2010 Dec 21;703(2):158-62. doi: 10.1016/j.mrgentox.2010.08.013. Epub 2010 Aug 26. PubMed PMID: 20800697. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20800697 (accessed 2.20.2014)

Del Bo C, Riso P, Campolo J, Møller P, Loft S, Klimis-Zacas D, Brambilla A, Rizzolo A, Porrini M. A single portion of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L) improves protection against DNA damage but not vascular function in healthy male volunteers. Nutr Res. 2013 Mar;33(3):220-7. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2012.12.009. Epub 2013 Feb 1. PubMed PMID: 23507228. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23507228 (accessed 2.20.2014)

Dulebohn RV, Yi W, Srivastava A, Akoh CC, Krewer G, Fischer JG. Effects of blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) on DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and phase II enzyme activities in rats. J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Dec 24;56(24):11700-6. doi: 10.1021/jf802405y. PubMed PMID: 19035656. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19035656 (accessed 2.20.2014)

Ehlenfeldt MK, Prior RL. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and phenolic and anthocyanin concentrations in fruit and leaf tissues of highbush blueberry. J Agric Food Chem. 2001 May;49(5):2222-7. PubMed PMID: 11368580. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11368580 (accessed 2.20.2014)

Faria A, Oliveira J, Neves P, Gameiro P, Santos-Buelga C, de Freitas V, Mateus N. Antioxidant properties of prepared blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) extracts. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Aug 24;53(17):6896-902. PubMed PMID: 16104817. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16104817 (accessed 2.20.2014)

Hurst RD, Wells RW, Hurst SM, McGhie TK, Cooney JM, Jensen DJ. Blueberry fruit polyphenolics suppress oxidative stress-induced skeletal muscle cell damage in vitro. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010 Mar;54(3):353-63. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.200900094. PubMed PMID: 19885847. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19885847 (accessed 2.20.2014)

Lopera YE, Fantinelli J, González Arbeláez LF, Rojano B, Ríos JL, Schinella G, Mosca S. Antioxidant Activity and Cardioprotective Effect of a Nonalcoholic Extract of Vaccinium meridionale Swartz during Ischemia-Reperfusion in Rats. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:516727. doi: 10.1155/2013/516727. Epub 2013 Feb 6. PubMed PMID: 23476693; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3580918. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23476693 (accessed 2.20.2014)

Mazza G, Kay CD, Cottrell T, Holub BJ. Absorption of anthocyanins from blueberries and serum antioxidant status in human subjects. J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Dec 18;50(26):7731-7. PubMed PMID: 12475297 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12475297 (accessed 2.20.2014)

McAnulty LS, Nieman DC, Dumke CL, Shooter LA, Henson DA, Utter AC, Milne G, McAnulty SR. Effect of blueberry ingestion on natural killer cell counts, oxidative stress, and inflammation prior to and after 2.5 h of running. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2011 Dec;36(6):976-84. doi: 10.1139/h11-120. Epub 2011 Nov 23. PubMed PMID: 22111516. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22111516 (accessed 2.20.2014)

Nakajima JI, Tanaka I, Seo S, Yamazaki M, Saito K. LC/PDA/ESI-MS Profiling and Radical Scavenging Activity of Anthocyanins in Various Berries. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2004;2004(5):241-247. PubMed PMID: 15577184; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1082896. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15577184 (accessed 2.20.2014)

Pang W, Jiang YG, Yang HP, Cheng DM, Lu H, Lu SJ. [Cytoprotective effect of blueberry extracts against oxidative damage of rat hippocampal neurons induced by H2O2]. Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi. 2010 Feb;26(1):51-4. Chinese. PubMed PMID: 20476565. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20476565 (accessed 2.20.2014)

Riso P, Klimis-Zacas D, Del Bo' C, Martini D, Campolo J, Vendrame S, Møller P, Loft S, De Maria R, Porrini M. Effect of a wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) drink intervention on markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial function in humans with cardiovascular risk factors. Eur J Nutr. 2013 Apr;52(3):949-61. doi: 10.1007/s00394-012-0402-9. Epub 2012 Jun 26. PubMed PMID: 22733001. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22733001 (accessed 2.20.2014)

B Rodriguez-Mateos A, Rendeiro C, Bergillos-Meca T, Tabatabaee S, George TW, Heiss C, Spencer JP. Intake and time dependence of blueberry flavonoid-induced improvements in vascular function: a randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover intervention study with mechanistic insights into biological activity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Nov;98(5):1179-91. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.066639. Epub 2013 Sep 4. PubMed PMID: 24004888. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24004888 (accessed 3/7/2014)

Shukitt-Hale B, Galli RL, Meterko V, Carey A, Bielinski DF, McGhie T, Joseph JA. Dietary supplementation with fruit polyphenolics ameliorates age-related deficits in behavior and neuronal markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. Age (Dordr). 2005 Mar;27(1):49-57. doi: 10.1007/s11357-005-4004-9. Epub 2005 May 2. PubMed PMID: 23598603; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3456098. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23598603 (accessed 2.20.2014)

Slatnar A, Jakopic J, Stampar F, Veberic R, Jamnik P. The effect of bioactive compounds on in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of different berry juices. PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e47880. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047880. Epub 2012 Oct 23. PubMed PMID: 23110118; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3479138. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23110118 (accessed 2.20.2014)

Svobodová A, Psotová J, Walterová D. Natural phenolics in the prevention of UV-induced skin damage. A review. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2003 Dec;147(2):137-45. Review. PubMed PMID: 15037894. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15037894 (accessed 2.20.2014)

Youdim KA, McDonald J, Kalt W, Joseph JA. Potential role of dietary flavonoids in reducing microvascular endothelium vulnerability to oxidative and inflammatory insults ( small star, filled). J Nutr Biochem. 2002 May;13(5):282-288. PubMed PMID: 12015158. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12015158 (accessed 2.20.2014)

Youdim KA, Shukitt-Hale B, MacKinnon S, Kalt W, Joseph JA. Polyphenolics enhance red blood cell resistance to oxidative stress: in vitro and in vivo. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Sep 1;1523(1):117-22. PubMed PMID: 11099865. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11099865 (accessed 2.20.2014)

Zafra-Stone S, Yasmin T, Bagchi M, Chatterjee A, Vinson JA, Bagchi D. Berry anthocyanins as novel antioxidants in human health and disease prevention. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007 Jun;51(6):675-83. Review. PubMed PMID: 17533652. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17533652 (accessed 2.20.2014)

Zheng W, Wang SY. Oxygen radical absorbing capacity of phenolics in blueberries, cranberries, chokeberries, and lingonberries. J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Jan 15;51(2):502-9. PubMed PMID: 12517117. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12517117 (accessed 2.20.2014)

Baumann, L Skin ageing and its treatment The Journal of Pathology 2007 J. Pathol.v 211 2 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 1096-9896 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/path.2098/full (accessed 3/7/2014)

Arck PC, Overall R, Spatz K, Liezman C, Handjiski B, Klapp BF, Birch-Machin MA, Peters EM. Towards a "free radical theory of graying": melanocyte apoptosis in the aging human hair follicle is an indicator of oxidative stress induced tissue damage. FASEB J. 2006 Jul;20(9):1567-9. Epub 2006 May 24. PubMed PMID: 16723385. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16723385 (accessed 3/13/2014)

Trüeb RM. Oxidative stress in ageing of hair. Int J Trichology. 2009 Jan;1(1):6-14. doi: 10.4103/0974-7753.51923. PubMed PMID: 20805969; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2929555.

Berger MM. Can oxidative damage be treated nutritionally? Clin Nutr. 2005 Apr;24(2):172-83. Review. PubMed PMID: 15784476.

General Antioxidant Skin Health Articles

Nguyen G, Torres A. Systemic antioxidants and skin health. J Drugs Dermatol. 2012 Sep;11(9):e1-4. Review. PubMed PMID: 23135663. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23135663 (accessed 2.20.2014)

Lademann J, Patzelt A, Schanzer S, Richter H, Meinke MC, Sterry W, Zastrow L, Doucet O, Vergou T, Darvin ME. Uptake of antioxidants by natural nutrition and supplementation: pros and cons from the dermatological point of view. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2011;24(5):269-73. doi: 10.1159/000328725. Epub 2011 Jun 1. Review. PubMed PMID: 21646825. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21646825 (accessed 2.20.2014)

Masaki H. Role of antioxidants in the skin: anti-aging effects. J Dermatol Sci. 2010 May;58(2):85-90. doi: 10.1016/j.jdermsci.2010.03.003. Epub 2010 Mar 17. Review. PubMed PMID: 20399614. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20399614 (accessed 2.20.2014)

Rhie G, Shin MH, Seo JY, Choi WW, Cho KH, Kim KH, Park KC, Eun HC, Chung JH. Aging- and photoaging-dependent changes of enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants in the epidermis and dermis of human skin in vivo. J Invest Dermatol. 2001 Nov;117(5):1212-7. Erratum in: J Invest Dermatol 2002 Apr;118(4):741. PubMed PMID: 11710935. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11710935 (accessed 2.20.2014)

Kohen R, Gati I. Skin low molecular weight antioxidants and their role in aging and in oxidative stress. Toxicology. 2000 Aug 7;148(2-3):149-57. PubMed PMID: 10962134. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10962134 (accessed 2.20.2014)

Kohen R. Skin antioxidants: their role in aging and in oxidative stress--new approaches for their evaluation. Biomed Pharmacother. 1999 May;53(4):181-92. Review. PubMed PMID: 10392290. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10392290 (accessed 2.20.2014)

Beck S, Kimball AB. A double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial to quantitate photoprotective effects of an antioxidant combination product. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2012 Apr;5(4):29-32. PubMed PMID: 22708005; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3366441. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22708005 (accessed 2.20.2014)

Pandel R, Poljšak B, Godic A, Dahmane R. Skin Photoaging and the Role of Antioxidants in Its Prevention. ISRN Dermatol. 2013;2013:930164. Review. PubMed PMID: 24159392; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3789494. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24159392 (accessed 2.20.2014)

Césarini JP, Michel L, Maurette JM, Adhoute H, Béjot M. Immediate effects of UV radiation on the skin: modification by an antioxidant complex containing carotenoids. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2003 Aug;19(4):182-9. PubMed PMID: 12925189. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12925189 (accessed 2.12.2014)

Udompataikul M, Sripiroj P, Palungwachira P. An oral nutraceutical containing antioxidants, minerals and glycosaminoglycans improves skin roughness and fine wrinkles. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2009 Dec;31(6):427-35. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2494.2009.00513.x. Epub 2009 Jun 30. PubMed PMID: 19570098. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19570098 (accessed 2.20.2014)

Berger MM. Can oxidative damage be treated nutritionally? Clin Nutr. 2005 Apr;24(2):172-83. Review. PubMed PMID: 15784476. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15784476/ (accessed 3/13/2014)

d PMID: 8786016. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8786016 (accessed 2.14.2014)

Average Ratings

100% recommend Radiance Formula

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Review by Carol on 04/23/2017

Would Recommend: Yes
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The customer service is excellent.

Review by chris on 05/28/2016

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Review by Janet on 04/12/2016

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My nails are growing back and my thinning hair is not there. I'm getting positive results

Review by Elsie on 03/16/2016

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Taking it due to thyroid issue, less hair loss. Better!

Review by Colleen on 03/08/2016

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I feel a huge difference when taking this product.

Review by Brenda on 08/22/2014

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After less than one month, I am very excited about and extremely pleased with the slow yet, beautiful results I am seeing in my skin, hair, and nails. I know that as I consistently use the Radiance Formula, I can definitely anticipate and highly expect to experience many profound results! Thank You Women's Health Network!

Review by Kay on 08/10/2014

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Just been using it about a month but so far I like what it does.

Review by Phyl on 08/05/2014

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