SAVE 10% EVERY MONTH on new
automatic resupply orders

Shop our products & programs

• Doctor-formulated
• Natural & effective
• 100% guaranteed
• Made in FDA-inspected labs

Calming Combo

Calming Combo

Starburst SAVE 26% with this combo

$79.90

Just $59.00

Add to Cart

Your satisfaction is 100% guaranteed


Calming Combo

For irritability and anxiousness in perimenopause and menopause, our Calming Combo can provide the relief you need to relax and be more at ease every day. We’ve combined our landmark menopause symptom relief formulation, Herbal Equilibrium, with our calming adrenal-focused Serinisol, to relieve your toughest symptoms. With its ability to target emotional as well as physical symptoms, the Calming Combo has the power to help quiet hormonal imbalances so your days (and nights) are more peaceful and less stressful.

What you get with the Combo:

Herbal Equilibrium — our landmark supplement is formulated with a diverse array of herbal extracts to help relieve menopause symptoms caused by fluctuations in estrogen, testosterone and progesterone.

Herbal Equilibrium contains:

  • Black cohosh, red clover and kudzu — for hormonal balance, hot flashes and night sweats.
  • Passionflower, chasteberry, and wild yam — for irritability, anxiety and insomnia.
  • Ashwagandha — for hormonal balance and low libido.

Serinisol — this anti-stress supplement is formulated to promote relaxation and calm the over-production of the adrenal hormone, cortisol. It also helps prepare you for sleep, enhances mental clarity and improves mood.

Serinisol includes:

  • L-theanine as Suntheanine® — for everyday anxiety, irritability and insomnia.
  • Phosphatidylserine from soy. — for stress and stress-related symptoms
  • Calcium and magnesium in superior forms — well known companion nutrients help with relaxation.

How to use:

For Herbal Equilibrium: we recommend taking two tablets per day — one with breakfast and one with dinner. This herbal supplement is formulated to reduce and relieve a broad spectrum of menopause symptoms within 30 days.

For Serinisol: we recommend taking four tablets a day — two with breakfast or lunch and two after dinner, or about an hour before bedtime.

We recommend using both formulas until you have been symptom-free for at least 30 days. Within 60 days, you should notice a significant reduction in the frequency and severity of all of your symptoms. For best results, it’s essential to use both products together regularly every day as directed, especially if your symptoms are severe.

This Calming Combo is intended to last a full 30 days.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
Calming Combo Ingredients

Product References

Herbal Equilibrium References

Our Herbal Equilibrium is doctor-formulated to be complete, natural, bioavailable, and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.

The following articles, reviews and studies, arranged in order of ingredient and recency, provide information concerning the clinical basis for using Herbal Equilibrium. Click on the ingredients listed below to review pertinent studies and articles.

 

Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera / W. ashwagandha)

Alam, N., et al. 2011. High catechin concentrations detected in Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 11, 65. URL: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/11/65 (accessed 09.23.2011).

Kumar, A., et al. 2011. Utility of a multidisciplinary approach for genome diagnostics of cultivated and wild germplasm resources of medicinal Withania somnifera, and the status of new species, W. ashwagandha, in the cultivated taxon URL: http://www.springerlink.com/content/g12001h123tk2876/ (accessed 09.06.2011).

Sinha, S., et al. 2011. In vivo anti-tussive activity and structural features of a polysaccharide fraction from water extracted Withania somnifera. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Mar 24;134 (2), 510-513. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21182915 (accessed 09.23.2011).

“CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a scientific basis for the past and present ethnomedical uses of this plant.”

Dog, T. 2010. Smart Talk on supplements and botanicals: Ginseng and other adaptogenic herbs. Alt. Complement. Ther., 16 (1), 1–4. URL (paid access): http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/act.2010.16101 (accessed 01.17.2011).

Ven Murthy, M., et al. 2010. Scientific basis for the use of Indian ayurvedic medicinal plants in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders: Ashwagandha. Cent. Nerv. Syst. Agents Med. Chem., 10 (3), 238-246. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20528765 (accessed 09.23.2011).

Yadav, B., et al. 2010. In vitro anticancer activity of the root, stem and leaves of Withania somnifera against various human cancer cell lines. Indian J. Pharm. Sci., 72 (5), 659-663. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3116319/?tool=pubmed (accessed 09.23.2011).

Widido, N., et al. 2007. Selective killing of cancer cells by leaf extract of Ashwagandha: Identification of a tumor-inhibitory factor and the first molecular insights to its effect. Clin. Cancer Res., 13 (7), 2298–2306. URL: http://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/13/7/2298.long (accessed 02.23.2011).

Naidu, P., et al. 2006. Effect of Withania somnifera root extract on reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia and cognitive dysfunction. Phytother. Res., 20 (2), 140–146. URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1038/sj.bjp.0706122/full (accessed 02.23.2011).

Winters, M. 2006. Ancient medicine, modern use: Withania somnifera and its potential role in integrative oncology. Altern. Med. Rev., 11 (4), 269-277. URL (PDF): http://www.altmedrev.com/publications/11/4/269.pdf (accessed 09.23.2011).

“…As modern medicine continues to expand, so do the uses of botanical medicines. Withania somnifera shows great potential as a safe and effective antineoplastic agent.”

Kuboyama, T., et al. 2005. Neuritic regeneration and synaptic reconstruction induced by withanolide A. Br. J. Pharmacol., 144 (7), 961–971. URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1038/sj.bjp.0706122/full (accessed 02.23.2011).

Misra, L., et al. 2005. Unusually sulfated and oxygenated steroids from Withania somnifera. Phytochemistry, 66, 2702–2707. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16293277 (accessed 02.23.2011).

[No authors listed.] 2004. Monograph. Withania somnifera. Altern. Med. Rev., 9 (2), 211–214. URL: http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/9/2/211.pdf (accessed 02.23.2011).

Sreerekha, M., et al. 2004. Distribution of total withanolides in various plant parts of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) accessions as influenced by light and dark reaction cycle. J. Med. Aromatic Plant Sci., 26, 681–683. URL (abstract): http://203.190.147.122/jmapsnew/JMAPSDisplay.aspx?Year=2004&Month=12&Volume=26&No=4&IssueID=338 (accessed 09.06.2011).

Bhattacharya, S., & Muruganandam, A. 2003. Adaptogenic activity of Withania somnifera: An experimental study using a rat model of chronic stress. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 75, 547–555. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12895672 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Iuvone, T., et al. 2003. Induction of nitric oxide synthase expression by Withania somnifera macrophages. Life Sci., 72 (14), 1617-1625. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12551750 (accessed 01.25.2011).

Ilayperuma, I., et al. 2002. Effect of Withania somnifera root extract on the sexual behaviour of male rats. Asian J. Androl., 4, 295–298. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12508132 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Rajpal, V. 2002. Standardization of botanicals. New Delhi: Eastern Publishers.

Abdel–Magied, E., et al. 2001. The effect of aqueous extracts of Cynomorium coccineum and Withania somnifera on testicular development in immature Wistar rats. J. Ethnopharmacol., 75 (1), 1–4. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11282435 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Dhuley, J. 2001. Nootropic-like effect of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L.) in mice. Phytother Res., 15 (6), 524–528. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11536383 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Jain, S., et al. 2001. Neuroprotective effects of Withania somnifera Dunn. in hippocampal sub-regions of female albino rat. Phytother. Res., 15 (6), 544–548. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11536389 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Singh, B., et al. 2001. Adaptogenic activity of a glyco-peptido-lipid fraction from the alcoholic extract of Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn. Phytomedicine, 8, 283–291. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11515718 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Singh, G., et al. 2001. Adaptogenic activity of a novel, withanolide-free aqueous fraction from the roots of Withania somnifera Dunn. Phytother. Res., 15 (4), 311–318. URL (PDF): http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.prxy3.ursus.maine.edu/doi/10.1002/ptr.858/pdf (accessed 02.24.2011).

Battacharya, S., et al. 2000. Anxiolytic-antidepressant activity of Withania somnifera glycowithanolides: An experimental study. Phytomedicine, 7 (6), 463–469. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11194174 (accessed 01.25.2011).

Dhuley, J. 2000. Adaptogenic and cardioprotective action of ashwagandha in rats and frogs. J. Ethnopharmacol., 70 (1), 57–63. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10720789 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Mishra, L-C., et al. 2000. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Withania somnifera (ashwagandha): A review. Altern. Med. Rev., 5 (4), 334–346. URL (PDF): http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/5/4/334.pdf (accessed 02.23.2011).

Archana, R., & Namasivayam, A. 1999. Antistressor effect of Withania somnifera. J. Ethnopharmcol., 64 (1), 91–93. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10075127 (accessed 01.26.2011).

Rege, N.-N., et al. 1999. Adaptogenic properties of six rasayana herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine. Phytother Res., 13 (4), 275–291. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10404532 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Schauss, A., et al. 1998. Therapeutic applications of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) — popular ayurvedic botanical medicine. Nat. Med. J., 1, 16–19.

Schliebs, R., et al. 1997. Systemic administration of defined extracts from Withania somnifera (Indian Ginseng) and Shilajit differentially affects cholinergic but not glutamatergic and GABAnergic markers in rat brain. Neurochem. Int., 30 (2), 181–190. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9017665 (accessed 02.23.2011).

al-Hindawi, M., et al. 1992. Anti-granuloma activity of Iraqi Withania somnifera. J. Ethnopharmacol., 37 (2), 113–116. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/143685 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Mehta, A., et al. 1991. Pharmacologic effects of Withania somnifera root extract on GABAA receptor complex. Indian J. Med. Res., 94, 312–315. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1660034 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Singh, N., et al. 1982. Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), a rejuvenating herbal drug which enhances survival during stress (an adaptogen). Int. J. Crude Drug Res., 20, 29–35.

 

Black cohosh (Cimicifuga / Actaea racemosa)

Jiang, B., et al. 2011. Phytochemical fingerprinting to thwart black cohosh adulteration: A 16 Actaea species analysis. Phytochem. Anal. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pca.1285/abstract (accessed 03.14.2011).

Shams, T., et al. 2010. Efficacy of black cohosh-containing preparations on menopausal symptoms: A meta-analysis. Alt. Ther., 16 (1), 36–44. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20085176 (accessed 01.08.2010).

Einbond, L., et al. 2009. Actein activates stress- and statin-associated responses and is bioavailable in Sprague–Dawley rats. Fundam. Clin. Pharmacol., 23 (3), 311–3212. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19527300 (accessed 02.02.2010).

Geller, S., et al. 2009. Safety and efficacy of black cohosh and red clover for the management of vasomotor symptoms: A randomized controlled trial. Menopause, 16 (6), 1156–1166. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19609225 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Palacio C., et al. 2009. Black cohosh for the management of menopausal symptoms: A systematic review of clinical trials. Drugs Aging, 26 (1), 23–36. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19102512 (accessed 01.30.2009).

Wong, V., et al. 2009. Current alternative and complementary therapies used in menopause. Gynecol. Endocrinol., 25 (3), 166–174. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19347706 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Borelli, F., & Ernst, E. 2008. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) for menopausal symptoms: A systematic review of its efficacy. Pharmacol. Res., 58 (1), 8-14. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18585461 (accessed 01.30.2009).

Ju, Y., et al. 2008. A dietary supplement for female sexual dysfunction, Avlimil, stimulates the growth of estrogen-dependcnt breast tumors (MCF-7) implanted in ovariectomized athymic nude mice. Food Chern. Toxicol., 46, 310-320. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17919800 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Mahady, G., et al. 2008. United States Pharmacopeia review of the black cohosh case reports of hepatotoxicity. Menopause, 15 (4 Pt. 1), 628-638. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18340277 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Rachón, D., et al. 2008. Effects of black cohosh extract on body weight gain, intra-abdominal fat accumulation, plasma lipids and glucose tolerance in ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats. Maturitas, 60 (3–4), 209–215. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18691839 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Reed, S., et al. 2008. Vaginal, endometrial, and reproductive hormone findings: Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of black cohosh, multibotanical herbs and dietary soy for vasomotor symptoms: The Herbal Alternatives for Menopause (HALT) study. Menopause, 15 (1), 51–58. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18257142 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Kanadys, W., et al. 2008. [Efficacy and safety of black cohosh (Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa) in the treatment of vasomotor symptoms — review of clinical trials.] Ginekol. Pol., 79 (4), 287–296. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18592868 (accessed 01.30.2009).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2008. Phytoestrogens: Endocrine disrupters or replacement for hormone replacement therapy? Maturitas, 61 (1–2), 159–170. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19434888 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Bai, W., et al. 2007. Efficacy and tolerability of a medicinal product containing an isopropanolic black cohosh extract in Chinese women with menopausal symptoms: A randomized, double blind, parallel-controlled study versus tibolone. Maturitas. [Epub ahead of print.]

Cheema, D., et al. 2007. Non-hormonal therapy of post-menopausal vasomotor symptoms: A structured evidence-based review. Arch. Gynecol. Obstet., 276 (5), 463–469. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17593379 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Chu, W. et al. 2007. Association between CYP3A4 genotype and risk of endometrial cancer following tamoxifen use. Carcinogenesis, 28 (10), 2139–2142. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17434921 (accessed 06.26.2007).

Meyer, S. et al. 2007. Cutaneous pseudolymphoma induced by Cimicifuga racemosa. Dermatology, 214 (1), 94–96. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17191056 (accessed 01.18.2011).

Nisslein, T. & Freudenstein, J. 2007. Coadministration of the aromatase inhibitor formestane and an isopropanolic extract of black cohosh in a rat model of chemically induced mammary carcinoma. Planta Med., 73 (4), 318–322. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17354167 (accessed 06.27.2007).

Rebbeck, T. et al. 2007. A retrospective case-control study of the use of hormone-related supplements and association with breast cancer. Int. J. Cancer., 120 (7), 1523-1528. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17205521 (accessed 06.27.2007).

Ruhlen, R., et al. 2007. Black cohosh does not exert an estrogenic effect on the breast. Nutr. Cancer, 59 (2), 269–277. URL (abstract): http://www.leaonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01635580701506968 (accessed 11.28.2007).

Spangler, L., et al. 2007. The effects of black cohosh therapies on lipids, fibrinogen, glucose and insulin. Maturitas, 57 (2), 195–204. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17275226 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Walji, R., et al. 2007. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa [L.] Nutt.): Safety and efficacy for cancer patients. Support. Care Cancer, 15 (8), 913–921. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17602247 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Zepelin, H. et al. 2007. Isopropanolic black cohosh extract and recurrence-free survival after breast cancer. Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 45 (3), 143–154. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17416109 (accessed 06.26.2007).

Carroll, D. 2006. Nonhormonal therapies for hot flashes in menopause. Am. Fam. Physician, 73 (3), 457–464. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16477892 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Li, J., & Yu, Z. 2006. Cimicifugae rhizoma: From origins, bioactive constituents to clinical outcomes. Curr. Med. Chem., 13 (24), 2927–2951. URL: (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17073639 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Minciullo, P., et al. 2006. Muscle damage induced by black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa). Phytomedicine, 13, 115–118. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16360941 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Newton, K., et al. 2006. Treatment of vasomotor symptoms of menopause with black cohosh, multibotanicals, soy, hormone therapy, or placebo: A randomized trial. Ann. Intern. Med., 145, 869–879. URL: (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17179056 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Letters to the editor. 2007. Ann. Int. Med., 147 (5), 347. URL (PDF): http://www.annals.org/content/147/5/347.1.full.pdf+html (accessed 10.17.2007).

Pockaj, B. et al. 2006. Phase III double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial of black cohosh in the management of hot flashes: NCCTG Trial N01CC1. J. Clin. Oncol., 24 (18), 2836–2841. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16782922 (accessed 06.27.2007).

Radowicki, S., et al. 2006. [Effectiveness and safety of the treatment of menopausal syndrome with Cimicifuga racemosa dry extract.] Ginekol. Pol., 77 (9), 678–683. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17219796 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Raus, K., et al. 2006. First-time proof of endometrial safety of the special black cohosh extract (Actaea or Cimicifuga racemosa extract) CR BNO 1055. Menopause, 13 (4), 678–691. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16837890 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2006. Effects of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) on bone turnover, vaginal mucosa, and various blood parameters in postmenopausal women: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, and conjugated estrogens-controlled study. Menopause, 13 (2), 185–196. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16645532 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Frei-Kleiner, S., et al. 2005. Cimicifuga racemosa dried ethanolic extract in menopausal disorders: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Maturitas, 51, 397–404. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16039414 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Low Dog, T. 2005. Menopause: A review of botanical dietary supplements. Am. J. Med., 118 (Suppl. 12B), 98–108. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16414334 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Mahady, G. 2005. Black cohosh (Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa): Review of the clinical data for safety and efficacy in menopausal symptoms. Treat. Endocrinol., 4 (3), 177–184. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15898823 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Nappi, R., et al. 2005. Efficacy of Cimicifuga racemosa on climacteric complaints: A randomized study versus low-dose transdermal estradiol. Gynecol. Endocrinol., 20, 30–35. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15969244 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Ulbricht, C., & Basch, E., Eds. 2005. Natural Standard Herb & Supplement Reference: Evidence-based Clinical Reviews. Natural Standard Research Collaboration. NY: Elsevier Mosby.

Vermes, G., et al. 2005. The effects of Remifemin on subjective symptoms of menopause. Adv. Ther., 22 (2), 148–154. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16020404 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Viereck, V., et al. 2005. Black cohosh: Just another phytoestrogen? Trends Endocrinol. Metab., 16 (5), 214-221. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15927480 (accessed 01.25.2011).

Pockaj, B., et al. 2004. Pilot evaluation of black cohosh for the treatment of hot flashes in women. Cancer Invest., 22 (4), 515–521. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15565808 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Cohen, S., et al. 2004. Autoimmune hepatitis associated with the use of black cohosh: A case study. Menopause, 11, 575–577. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15356412 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Nisslein, T., & Freudenstein, J. 2004. Concomitant administration of an isopropanolic extract of black cohosh and tamoxifen in the in vivo tumor model of implanted RUCA-I rat endometrial adenocarcinoma cells. Toxicol. Lett., 150 (3), 271–275. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15110078 (accessed 06.26.2007).

Lontos, S., et al. 2003. Acute liver failure associated with the use of herbal preparations containing black cohosh. Med. J. Aust., 179, 390–391. URL: http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/179_07_061003/letters_061003_fm-2.html (accessed 02.24.2011).

Bland, J. 2003. Position on black cohosh safety. Metagenics, Inc. URL: http://www.metaproteomicslabs.com/position_papers/black%20cohosh%20position%20paper.pdf (accessed 01.25.2011).

Hernández Muñoz, G., & Pluchino, S. 2003. Cimicifuga racemosa for the treatment of hot flushes in women surviving breast cancer. Maturitas, 44 (Suppl. 1), S59–S65. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12609560 (accessed 09.13.2010).

Low Dog, T., et al. 2003. Critical evaluation of the safety of Cimicifuga racemosa in menopause symptom relief. Menopause, 10 (4), 299-313. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12851513 (accessed 09.13.2010).

Seidlová–Wuttke, D., et al. 2003. Evidence for selective estrogen receptor modulator activity in a black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) extract: Comparison with estradiol17b. Eur. J. Endocrinol., 149 (4), 351–362. URL (PDF): http://eje-online.org/cgi/reprint/149/4/351 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2003. Phytoestrogens: Endocrine disrupters or replacement for hormone replacement therapy? Maturitas, 44 (Suppl. 1), S9–S20. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12609555 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2003. The Cimicifuga preparation BNO 1055 vs. conjugated estrogens in a double-blind placebo-controlled study: Effects on menopause symptoms and bone markers. Maturitas, 44 (Suppl. 1), S67–S77. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12609561 (accessed 02.24.2011)

[No authors listed.] 2003. Monograph. Cimicifuga racemosa. Altern. Med. Rev., 8 (2), 186-189. URL (PDF): http://www.altmedrev.com/sobi2.html?sobi2Task=dd_download&fid=193 (accessed 01.25.2011).

Bodinet, C., & Freudenstein, J. 2002. Influence of Cimicifuga racemosa on the proliferation of estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res. Treat., 76 (1), 1-10. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12408370 (accessed 01.25.2011).

Liske, E., et al. 2002. Physiological investigation of a unique extract of black cohosh (Cimicifugae racemosae rhizoma): A 6-month clinical study demonstrates no systemic estrogenic effect. J. Women’s Health Gend. Based Med., 11, 163–174. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11975864 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Mahady, G. et al. 2002. Black cohosh: an alternative therapy for menopause? Nutr. Clin. Care, 5 (6), 283-289. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12557811 (accessed 06.26. 2007).

Winterhoff, H., et al. 2002. [Pharmacologic and clinical studies using Cimicifuga racemosa in climacteric complaints.] Wien Med. Wochenschr., 152 (15–16), 360–363. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12244879 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Whiting, P., et al. 2002. Black cohosh and other herbal remedies associated with acute hepatitis. Med. J. Aust., 177, 440–443. URL: http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/177_08_211002/whi10119_fm.html (accessed 2.24.2011).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2002. Phytoestrogens for hormone replacement therapy? J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 83 (1–5), 133–147. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12650710 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Zierau, O. et al. 2002. Antiestrogenic activities of Cimicifuga racemosa extracts. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 80 (1), 125–130. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11867271 (accessed 06.26.2007). URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11867271 (accessed 06.26.2007).

Jacobson, J., et al. 2001. Randomized trial of black cohosh for the treatment of hot flashes among women with a history of breast cancer. J. Clin. Oncol., 19 (10), 2739–2745. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11352967 (accessed 06.27. 2007).

Duker, E., et al. 1991. Effects of extracts from Cimicifuga racemosa on gonadotropin release in menopausal women and ovariectomized rats. Planta Med., 57 (5), 420–424. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1798794 (accessed 06.27.2007).

McAllister, J., & Hornsby, P. 1987. TPA inhibits the synthesis of androgens and cortisol and enhances the synthesis non-17 alpha-hydroxylated steroids in cultured human adrenocortical cells. Endocrinology, 121 (5), 1908–1910.

 

Chastetree berry (Vitex agnus–castus)

[No author.] 2009. Vitex agnus-castus. Monograph. Alt. Med. Rev., 14 (2), 67–70. URL (PDF): http://www.altmedrev.com/sobi2.html?sobi2Task=dd_download&fid=32 (accessed 01.26.2011).

Reed, S., et al. 2008. Vaginal, endometrial, and reproductive hormone findings: Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of black cohosh, multibotanical herbs and dietary soy for vasomotor symptoms: The Herbal Alternatives for Menopause (HALT) study. Menopause, 15 (1), 51–58. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18257142 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Hu, Y., et al. 2007. Anti-nociceptive and anti-hyperprolactinemia activities of Fructus Viticis and its effective fractions and chemical constituents. Phytomedicine, 14 (10), 668-674. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17350238 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Rotem, C., & Kaplan, B. 2007. Phyto-Female Complex for the relief of hot flushes, night sweats and quality of sleep: Randomized, controlled, double-blind pilot study. Gynecol. Endocrinol., 23 (2), 117-122. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17454163 (accessed 07.06.2007).

Webster, D., et al. 2006. Activation of the mu-opiate receptor by Vitex agnus-castus methanol extracts: Implication for its use in PMS. J. Ethnopharmacol., 106 (2), 216-221. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16439081 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Tandon, V., et al. 2006. Vitex negundo Linn. (VN) leaf extract as an adjuvant therapy to standard anti-inflammatory drugs. Indian J. Med. Res., 124 (4), 447-450. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17159267 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Villasenor, I., & Lamadrid, M. 2006. Comparative anti-hyperglycemic potentials of medicinal plants. J. Ethnopharmacol., 104 (1-2), 128-131. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16253452 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Daniele, et al., 2005. Vitex agnus castus: A systematic review of adverse events. Drug Saf., 28, 319–332.

Natural Standard Research Collaboration. 2005. Chasteberry. In C. Ulbricht & E. Basch (Eds.), Natural standard herb and supplement reference: Evidence-based clinical reviews. NY: Mosby.

Roemheld–Hamm, B. 2005. Chasteberry. Am. Fam. Phys., 72 (5), 821-824. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16156340 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Zhang, C. et al. 2005. In vitro estrogenic activities of Chinese medicinal plants traditionally used for the management of menopausal symptoms. J. Ethnopharmacol., 98 (3), 295-300. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15814262 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Liu, et al. 2004. Isolation of linoleic acid as an estrogenic compound from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L. (chaste-berry). Phytomedicine, 11, 18–23. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14974442 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Aron, D., et al. 2004. Hypothalamus and pituitary gland, 125–1260. In F. Greenspan & D. Gardner (Eds.), Basic & clinical endocrinology. Columbus, OH: McGraw–Hill.

Atmaca, M., et al. 2003. Fluoxetine versus Vitex agnus castus extract in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Hum. Psychopharmacol., 18 (3), 191–195. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12672170 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Blumenthal, et al. 2003. The ABC clinical guide to herbs. Austin, TX: American Botanical Council.

Chopin, L. 2003. Vitex agnus castus essential oil and menopausal balance: A research update [Complementary Therapies in Nursing and Midwifery, 8 (2003), 148-154]. Complement. Ther. Nurs. Midwifery, 9 (3), 157-160. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12852933 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Dharmasiri, M., et al. 2003. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of mature fresh leaves of Vitex negundo. J. Ethnopharmacol., 87 (2-3), 199-206. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12860308 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Girman, A., et al. 2003. An integrative medicine approach to premenstrual syndrome. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 188 (5 Suppl.), S56-S65. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12748452 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Jarry, H., et al. 2003. Evidence for estrogen receptor beta-selective activity of Vitex agnus-castus and isolated flavones. Planta Med., 69, 945–947.

Lucks, B. 2003. Vitex agnus castus essential oil and menopausal balance: A research update [Complementary Therapies in Nursing and Midwifery, 8 (2003) 148-154]. Complement. Ther. Midwifery, 9 (3), 157-160. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12852933 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Ohyama, K., et al. 2003. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic inducibility of Vitex agnus-castus fruit extract in cultured human normal and cancer cells and effect on growth. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 26 (1), 10-18. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12520164 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2003. Chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus) — pharmacology and clinical indications. Phytomedicine, 10 (4), 248-357. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12809367 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Lucks, B., et al. 2002. Vitex agnus-castus essential oil and menopausal balance: A self-care survey. Complement. Ther. Nurs. Midwifery, 8, 148–154. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12353616 (accessed 01.26.2011).

Liu, J., et al. 2001. Evaluation of estrogenic activity of plant extracts for the potential treatment of menopausal symptoms. J. Agric. Food Chem., 49 (5), 2472-2479. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11368622 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Schellenberg, 2001. Treatment for the premenstrual syndrome with agnus castus fruit extract: Prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study. BMJ, 322, 134–137. URL: http://www.bmj.com/content/322/7279/134.long (accessed 02.24.2011).

Berger, et al. 2000. Efficacy of Vitex agnus castus L. extract Ze 440 in patients with pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS). Arch. Gynecol. Obstet., 264, 150–153. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11129515 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Halaska, M., et al. 1999. Treatment of cyclical mastalgia with a solution containing a Vitex agnus castus extract: Results of a placebo-controlled double-blind study. Breast, 8 (4), 175-181. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14731436 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Lauritzen, et al. 1997. Treatment of premenstrual tension syndrome with Vitex agnus castus: Controlled double-blind study versus pyridoxine. Phytomedicine, 4, 183–189.

Cahill, D., et al 1994. Multiple follicular development associated with herbal medicine. Human Reprod., 9, 1469–1470. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7989506 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Jarry, H., et al. 1994. In vitro prolactin but not LH and FSH release is inhibited by compounds in extracts of Agnus castus: Direct evidence for a dopaminergic principle by the dopamine receptor assay. Exp. Clin. Endocrinol., 102, 448–454. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7890021 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Milewicz, A., et al. 1993. [Vitex agnus castus extract in the treatment of luteal phase defects due to latent hyperprolactinemia. Results of a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study.] Arzneim.–Forsch./Drug Res., 43, 752–756. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8369008 (accessed 10.26.2011).

 

Kudzu (Pueraria mirifica)

Rountree, R. 2010. Roundoc Rx: Phytoestrogens. Altern. Complement. Ther., 16 (1), 5–10. URL: http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/act.2010.16110 (accessed 09.21.2010).

Boonchird, C., et al. 2009. Differential binding with ERalpha and ERbeta of the phytoestrogen-rich plant Pueraria mirifica. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res.,43 (2), 195–200. URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2009007500026&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en (accessed 01.05.2010).

Cherdshewasart, W., et al. 2009. The mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of the traditional phytoestrogen-rich herbs, Pueraria mirifica and Pueraria lobata. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res., 42 (9), 816–823. URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2009000900008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en (accessed 01.05.2010).

Manonai, J., et al. 2009. The effect of Pueraria mirifica on cytologic and urodynamic findings in ovariectomized rats. Menopause, 16 (2), 350–356. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19098688 (accessed 01.05.2010).

Cherdshewasart, W., & Sutjit, W. 2008. Correlation of antioxidant activity and major isoflavonoid contents of the phytoestrogen-rich Pueraria mirifica and Pueraria lobata tubers. Phytomedicine, 15 (1–2), 38–43. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17890070 (accessed 01.05.2010).

Cherdshewasart, W., et al. 2008. Variance of estrogenic activity of the phytoestrogen-rich plant. Maturitas, 61 (4), 350–357. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18980816 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Chindewa, R., et al. 2008. Pueraria mirifica, phytoestrogen-induced change in synaptophysin expression via estrogen receptor in rat hippocampal neuron. J. Med. Assoc. Thai., 91 (2), 208–214. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18389986 (accessed 01.05.2010).

Ju, Y., et al. 2008. A dietary supplement for female sexual dysfunction, Avlimil, stimulates the growth of estrogen-dependent breast tumors (MCF-7) implanted in ovariectomized athymic nude mice. Food Chern. Toxicol., 46, 310–320. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17919800 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Manonai, J., et al. 2008. Effects and safety of Pueraria mirifica on lipid profiles and biochemical markers of bone turnover rates in healthy postmenopausal women. Menopause, 15 (3), 530–535. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18202589 (accessed 01.30.2009).

Okamura, S., et al. 2008. Pueraria mirifica phytoestrogens improve dyslipidemia in postmenopausal women probably by activating estrogen receptor subtypes. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 216 (4), 341–351. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/tjem/216/4/216_341/_article (accessed 01.05.2010).

Sookvanichsilip, N., et al. 2008. Estrogenic activity of the dichloromethane extract of Pueraria mirifica. Fitoterapia, 79 (7–8), 509–514. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18621111 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Urosopan, N., et al. 2008. Preventative effects of Pueraria mirifica on bone loss in ovariectomized rats. Maturitas, 59 (2), 137–148. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18313241 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Chandeying, V., et al. 2007. Challenges in the conduct of Thai herbal scientific study: Efficacy and safety of phytoestrogen, Pueraria mirifica (Kwao Keur Kao), phase I, in the alleviation of climacteric symptoms in perimenopausal women. J. Med. Assoc. Thai., 90 (7), 1274–1280. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17710964 (accessed 01.30.2009).

Chandeying, V., et al. 2007. Efficacy comparison of Pueraria mirifica (PM) against conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) with/without medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in the treatment of climacteric symptoms in perimenopausal women: Phase III study. J. Med. Assoc. Thai., 90 (9), 1720–1726. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17957910 (accessed 01.30.2009).

Cherdshewasart, W., et al. 2007. Evaluation of the estrogenic activity of the wild Pueraria mirifica by vaginal cornification assay. J. Reprod. Dev., 53 (2), 385–393. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jrd/53/2/53_385/_article (accessed 01.05.2010).

Cherdshewasart, W., et al. 2007. Major isoflavonoid contents of the phytoestrogen rich-herb Pueraria mirifica in comparison with Pueraria lobata. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 43 (2), 428–434.

Cherdshewasart, W., et al. 2007. Pretreatment with phytoestrogen-rich plant decreases breast tumor incidence and exhibits lower profile of mammary ERalpha and ERbeta. Maturitas, 58 (2), 174-181. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17870258 (accessed 01.05.2010).

Cherdshewasart, W., & Sriwatcharuakul, S., 2007. Major isoflavonoid contents of the 1-year-cultivated phytoestrogen rich-herb Pueraria mirifica. Biosci. Biotechnol Biochem., 71 (10), 2527–2533. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bbb/71/10/71_2527/_article (accessed 01.05.2010).

Jaroenporn, S., et al. 2007. Assessment of fertility and reproductive toxicity in adult female mice after long-term exposure to Pueraria mirifica herb. J. Reprod. Dev., 53 (5), 995-1005. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jrd/53/5/53_995/_article (accessed 01.04.2010).

Manonai, J., et al. 2007. Effect of Pueraria mirifica on vaginal health. Menopause, 14 (5), 919–924. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17415017 (accessed 01.30.2009).

Trisomboon, H., et al. 2007. Assessment of urinary gonadotropin and steroid hormone profiles of female cynomolgus monkeys after treatment with Pueraria mirifica. J. Reprod. Dev., 53 (2), 395-403. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jrd/53/2/53_395/_article (accessed 01.05.2010).

Wong, R., & Rabie, B. 2007. Effect of puerarin on bone formation. Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 15 (8), 894–899. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17379543 (accessed 01.05.2010).

Li, W.-Z., et al. 2006. [Studies on the effect of extracts of several Chinese herbal medicines and other medicines on alcohol dehydrogenase activity.] Zhong Yao Cai., 29 (8), 816–818. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17076243 (accessed 01.05.2010).

Malaivijitnond, S., et al. 2006. Using vaginal cytology to assess the estrogenic activity of phytoestrogen-rich herb. J. Ethnopharmacol., 107 (3), 354-360. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16730147 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Pawlyk, A., et al. 2006. Effects of the 5–HT2A antagonist mirtazapine in rat models of thermoregulation. Brain Res., 1123 (1), 135–144.

Penetar, D., et al. 2006. Pharmacokinetic profile of the isoflavone puerarin after acute and repeated administration of a novel kudzu extract to human volunteers. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 12, 543–548.

Zhang, S., et al. 2006. Reversal of chemical-induced liver fibrosis in Wistar rats by puerarin. J. Nutr. Biochem., 17 (7), 485–491.

Chiang, H.–M., et al. 2005. Life-threatening interaction between the root extract of Pueraria lobata and methotrexate in rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 209 (3), 263–268.

Kang, K.-A., et al. 2005. Protective effect of Puerariae radix on oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide and streptozotocin. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 28 (7), 1154–1160.

Kwon, H-J., et al. 2005. Amelioration effects of traditional Chinese medicine on alcohol-induced fatty liver. World J. Gastroenterol., 11 (35), 5512–5516. URL (abstract): http://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/11/5512.pdf (accessed 01.19.2011).

Lukaczer, D., et al. 2005. Clinical effects of a proprietary combination isoflavone nutritional supplement in menopausal women: A pilot trial. Altern. Ther. Health Med., 11 (5), 60–65.

Zhang, C., et al. 2005. In vitro estrogenic activities of Chinese medicinal plants traditionally used for the management of menopausal symptoms. J. Ethnopharmacol., 98, 295–300.

Zhang, Y., et al. 2005. Analysis of the estrogenic components in kudzu root by bioassay and high performance liquid chromatography. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 94, 375–381.

Benlhabib, E., et al. 2004. Kudzu root extract suppresses voluntary alcohol intake and alcohol withdrawal symptoms in P rats receiving free access to water and alcohol. J. Med. Food, 7 (2), 168–179.

Chen, W., et al. 2004. Mediation of beta-endorphin by the isoflavone puerarin to lower plasma glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Planta Med., 70 (2), 113–116.

Chueh, F., et al. 2004. Peurarin acts through brain seratonergic mechanisms to induce thermal effects. J. Pharmacol. Sci., 96 (4), 420–427.

Kim, O., et al. 2004. Establishment of in vitro test system for the evaluation of the estrogenic activities of natural products. Arch. Pharm. Res., 27, 906–911.

Lamlertkittikul, S., & Chandeying, V. 2004. Efficacy and safety of Pueraria mirifica (Kwao Kruea Khao) for the treatment of vasomotor symptoms in perimenopausal women: Phase II Study. J. Med. Assoc. Thai., 87 (1), 33–40.

Malaivijitnond, S., et al. 2004. Different effects of Pueraria mirifica, an herb containing phytoestrogens, on LH and FSH secretion in gonadectomized female and male rats. J. Pharmacol. Sci., 96 (4), 428–435. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jphs/96/4/96_428/_article (accessed 01.04.2010).

Wang, J., et al. 2004. Effects of Radix Puerariae flavones on liver lipid metabolism in ovariectomized rats. World J. Gastroenterol., 10 (13), 1967–1970. URL: http://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/10/1967.asp (accessed 01.04.2010).

Xu, X., et al. 2004. Effects of puerarin on learning-memory and amino acid transmitters of brain in ovariectomized mice. Planta Med., 70 (7), 627–631.

Boué, et al. 2003. Evaluation of the estrogenic effects of legume extracts containing phytoestrogens. J. Agric. Food Chem., 51 (8), 2193–2199. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12670155 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Hsu, F., et al. 2003. Antihyperglycemic effect of puerarin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J. Nat. Prod., 66 (6), 788–792.

Wang, X., et al. 2003. Puerariae radix prevents bone loss in ovariectomized mice. J. Bone Miner. Metab., 21, 268–275.

Woo, J., et al. 2003. Comparison of Pueraria lobata with hormone replacement therapy in treating the adverse health consequences of menopause. Menopause, 10 (4), 352–361.

Zheng, G., et al. 2002. [Estrogen-like effects of puerarin and total isoflavones from Pueraria lobata]. Zhong Yao Cai, 15 (8), 566–568.

 

Passionflower

Ngan, A., & Conduit, R. 2011. A double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the effects of Passiflora incarnata (passionflower) herbal tea on subjective sleep quality. Phytother. Res. [Epub ahead of print]. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21294203 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Natural Standard. 2011. Passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.). Professional monograph. URL (subscription required): http://naturalstandard.com/databases/herbssupplements/all/passionflower.asp (accessed 01.31.2011).

Appel, K., et al. 2010. Modulation of the ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system by Passiflora incarnata L. Phytother. Res. [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21089181 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Boeira, J., et al. 2010. Toxicity and genotoxicity evaluation of Passiflora alata Curtis (Passifloraceae). J. Ethnopharmacol., 128 (2), 526-532. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&cmd=prlinks&retmode=ref&id=19799991 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Cravotto, G., et al. 2010. Phytotherapeutics: An evaluation of the potential of 1000 plants. J. Clin. Pharm. Ther., 35 (1), 11-48. Review. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20175810 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Deng, J., et al. 2010. Anxiolytic and sedative activities of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa. J. Ethnopharmacol., 128, 148-153. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&cmd=prlinks&retmode=ref&id=20051259 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Elsas, S., et al. 2010. Passiflora incarnata L. (Passionflower) extracts elicit GABA currents in hippocampal neurons in vitro, and show anxiogenic and anticonvulsant effects in vivo, varying with extraction method. Phytomedicine, 17 (12), 940–949. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20382514 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Faustino, T., et al. 2010. [Medicinal plants for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: A review of controlled clinical studies.] Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr., 32 (4), 429–436. URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462010000400017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en (accessed 02.14.2011).

Fiebich, B., et al. 2010. Pharmacological studies in an herbal drug combination of St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) and passion flower (Passiflora incarnata): In vitro and in vivo evidence of synergy between Hypericum and Passiflora in antidepressant pharmacological models. Fitoterapia [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21185920 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Holbik, M., et al. 2010. Apparently no sedative benzoflavone moiety in passiflorae herba. Planta Med., 76 (7), 662–664. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20301055 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Lakhan, S., & Vieira, K. 2010. Nutritional and herbal supplements for anxiety and anxiety-related disorders: Systematic review. Nutr. J., 9 (1), 42. URL: http://www.nutritionj.com/content/9/1/42 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Sampath, C., et al. 2010. Anxiolytic effects of fractions obtained from Passiflora incarnata L. in the elevated plus maze in mice. Phytother. Res. [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21077264 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Wohlmuth, H., et al. 2010. Pharmacognosy and chemotypes of passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.). Biol. Pharm. Bull., 33 (6), 1015–1018. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/33/6/33_1015/_article (accessed 09.28.2010).

Carrasco, M., et al. 2009. Interactions of Valeriana officinalis L. and Passiflora incarnata L. in a patient treated with lorazepam. Phytother. Res., 23 (12), 1795–1796. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19441067 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Grundmann, O., et al. 2009. Anxiolytic effects of a passion flower (Passiflora incarnata L.) extract in the elevated plus maze in mice. Pharmazie, 64 (1), 63–64. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19216234 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Tabach, R., et al. 2009. Preclinical toxicological assessment of a phytotherapeutic product — CPV (based on dry extracts of Crataegus oxyacantha L., Passiflora incarnata L., and Valeriana officinalis L.). Phytother. Res., 23 (1), 33-40. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19048610 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Weeks, B. 2009. Formulations of dietary supplements and herbal extracts for relaxation and anxiolytic action: Relarian. Med. Sci. Monit., 15 (11), RA256-RA262. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19865069 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Barbosa, P., et al. 2008. The aqueous extracts of Passiflora alata and Passiflora edulis reduce anxiety-related behaviors without affecting memory process in rats. J. Med. Food, 11 (2), 282–288. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18598170 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Beaumont, D., et al. 2008. The effects of chrysin, a Passiflora incarnata extract, on natural killer cell activity in male Sprague–Dawley rats undergoing abdominal surgery. AANA J., 76 (2), 113–117. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18478816 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Grundmann, O., et al. 2008. Anxiolytic activity of a phytochemically characterized Passiflora incarnata extract is mediated via the GABAergic system. Planta Med., 74 (15), 1769-1773. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19006051 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Masteikova, R., et al. 2008. Antiradical activities of the extract of Passiflora incarnata. Acta Pol. Pharm., 65 (5), 577-583. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19051605 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Movafegh, A., et al. 2008. Preoperative oral Passiflora incarnata reduces anxiety in ambulatory surgery patients: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Anesth. Analg., 106 (6), 1728-1732. URL: http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/106/6/1728.long (accessed 01.28.2011).

Nassiri-Asl, M., et al. 2008. Possible role of GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor in anticonvulsant effects of Pasipay in rats. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao, 6 (11), 1170–1173. URL: http://www.jcimjournal.com/en/showAbstrPage.aspx?articleid=167219772008111170 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Rodriguez–Fragoso, L., et al. 2008. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in México. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 227 (1), 125–135. URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2322858/?tool=pubmed (accessed 02.14.2011).

Zhai, K., et al. 2008. Chrysin induces hyperalgesia via the GABAA receptor in mice. Planta Med., 74 (10), 1229–1234. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18612941 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Brown, E., et al. 2007. Evaluation of the anxiolytic effects of chrysin, a Passiflora incarnata extract, in the laboratory rat. AANA J., 75 (5), 333–337. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17966676 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Lolli, L., et al. 2007. Possible involvement of GABA A-benzodiazepine receptor in the anxiolytic-like effect induced by Passiflora actinia extracts in mice. J. Ethnopharmacol., 111 (2), 308-314. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17196350 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Miyasaka, L., et al. 2007. Passiflora for anxiety disorder. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. (1), CD004518. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17253512 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Nassiri-Asl, M., et al. 2007. Anticonvulsant effects of aerial parts of Passiflora incarnata extract in mice: Involvement of benzodiazepine and opioid receptors. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 7, 26. URL: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/7/26 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Sarris, J. 2007. Herbal medicines in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: A systematic review. Phytother. Res., 21 (8), 703-716. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17562566 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Capasso, A., & Sorrentino, L. 2005. Pharmacological studies on the sedative and hypnotic effect of kava kava and Passiflora extracts combination. Phytomedicine, 12 (1-2), 39-45. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15693706 (accessed 02.14.2011).

[No authors listed.] 2005. Management of insomnia: A place for traditional herbal remedies. Prescrire Int., 14 (77), 104–107. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15984105 > (accessed 02.14.2011).

Santos, K., et al. 2005. Passiflora actinia Hooker extracts and fractions induce catalepsy in mice. J. Ethnopharmacol., 100 (3), 306–309. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15882936 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Ulbricht, C., & Basch, E., Eds. 2005. Natural Standard Herb & Supplement Reference: Evidence-based Clinical Reviews. Natural Standard Research Collaboration. NY: Elsevier Mosby.

Dhawan, K., et al. 2004. Passiflora: A review update. J. Ethnopharmacol., 94 (1), 1-23. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15261959 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Peeters, E., et al. 2004. Effect of supplemental tryptophan, vitamin E, and a herbal product on responses by pigs to vibration. J. Anim. Sci., 82 (8), 2410-2420. URL: http://jas.fass.org/cgi/content/full/82/8/2410 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Wheatley, D. 2005. Medicinal plants for insomnia: A review of their pharmacology, efficacy and tolerability. J. Psychopharmacol., 19 (4), 414–421. Review. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15982998> (accessed 02.14.2011).

Hidaka, M., et al. 2004. Potent inhibition by star fruit of human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity. Drug Metab. Dispos., 32 (6), 581-583. URL: http://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/32/6/581.long (accessed 01.28.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2003. Attenuation of benzodiazepine dependence in mice by a tri-substituted benzoflavone moiety of Passiflora incarnata Linnaeus: A non-habit forming anxiolytic. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci., 6 (2), 215–222. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12935433> (accessed 02.14.2011).

Dhawan, K. 2003. Drug/substance reversal effects of a novel tri-substituted benzoflavone moiety (BZF) isolated from Passiflora incarnata Linn. — a brief perspective. Addict. Biol., 8 (4), 379–386. Review. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14690874 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Dhawan, K., & Sharma, A. 2003. Restoration of chronic-Delta 9-THC-induced decline in sexuality in male rats by a novel benzoflavone moiety from Passiflora incarnata Linn. Br. J. Pharmacol., 138 (1), 117–120. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1573641/?tool=pubmed (accessed 02.09.2011).

Dhawan, K., & Sharma, A. 2002. Antitussive activity of the methanol extract of Passiflora incarnata leaves. Fitoterapia, 73 (5), 397–399. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12165335 (accessed 02.15.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2002. Beneficial effects of chrysin and benzoflavone on virility in 2-year-old male rats. J. Med. Food, 5 (1), 43–48. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12511112 (accessed 02.15.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2002. Comparative anxiolytic activity profile of various preparations of Passiflora incarnata Linneaus: A comment on medicinal plants’ standardization. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 8 (3), 283-291. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12165186 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2002. Nicotine reversal effects of the benzoflavone moiety from Passiflora incarnata Linneaus in mice. Addict. Biol., 7 (4), 435-441. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14690874 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2002. Reversal of cannabinoids (delta9-THC) by the benzoflavone moiety from methanol extract of Passiflora incarnata Linnaeus in mice: A possible therapy for cannabinoid addiction. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 54 (6), 875–881. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12244887 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2002. Suppression of alcohol-cessation-oriented hyper-anxiety by the benzoflavone moiety of Passiflora incarnata Linnaeus in mice. J. Ethnopharmacol., 81 (2), 239–244. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12065157 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Krenn, L. 2002. [Passion Flower (Passiflora incarnata L.) — a reliable herbal sedative.] Wien Med. Wochenschr., 152 (15–16), 404–406. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12244887 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Akhondzadeh, S., et al. 2001a. Passionflower in the treatment of opiates withdrawal: A double-blind randomized controlled trial. J. Clin. Pharm. Ther., 26 (5), 369–373. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11679027 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Akhondzadeh, S., et al. 2001b. Passionflower in the treatment of generalized anxiety: A pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial with oxazepam. J. Clin. Pharm. Ther., 26 (5), 363–367. URL (abstract): http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2710.2001.00367.x/abstract (accessed 01.28.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2001. Anti-anxiety studies on extracts of Passiflora incarnata Linnaeus. J. Ethnopharmacol., 78 (2–3), 165–170. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11694362 (accessed 01.26.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2001. Anti-anxiety studies on extracts of Passiflora incarnata Linnaeus. J. Ethnopharmacol., 78 (2–3), 165–170. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11694362 (accessed 01.26.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2001. Comparative biological activity study on Passiflora incarnata and P. edulis. Fitoterapia, 72 (6), 698-702. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11543974 (accessed 02.15.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2001. Correct identification of Passiflora incarnata Linn., a promising herbal anxiolytic and sedative. J. Med. Food, 4 (3), 137-144. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12639407 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Fisher, A., et al. 2000. Toxicity of Passiflora incarnata L. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol., 38 (1), 63–66. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10696928 (accessed 02.15.2011).

Bourin, M., et al. 1997. A combination of plant extracts in the treatment of outpatients with adjustment disorder with anxious mood: Controlled study versus placebo. Fundamental. Clin. Pharmacol., 11 (2), 127-132. URL (abstract): http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1472-8206.1997.tb00179.x/abstract (accessed 01.27.2011).

Salgueiro, J., et al. 1997. Anxiolytic natural and synthetic flavonoid ligands of the central benzodiazepine receptor have no effect on memory tasks in rats. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 58 (4), 887-891. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9408191> (accessed 01.28.2011).

Soulimani, R., et al. 1997. Behavioral effects of Passiflora incarnata L. and its indole alkaloid and flavonoid derivatives and maltol in the mouse. J. Ethnopharmacol., 57 (1), 11–20. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9234160 (accessed 02.15.2011).

Rommelspacher, H., et al. 1994. Harman (1-methyl-beta-carboline) is a natural inhibitor of monoamine oxidase type A in rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 252 (1), 51-59. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8149995 (accessed 01.27.2011).

Wolfman, C., et al. 1994. Possible anxiolytic effects of chrysin, a central benzodiazepine receptor ligand isolated from Passiflora coerulea. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 47 (1), 1-4. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7906886 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Medina, J., et al. 1990. Chrysin (5,7-di-OH-flavone), a naturally-occurring ligand for benzodiazepine receptors, with anticonvulsant properties. Biochem. Pharmacol., 40 (10), 2227-2231. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2173925 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Speroni, E., & Minghetti, A. 1988. Neuropharmacological activity of extracts from Passiflora incarnata. Planta Med., 54 (6), 588–491. URL (abstract): https://www.thieme-connect.com/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-2006-962525 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Aoyagi, N., et al. 1974. Studies on Passiflora incarnata dry extract. I. Isolation of maltol and pharmacological action of maltol and ethyl maltol. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo), 22 (5), 1008–1013). URL (no abstract available): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4421168 (accessed 01.28.2011).

 

Red clover (Trifolium pratense)

Lipovac, M., et al. 2011. The effect of red clover isoflavone supplementation over vasomotor and menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women. Gynecol. Endocrinol. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21870906 (accessed 08.31.2011).

Chen, Y, et al. 2010. Biochanin A induction of sulfotransferases in rats. J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol., 24 (2), 102–114. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20391625 (accessed 09.17.2010).

El Touny, L., et al. 2010. Biochanin A reduces drug-induced p75NTR expression and enhances cell survival: A new in vitro assay for screening inhibitors of p75NTR expression. Rejuvenation Res. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20818983 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Lipovac, M., et al. 2010. Improvement of postmenopausal depressive and anxiety symptoms after treatment with isoflavones derived from red clover extracts. Maturitas, 65 (3), 258–261. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19948385 (accessed 03.04.2010).

Rountree, R. 2010. RoundocRx. Phytoestrogens. Altern. Complement. Ther., 16 (1), 5–10. URL (abstract): ://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/act.2010.16110 (accessed 03.10.2010).

Shams, T., et al. 2010. Efficacy of black cohosh-containing preparations on menopausal symptoms: A meta-analysis. Alt. Ther., 16 (1), 36–44. URL (PDF): http://www.isohh.org/ebooks/0110-athm11.pdf (accessed 01.08.2010).

Sklenickova, O., etal. 2010. Selective growth inhibitory effect of biochanin A against intestinal tract colonizing bacteria. Molecules, 15 (3), 1270–1279. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20335979 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Thors, L., et al. 2010. Biochanin A, a naturally occurring inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase. Br. J. Pharmacol., 160 (3), 549–560. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20590565 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Geller, S., et al. 2009. Safety and efficacy of black cohosh and red clover for the management of vasomotor symptoms: A randomized controlled trial. Menopause, 16 (6), 1156–1166. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19609225 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Kawakita, S., et al. 2009. Effect of an isoflavones-containing red clover preparation and alkaline supplementation on bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. Clin. Interv. Aging, 4, 91–100. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2685230/?tool=pubmed (accessed 01.04.2010).

Mu, H., et al. 2009. Research on antioxidant effects and estrogenic effect of formononetin from Trifolium pratense (red clover). Phytomedicine, 16 (4), 314–319. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18757188(accessed 01.04.2009).

Pakalapati, G., et al. 2009. Influence of red clover (Trifolium pratense) isoflavones on gene and protein expression profiles in liver of ovariectomized rats. Phytomedicine, 16 (9), 845–855. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19409770 (accessed 09.14.2010).

Sehdev, V., et al. 2009. Biochanin A modulates cell viability, invasion, and growth promoting signaling pathways in HER-2-positive breast cancer cells. J. Oncol., 121458. URL: http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jo/2009/121458.html (accessed 09.17.2010).

Terzic, M., et al. 2009. Influence of red clover-derived isoflavones on serum lipid profile in postmenopausal women. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res., 35 (6), 1091–1095. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20144173 (accessed 09.14.2010).

Adaikan, P., et al. 2008. Efficacy of red clover isoflavones in the menopausal rabbit model. Fertil. Steril., 92 (6), 2008–2013. URL: (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18973881 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Ju, Y., et al. 2008. A dietary supplement for female sexual dysfunction, Avlimil, stimulates the growth of estrogen-dependcnt breast tumors (MCF-7) implanted in ovariectomized athymic nude mice. Food Chern ToxicoI., 46, 310-320. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17919800 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Medjakovic, S., & Jungbauer, A. 2008. Red clover isoflavones biochanin A and formononetin are potent ligands of the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 108 (1–2), 171–177. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18060767 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Mense, S., et al. 2008. Phytoestrogens and breast cancer prevention: Possible mechanisms of action. Environ. Health Perspect., 116 (4), 426–433. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2291001/?tool=pubmed (accessed 09.16.2010).

Mishra, P., et al. 2008. Chemoprevention of mammary tumorigenesis and chemomodulation of the antioxidative enzymes and peroxidative damage in prepubertal Sprague Dawley rats by Biochanin A. Mol. Cell. Biochem., 312 (1–2), 1–9. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18273562 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Moon, Y., et al. 2008. Biochanin A inhibits breast cancer tumor growth in a murine xenograft model. Pharmaceutical Res., 25 (9), 2158–2163. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18454305 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Oseni, T., et al. 2008. Selective estrogen receptor modulators and phytoestrogens. Planta Med., 74 (13), 1656-1665. URL: http://www.thieme-connect.com/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-0028-1088304 (accessed 01.05.2010).

Overk, C., et al. 2008. In vivo estrogenic comparisons of Trifolium pratense (red clover), Humulus lupulus (hops), and the pure compounds isoxanthohumol and 8-prenylnaringenin. Chern. Biol. Interact., 176, 30-39. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2574795/?tool=pubmed> (accessed 01.04.2010.

Powles, T., et al. 2008. Red clover isoflavones are safe and well tolerated in women with a family history of breast cancer. Menopause Int., 14 (1), 6–12. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18380954 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Wang, S., et al. 2008. Variable isoflavone content of red clover products affects intestinal disposition of biochanin A, formononetin, genistein, and daidzein. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 14 (3), 287–297. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2771774/?tool=pubmed (accessed 09.17.2010).

Wang, Y., et al. 2008. The red clover (Trifolium pratense) isoflavone biochanin A inhibits aromatase activity and expression. Br. J. Nutr., 99 (2), 303–310. URL (abstract): >http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17761019 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2008. Phytoestrogens: Endocrine disrupters or replacement for hormone replacement therapy? Maturitas, 61 (1–2), 159–170. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19434888 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Chan M., et al. 2007. Oestrogen receptor alpha is required for biochanin A-induced apolipoprotein A-1 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells. Br. J. Nutr., 98 (3), 534–539. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17532863 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Coon, J., et al. 2007. Trifolium pratense isoflavones in the treatment of menopausal hot flushes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Phytomedicine, 14 (2–3), 153–159.URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17239573 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Friedman, J., et al. 2007. Multifocal and recurrent subarachnoid hemorrhage due to an herbal supplement containing natural coumarins. Neurocrit. Care, 7 (1), 76–80. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17634840 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Kaminska, B., et al. 2007. Phytoestrogens alter cortisol and androstenedione secretion by porcine adrenocortical cells. Acta Vet. Hung., 55 (3), 359–367. URL (abstract): http://www.akademiai.com/content/m9402351057v1077/ (accessed 09.21.2010).

Lethaby, A., et al. 2007. Phytoestrogens for vasomotor menopausal symptoms. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev., (4), CD001395. URL (abstract): >http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17943751 (accessed 09.17.2010)

Moon, Y., et al. 2007. Effects of the flavonoid biochanin A on gene expression in primary human hepatocytes and human intestinal cells. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 51 (3), 317–323. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17340576 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Moon, Y., et al. 2007. Effects of flavonoids genistein and biochanin A on gene expression and their metabolism in human mammary cells. Nutr. Cancer., 57 (1), 48-58. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17516862 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Occhiuto, F., et al. 2007. Effects of phytoestrogenic isoflavones from red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) on experimental osteoporosis. Phytother. Res., 21 (2), 130–134. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17117453 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Rimoldi, G., et al. 2007. Effects of chronic genistein treatment in mammary gland, uterus, and vagina. Environ. Health Perspect., 115 (Suppl. 1), 62–68. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2174401/?tool=pubmed (accessed 01.04.2010).

Booth, N., et al. 2006. Clinical studies of red clover (Trifolium pratense) dietary supplements in menopause: A literature review. Menopause, 13 (2), 251–264. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16645539 (accessed 03.04.2010).

Booth, N., et al. 2005. Seasonal variation of red clover (Trifolium pratense L., Fabaceæ) isoflavones and estrogenic activity. J. Agric. Food Chem., 54 (4), 1277–1282. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.21.2010).

Carroll, D. 2006. Nonhormonal therapies for hot flashes in menopause. Am. Fam. Physician, 73 (3), 457–464. URL: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0201/p457.html (accessed 12.11.2009).

Geller, S., & Studee, L. 2006. Soy and red clover for midlife and aging. Climacteric, 9 (4), 245–263. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1780039/?tool=pubmed (accessed 01.04.2010).

Han, E., et al. 2006. Effect of biochanin A on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and cytochrome P450 1A1 in MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells. Arch. Pharm. Res., 29 (7), 570–576. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16903077 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Imhof, M., et al. 2006. Effects of a red clover extract (MF11RCE) on endometrium and sex hormones in postmenopausal women. Maturitas, 55 (1), 76–81.URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16513301 (accessed 03.04.2010).

Moon, Y., et al. 2006. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of the isoflavone biochanin A in rats. AAPS J., 8 (3), E433–E442. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2761049/?tool=pubmed (accessed 09.17.2010).

Nelson, H., et al. 2006. Nonhormonal therapies for menopausal hot flashes: Systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA, 295 (17), 2057–2071. URL: http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/295/17/2057 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Park, J., et al. 2006. Up-regulation of interleukin-4 production via NF-AT/AP-1 activation in T cells by biochanin A, a phytoestrogen and its metabolites. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 212 (3), 188–199. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16169028 (accessed 09.20.2010).

Rice, S., et al. 2006. Phytoestrogens and their low dose combinations inhibit mRNA expression and activity of aromatase in human granulosa-luteal cells. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 101 (4–5), 2160150225. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16965912 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Schrepfer, S., ET AL. 2006. The selective estrogen receptor-beta agonist biochanin A shows vasculoprotective effects without uterotrophic activity. Menopause, 13 (3), 489–499. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16735947 (accessed 09.20.2010).

Tsao, R., et al. 2006. Isoflavone profiles of red clovers and their distribution in different parts harvested at different growing stages. J. Agric. Food Chem., 54 (16), 5797–5805. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16881680 (accessed 09.21.2010).

Wang, H-P., et al. 2006. Endothelium-independent vasorelaxant effect of the phyto-oestrogen biochanin A on rat thoracic aorta. Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc., 3, 2244–2247. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17282679 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Beck, V., et al. 2005. Phytoestrogens derived from red clover: An alternative tohttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15876415 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Hidalgo, L. 2005. The effect of red clover isoflavones on menopausal symptoms, lipids and vaginal cytology in menopausal women: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Gynecol. Endocrinol., 21 (5), 257–264. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16373244(accessed 01.04.2010).

Lee, K-H., & Choi, E-M. 2005. Biochanin A stimulates osteoblastic differentiation and inhibits hydrogen peroxide-induced production of inflammatory mediators in MC3T3-E1 cells. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 28 (10), 1948–1953. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/28/10/28_1948/_article (accessed 09.20.2010).

Low Dog, T. 2005. Menopause: A review of botanical dietary supplements. Am. J. Med., 118 (Suppl. 12B), 98-108. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16414334 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Lukaczer, D., et al. 2005. Clinical effects of a proprietary combination isoflavone nutritional supplement in menopausal women: A pilot trial. Altern. Ther. Health Med., 11 (5), 60–65. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16189949 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Simoncini, T., et al. 2005. Activation of nitric oxide synthesis in human endothelial cells by red clover extracts. Menopause, 12 (1), 69–77. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15668603 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Somjen, D., et al. 2005. Membranal effects of phytoestrogens and carboxy derivatives of phytoestrogens on human vascular and bone cells: New insights ased on studies with carboxy-biochanin A. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 93 (2–5), 293–303. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15860273 (accessed 09.21.2010).

Ulbricht, C., & Basch, E., Eds. 2005. Natural Standard Herb & Supplement Reference: Evidence-based Clinical Reviews. Natural Standard Research Collaboration. NY: Elsevier Mosby.

Atkinson, C., et al. 2004. Red-clover-derived isoflavones and mammographic breast density: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial [ISRCTN42940165]. Breast Cancer Res., 6 (3), R170–R179.ver-derived isoflavone supplementation on insulin-like growth factor, lipid and antioxidant status in healthy female volunteers: A pilot study. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 58, 173–179. URL: http://breast-cancer-research.com/content/6/3/R170 (accessed 09.20.2010).

Atkinson, C., et al. 2004. The effects of phytoestrogen isoflavones on bone density in women: A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 79, 326–333. URL: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/79/2/326 (accessed 09.20.2010).

Campbell, M., et al. 2004. Effect of red clover-derived isoflavone supplementation on insulin-like growth factor, lipid and antioxidant status in healthy female volunteers: A pilot study. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 58, 173–179. URL: http://www.nature.com/ejcn/journal/v58/n1/full/1601764a.html (accessed 09.20.2010).

Huntley, A. 2004. Drug-herb interactions with herbal medicines for menopause. J. Br. Menopause Soc., 10 (4), 162–165. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15667753 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Krebs, E., et al. 2004. Phytoestrogens for treatment of menopausal symptoms: A systematic review. Obstet. Gynecol., 104 (10), 824–836. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15458907 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Lam, A., et al. 2004. Effect of red clover isoflavones on cox-2 activity in murine and human monocyte/macrophage cells. Nutr. Cancer, 49 (1), 89–93. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15456640 (accessed 09.20.2010).

Piersen, C., 2004. Chemical and biological characterization and clinical evaluation of botanical dietary supplements: A phase I red clover extract as a model. Curr. Med. Chem., 11 (11), 1361–1374. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15180571 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Powles, T. 2004. Isoflavones and women’s health. Breast Cancer Res., 6, 140–142. URL: http://breast-cancer-research.com/content/6/3/140 (accessed 09.20.2010).

Roberts, D., et al. 2004. Inhibition of extrahepatic human cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1B1 by metabolism of isoflavones found in Trifolium pratense (red clover). J. Agric. Food Chem., 52 (21), 6623–6632. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15479032 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Blakesmith, S., et al. 2003. Effects of supplementation with purified red clover (Trifolium pratense) isoflavones on plasma lipids and insulin resistance in premenopausal women. Br. J. Nutr., 89 (4), 467–474. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12654164 (accessed 09.20.2010).

Boué, et al. 2003. Evaluation of the estrogenic effects of legume extracts containing phytoestrogens. J. Agric. Food Chem., 51 (8), 2193–2199. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12670155 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Chan, H., et al. 2003. The red clover (Trifolium pratense) isoflavone biochanin A modulates the biotransformation pathways of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Br. (1), 87–92. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12844379 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Mallis, L., et al. 2003. Determination of rat oral bioavailability of soy-derived phytoestrogens using an automated on-column extraction procedure and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci., 796, 71–86. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14552818 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Tice, J., et al. 2003. Phytoestrogen supplements for the treatment of hot flashes: The Isoflavone Clover Extract (ICE) Study: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 290 (2), 207–214. URL: >http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/290/2/207 (accessed 03.04.2010).

Abebe, W. 2002. Herbal medication: Potential for adverse interactions with analgesic drugs. J. Clin. Pharm. Ther., 27 (6), 391–401. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12472978 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Adlercreutz, J. 2002. Phyto-oestrogens and cancer. Lacet Oncol., 3 (6), 364–373. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12107024 (accessed 09.21.2010).

Burdette, J., et al. 2002. Trifolium pratense (red clover) exhibits estrogenic effects in vivo in ovariectomized Sprague–Dawley rats. J. Nutr., 132 (1), 27–30. URL: http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/full/132/1/27 (accessed 09.21.2010).

Nelsen, J., et al. 2002. Red clover (Trifolium pratense) monograph: A clinical decision support tool. J. Herb. Pharm., 2 (3), 49–72. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15277090 (accessed 09.21.2010).

Peter, H. et al. 2002. Isoflavones from red clover (Promensil) significantly reduce menopausal hot flush symptoms compared with placebo. Maturitas., 42 (3), 187-193. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12161042(accessed 01.19.2011).

van de Weijer, P., & Barentsen, R. 2002. Isoflavones from red clover (Promensil) significantly reduce menopausal hot flush symptoms compared with placebo. Maturitas, 42 (3), 187–193. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12161042 (accessed 09.21.2010).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2002. Phytoestrogens for hormone replacement therapy? J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 83 (1–5), 133–147. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12650710 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Clifton–Bligh, P., et al. 2001. The effect of isoflavones extracted from red clover (Rimostil) on lipid and bone metabolism. Menopause, 8 (4), 259–265. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11449083 (accessed 09.21.2010).

Dornstauder, E., et al. 2001. Estrogenic activity of two standardized red clover extracts (Menoflavon) intended for large scale use in hormone replacement therapy. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 78 (1), 67–75. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11530286 (accessed 09.21.2010).

Fugh–Berman, A., & Kronenberg, F. 2001. Red clover (Trifolium pratense) for menopausal women: Current state of knowledge. Menopause, 8 (5), 333–337. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11528359 (accessed 09.20.2010).

Hale G., et al. 2001. A double-blind randomized study on the effects of red clover isoflavones on the endometrium. Menopause, 8, 338-346. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.04.2010). URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11528360 (accessed 09.21.2010).

Ashby, J., et al. 1999. Induction of hyperplasia and increased DNA content in the uterus of immature rats exposed to coumestrol. Environ. Health Perspect., 107 (10), 819–822. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1566597/?tool=pubmed (accessed 12.11.2009).

Hsu, J–T., et al. 1999. Effects of the dietary phytoestrogen biochanin A on cell growth in the mammary carcinoma cell line MCF-7. J. Nutr. Biochem., 10 (9), 510–517. URL (abstract): http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=1984990 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Boyd, N., et al. 1998. Mammographic densities and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers, 7 (12), 1133-1144. URL: http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/7/12/1133.long (accessed 01.19.2011).

Kelly, G., et al. 1998. Standardized red clover extract clinical monograph, pp 3–12. Seattle, WA: Natural Products Research Consultants, Inc.

Zava, D., et al. 1998. Estrogen and progestin bioactivity of foods, herbs, and spices. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 217 (3), 369–378. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9492350 (accessed 08.24.2010).

 

Wild yam ( Dioscorea villosa)

Yoshikawa, M., et al. 2007. Medicinal flowers. XII. (1). New spirostane-type steroid saponins with antidiabetogenic activity from Borassus flabellifer. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo), 55 (2), 308–316.

Jeon, J., et al. 2006. Effect of ethanol extract of dried Chinese yam (Dioscorea batatas) flour containing dioscin on gastrointestinal function in rat model. Arch. Pharm. Res., 29 (5), 348–353.

Sarchielli, P., et al. 2006. Practical considerations for the treatment of elderly patients with migraine. Drugs Aging, 23 (6), 461–489.

Ulbricht, C., & Basch, E., Eds. 2005. Natural Standard Herb & Supplement Reference: Evidence-based Clinical Reviews. Natural Standard Research Collaboration. NY: Elsevier Mosby.

Wu, W., et al. 2005. Estrogenic effect of yam ingestion in healthy postmenopausal women. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 24, 235–243.

[No authors listed.] 2004. Final report of the amended safety assessment of Dioscorea villosa (wild yam) root extract. Int. J. Toxicol., 23 (Suppl. 2), 49–54.

Rahmintoola, H., et al. 2004. Reduction in the therapeutic intensity of abortive migraine drug use during ACE inhibition therapy — a pilot study. Pharmacoepidemiol. Drug Saf., 13 (1), 41–47.

Benghuzzi, H., et al. 2003. The effects of sustained delivery of diosgenin on the adrenal gland of female rats. Biomed. Sci. Instrum., 39, 335–340.

Kwon, C., et al. 2003. Anti-obesity effect of Dioscorea nipponica Makino with lipase-inhibitory activity in rodents. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 67 (7), 1451–1456.

Hsu, F., et al. 2002. Both dioscorin, the tuber storage protein of yam (Dioscorea alata cv. Tainong No. 1), and its peptic hydrolysates exhibited angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activities. J. Agric. Food Chem., 50 (21) 6109-6113. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12358488 (accessed 06.26.2007).

Bender, W. 1995. ACE inhibitors for prophylaxis of migraine headaches. Headache, 35 (8), 470–471.

Serinisol References

Our Serinisol is doctor-formulated to be complete, natural, bioavailable, and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.

The following articles and studies, arranged in order of recency, represent a sampling of the research on the constituents of Serinisol.

L-theanine

L-theanine . Monograph. Altern Med Rev. 2005 Jun;10(2):136-8. PubMed PMID: 15989383.

Borzelleca JF, Peters D, Hall W. A 13-week dietary toxicity and toxicokinetic study with l-theanine in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2006 Jul;44(7):1158-66. Epub 2006 Apr 26. PubMed PMID: 16759779.

Bryan J. Psychological effects of dietary components of tea: caffeine and L-theanine. Nutr Rev. 2008 Feb;66(2):82-90. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2007.00011.x. Review. PubMed PMID: 18254874.

Cho HS, Kim S, Lee SY, Park JA, Kim SJ, Chun HS. Protective effect of the green tea component, L-theanine on environmental toxins-induced neuronal cell death. Neurotoxicology. 2008 Jul;29(4):656-62. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2008.03.004. Epub 2008 Mar 20. PubMed PMID: 18452993.

Desai MJ, Armstrong DW. Analysis of derivatized and underivatized theanine enantiomers by high-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure ionization-mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2004;18(3):251-6. PubMed PMID: 14755608.

Egashira N, Hayakawa K, Mishima K, Kimura H, Iwasaki K, Fujiwara M. Neuroprotective effect of gamma-glutamylethylamide (theanine) on cerebral infarction in mice. Neurosci Lett. 2004 Jun 3;363(1):58-61. PubMed PMID: 15157996.

Eschenauer G, Sweet BV. Pharmacology and therapeutic uses of theanine. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2006 Jan 1;63(1):26, 28-30. PubMed PMID: 16373462.

Gomez-Ramirez M, Kelly SP, Montesi JL, Foxe JJ. The effects of L-theanine on alpha-band oscillatory brain activity during a visuo-spatial attention task. Brain Topogr. 2009 Jun;22(1):44-51. doi: 10.1007/s10548-008-0068-z. Epub 2008 Oct 9. PubMed PMID: 18841456.

Gomez-Ramirez M, Higgins BA, Rycroft JA, Owen GN, Mahoney J, Shpaner M, Foxe JJ. The deployment of intersensory selective attention: a high-density electrical mapping study of the effects of theanine. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jan-Feb;30(1):25-38. PubMed PMID: 17272967.

Haskell CF, Kennedy DO, Milne AL, Wesnes KA, Scholey AB. The effects of L-theanine, caffeine and their combination on cognition and mood. Biol Psychol. 2008 Feb;77(2):113-22. Epub 2007 Sep 26. PubMed PMID: 18006208.

Jang HS, Jung JY, Jang IS, Jang KH, Kim SH, Ha JH, Suk K, Lee MG. L-theanine partially counteracts caffeine-induced sleep disturbances in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2012 Apr;101(2):217-21. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2012.01.011. Epub 2012 Jan 21. PubMed PMID: 22285321.

Kakuda T, Nozawa A, Unno T, Okamura N, Okai O. Inhibiting effects of theanine on caffeine stimulation evaluated by EEG in the rat. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2000 Feb;64(2):287-93. PubMed PMID: 10737183.

Kakuda T, Hinoi E, Abe A, Nozawa A, Ogura M, Yoneda Y. Theanine, an ingredient of green tea, inhibits [3H]glutamine transport in neurons and astroglia in rat brain. J Neurosci Res. 2008 Jun;86(8):1846-56. doi: 10.1002/jnr.21637. PubMed PMID: 18293419.

Kim TI, Lee YK, Park SG, Choi IS, Ban JO, Park HK, Nam SY, Yun YW, Han SB, Oh KW, Hong JT. l-Theanine, an amino acid in green tea, attenuates beta-amyloid-induced cognitive dysfunction and neurotoxicity: reduction in oxidative damage and inactivation of ERK/p38 kinase and NF-kappaB pathways. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009 Dec 1;47(11):1601-10. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2009.09.008. Epub 2009 Sep 16. PubMed PMID: 19766184.

Kimura K, Ozeki M, Juneja LR, Ohira H. L-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responses. Biol Psychol. 2007 Jan;74(1):39-45. Epub 2006 Aug 22. PubMed PMID: 16930802.

Lu K, Gray MA, Oliver C, Liley DT, Harrison BJ, Bartholomeusz CF, Phan KL, Nathan PJ. The acute effects of L-theanine in comparison with alprazolam on anticipatory anxiety in humans. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2004 Oct;19(7):457-65. PubMed PMID: 15378679.

Lyon MR, Kapoor MP, Juneja LR. The effects of L-theanine (Suntheanine®) on objective sleep quality in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Altern Med Rev. 2011 Dec;16(4):348-54. PubMed PMID: 22214254.

Matsumoto K, Yamada H, Takuma N, Niino H, Sagesaka YM. Effects of green tea catechins and theanine on preventing influenza infection among healthcare workers: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011 Feb 21;11:15. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-15. PubMed PMID: 21338496; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3049752.Free full text

Nagasawa K, Aoki H, Yasuda E, Nagai K, Shimohama S, Fujimoto S. Possible involvement of group I mGluRs in neuroprotective effect of theanine. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Jul 16;320(1):116-22. PubMed PMID: 15207710.

Nathan PJ, Lu K, Gray M, Oliver C. The neuropharmacology of L-theanine(N-ethyl-L-glutamine): a possible neuroprotective and cognitive enhancing agent. J Herb Pharmacother. 2006;6(2):21-30. Review. PubMed PMID: 17182482.

Nobre AC, Rao A, Owen GN. L-theanine, a natural constituent in tea, and its effect on mental state. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:167-8. PubMed PMID: 18296328.

Park SK, Jung IC, Lee WK, Lee YS, Park HK, Go HJ, Kim K, Lim NK, Hong JT, Ly SY, Rho SS. A combination of green tea extract and l-theanine improves memory and attention in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. J Med Food. 2011 Apr;14(4):334-43. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2009.1374. Epub 2011 Feb 8. PubMed PMID: 21303262.

Ritsner MS, Miodownik C, Ratner Y, Shleifer T, Mar M, Pintov L, Lerner V. L-theanine relieves positive, activation, and anxiety symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-center study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011 Jan;72(1):34-42. doi: 10.4088/JCP.09m05324gre. Epub 2010 Nov 30. PubMed PMID: 21208586.

Rogers PJ, Smith JE, Heatherley SV, Pleydell-Pearce CW. Time for tea: mood, blood pressure and cognitive performance effects of caffeine and theanine administered alone and together. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008 Jan;195(4):569-77. Epub 2007 Sep 23. PubMed PMID: 17891480.

Tian X, Sun L, Gou L, Ling X, Feng Y, Wang L, Yin X, Liu Y. Protective effect of l-theanine on chronic restraint stress-induced cognitive impairments in mice. Brain Res. 2013 Mar 29;1503:24-32. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2013.01.048. Epub 2013 Feb 5. PubMed PMID: 23395732.

Unno K, Tanida N, Ishii N, Yamamoto H, Iguchi K, Hoshino M, Takeda A, Ozawa H, Ohkubo T, Juneja LR, Yamada H. Anti-stress effect of theanine on students during pharmacy practice: positive correlation among salivary a-amylase activity, trait anxiety and subjective stress. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2013 Oct;111:128-35. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2013.09.004. Epub 2013 Sep 16. PubMed PMID: 24051231.

Wise LE, Premaratne ID, Gamage TF, Lichtman AH, Hughes LD, Harris LS, Aceto MD. l-theanine attenuates abstinence signs in morphine-dependent rhesus monkeys and elicits anxiolytic-like activity in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2012 Dec;103(2):245-52. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2012.08.008. Epub 2012 Aug 23. PubMed PMID: 22935630; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3754842.

Yin C, Gou L, Liu Y, Yin X, Zhang L, Jia G, Zhuang X. Antidepressant-like effects of L-theanine in the forced swim and tail suspension tests in mice. Phytother Res. 2011 Nov;25(11):1636-9. doi: 10.1002/ptr.3456. Epub 2011 Mar 21. PubMed PMID: 21425373.

Yokogoshi H, Kobayashi M, Mochizuki M, Terashima T. Effect of theanine, r-glutamylethylamide, on brain monoamines and striatal dopamine release in conscious rats. Neurochem Res. 1998 May;23(5):667-73. PubMed PMID: 9566605.

Yokogoshi H, Terashima T. Effect of theanine, r-glutamylethylamide, on brain monoamines, striatal dopamine release and some kinds of behavior in rats. Nutrition. 2000 Sep;16(9):776-7. PubMed PMID: 10978861.

Yoto A, Motoki M, Murao S, Yokogoshi H. Effects of L-theanine or caffeine intake on changes in blood pressure under physical and psychological stresses. J Physiol Anthropol. 2012 Oct 29;31:28. doi: 10.1186/1880-6805-31-28. PubMed PMID: 23107346; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3518171.Free full text

Zukhurova M, Prosvirnina M, Daineko A, Simanenkova A, Petrishchev N, Sonin D, Galagudza M, Shamtsyan M, Juneja LR, Vlasov T. L-theanine administration results in neuroprotection and prevents glutamate receptor agonist-mediated injury in the rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Phytother Res. 2013 Sep;27(9):1282-7. doi: 10.1002/ptr.4868. Epub 2012 Oct 24. PubMed PMID: 23097345.

EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to L-theanine from Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (tea) and improvement of cognitive function (ID 1104, 1222, 1600, 1601, 1707, 1935, 2004, 2005), alleviation of psychological stress (ID 1598, 1601), maintenance of normal sleep (ID 1222, 1737, 2004) and reduction of menstrual discomfort (ID 1599) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal 2011;9(6):2238. [23 pp.]. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2011.2238. Available online: www.efsa.europa.eu/efsajournal

Calcium

Jung, K., et al. 2010. Associations of serum Ca and Mg levels with mental health in adult women without psychiatric disorders. Biol. Trace Elem. Res., 133 (2), 153–161. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19543697 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Heaney, R. 2008. Calcium supplementation and incident kidney stone risk: A systematic review. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 27 (5), 519–527. URL: http://www.jacn.org/cgi/content/full/27/5/519 (accessed 01.20.2011).

Carroll, D., et al. 2000. The effects of an oral multivitamin combination with calcium, magnesium, and zinc on psychological well-being in healthy young male volunteers: A double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Psychopharmacology (Berl.), 150 (2), 220–225. URL (abstract/intro): http://www.springerlink.com/content/6vg3yg6k93rakn17/ (accessed 01.28.2011).

Thys–Jacobs, S. 2000. Micronutrients and the premenstrual syndrome: The case for calcium. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 19 (2), 220–227. URL: http://www.jacn.org/cgi/content/full/19/2/220 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Celotti, F., & Bignamini, A. 1999. Dietary calcium and mineral/vitamin supplementation: A controversial problem. J. Int. Med. Res., 27 (1), 1–14. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10417956 (accessed 01.20.2011).

Nuglozeh, E., & Roberge, A. 1998. Dietary calcium supplementation and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Biochem. Pharmacol., 53 (12), 1867–1871. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9256161 (accessed 01.20.2011).

Whiting, S., et al. 1998. Calcium supplementation. J. Am. Acad. Nurse Pract., 9 (4), 187–192. URL (abstract):http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9274239 (accessed 01.20.2011).

Thys–Jacobs, S., et al. 1998. Calcium carbonate and the premenstrual syndrome: Effects on premenstrual and menstrual symptoms. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 179 (2), 444–452. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9731851 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Penland, J., & Johnson, P. 1993. Dietary calcium and manganese effects on menstrual cycle symptoms. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 168 (5), 1417–1423. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8498421 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Thys–Jacobs, S., et al. 1989. Calcium supplementation in premenstrual syndrome: a randomized crossover trial. J. Gen. Intern. Med., 4 (3), 183–189. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2656936 (accessed 02.09.2011).


Magnesium

Garalejic, E., et al. 2010. Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) in infertile women with endometriosis and its correlation with magnesium levels in peritoneal fluid. Psychiatr. Danub., 22 (1), 64–67. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20305593 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Jung, K., et al. 2010. Associations of serum Ca and Mg levels with mental health in adult women without psychiatric disorders. Biol. Trace Elem. Res., 133 (2), 153–161. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19543697 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Lakhan, S., & Vieira, K. 2010. Nutritional and herbal supplements for anxiety and anxiety-related disorders: Systematic review. Nutr. J., 9 (1), 42. URL: http://www.nutritionj.com/content/9/1/42 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Nielsen, F., et al. 2010. Magnesium supplementation improves indicators of low magnesium status and inflammatory stress in adults older than 51 years with poor quality sleep. Magnes. Res., 23 (4), 158–168. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21199787 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Jacka, F., et al. 2009. Association between magnesium intake and depression and anxiety in community-dwelling adults: The Hordaland Health Study. Aust. NZ J. Psychiatry, 43 (1), 45–52. URL (abstract):http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19085527 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Muroyama, A., et al. 2009. Enhanced susceptibility to MPTP neurotoxicity in magnesium-deficient C57BL/6N mice. Neurosci. Res., 63 (1), 72–75. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18977253 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Poleszak, E. 2008. Benzodiazepine/GABA(A) receptors are involved in magnesium-induced anxiolytic-like behavior in mice. Pharmacol. Rep., 60 (4), 483–489. URL (PDF): http://www.if-pan.krakow.pl/pjp/pdf/2008/4_483.pdf (accessed 02.09.2011).

Poleszak, E., et al. 2008. NMDA/glutamate mechanism of magnesium-induced anxiolytic-like behavior in mice. Pharmacol. Rep., 60 (5), 655–663. URL (PDF): http://www.if-pan.krakow.pl/pjp/pdf/2008/5_655.pdf (accessed 02.09.2011).

Spasov, A., et al. 2008. [Depression-like and anxiety-related behaviour of rats fed with magnesium-deficient diet]. Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deiat Im. IP Pavlova, 58 (4), 476–485. Russian. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18825946 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Eby, G., & Eby, K. 2006. Rapid recovery from major depression using magnesium treatment. Med. Hypotheses, 67 (2), 362–370. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16542786 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Grases, G., et al. 2006. Anxiety and stress among science students. Study of calcium and magnesium alterations. Magnes. Res., 19 (2), 102–106. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16955721 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Mucci M., et al. 2006. Soy isoflavones, lactobacilli, Magnolia bark extract, vitamin D3 and calcium. Controlled clinical study in menopause. Minerva Ginecol., 58 (4), 323–334. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16957676 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Siwek, M., et al. 2005. [The role of copper and magnesium in the pathogenesis and treatment of affective disorders.] Psychiatr. Pol., 39 (5), 911–920. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16358591 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Durlach, J., et al. 2004. Importance of magnesium depletion with hypofunction of the biological clock in the pathophysiology of headaches with photophobia, sudden infant death and some clinical forms of multiple sclerosis. Magnes. Res., 17 (4), 314–326. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15726907 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Fromm, L., et al. 2004. Magnesium attenuates post-traumatic depression/anxiety following diffuse traumatic brain injury in rats. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 23 (5), 529S–533S. URL: http://www.jacn.org/cgi/reprint/23/5/529S (accessed 01.28.2011).

Hanus, M., et al. 2004. Double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a fixed combination containing two plant extracts (Crataegus oxyacantha and Eschscholtzia californica) and magnesium in mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders. Curr. Med. Res. Opin., 20 (1), 63–71. URL (abstract): http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1185/030079903125002603 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Jonczak, L., et al. 2004. [Restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements during sleep in a patient with obstructive sleep apnea]. Neurol. Neurochir. Pol., 38 (5), 427–430. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15565533 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Poleszak, E., et al. 2004. Antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activity of magnesium in mice. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 78 (1), 7–12. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&cmd=prlinks&retmode=ref&id=15159129 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Singewald, N., et al. 2004. Magnesium-deficient diet alters depression- and anxiety-related behavior in mice — influence of desipramine and Hypericum perforatum extract. Neuropharmacology, 47 (8), 1189–1197. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15567428 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Vink, R., et al. 2003. Magnesium attenuates persistent functional deficits following diffuse traumatic brain injury in rats. Neurosci. Lett., 336 (1), 41–44. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12493598 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Ezhov, A., & Pimenov L. 2002. [Effect of adjuvant magnesium therapy on the quality of life and emotional status of elderly patients with stable angina]. Adv. Gerontol., 10, 95–98. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12577698 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Held, K., et al. 2002. Oral Mg(2+) supplementation reverses age-related neuroendocrine and sleep EEG changes in humans. Pharmacopsychiatry, 35 (4), 135–143. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12163983 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Murck, H. 2002. Magnesium and affective disorders. Nutr. Neurosci., 5 (6), 375–389. Review. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12509067 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Carroll, D., et al. 2000. The effects of an oral multivitamin combination with calcium, magnesium, and zinc on psychological well-being in healthy young male volunteers: A double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Psychopharmacology (Berl.), 150 (2), 220–225. URL (abstract/intro): http://www.springerlink.com/content/6vg3yg6k93rakn17/ (accessed 01.28.2011).

Chollet, D., et al. 2000. Blood and brain magnesium in inbred mice and their correlation with sleep quality. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol., 279 (6), R2173–R2178. URL: http://ajpregu.physiology.org/content/279/6/R2173.long (accessed 02.09.2011).

De Souza, M., et al. 2000. A synergistic effect of a daily supplement for 1 month of 200 mg magnesium plus 50 mg vitamin B6 for the relief of anxiety-related premenstrual symptoms: A randomized, double-blind, crossover study. J. Women’s Health Gend. Based Med., 9 (2), 131–139. URL (abstract/intro): http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/152460900318623 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Durlach, J., et al. 1997. Neurotic, neuromuscular and autonomic nervous form of magnesium imbalance. Magnes. Res., 10 (2), 169–195. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9368238 (accessed 01.31.2011).

Facchinetti, F., et al. 1991. Oral magnesium successfully relieves premenstrual mood changes. Obstet. Gynecol., 78, 177–181. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2067759 (accessed 02.09.2011).]

Abraham, G. 1983. Nutritional factors in the etiology of the premenstrual tension syndromes. J. Reprod. Med., 28 (7), 446–464. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6684167 (accessed 01.28.2011).


Phosphatidylserine

Babenko, N., & Semenova, Y. 2011. Effects of exogenous phosphatidylserine on cognitive functions and phospholipid metabolism in the hippocampus of aged rats. Neurosci. Behav. Physiol., 41 (1), 97–101. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21153489 (accessed 02.15.2011).

Hoffman, J., et al. 2010. The effects of acute and prolonged CRAM supplementation on reaction time and subjective measures of focus and alertness in healthy college students. J. Int. Soc. Sports Nutr., 7 (1), 39. URL: http://www.jissn.com/content/7/1/39 (accessed 02.15.2011).

Kato–Kataoka, A., et al. 2010. Soybean-derived phosphatidylserine improves memory function of the elderly Japanese subjects with memory complaints. J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr., 47 (3), 246–255. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jcbn/47/3/47_246/_article (accessed 02.15.2010).

Lee, B., et al. 2010. Krill phosphatidylserine improves learning and memory in Morris water maze in aged rats. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry, 34 (6), 1085–1093. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20685374 (accessed 02.15.2011).

Richter, Y., et al. 2010. The effect of phosphatidylserine-containing omega-3 fatty acids on memory abilities in subjects with subjective memory complaints: A pilot study. Clin. Interv. Aging, 5, 313–316. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2981104/?tool=pubmed (accessed 02.15.2011).

Serby, M., et al. 2010. A study of herbal remedies for memory complaints. J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 22 (3), 345–347. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20686142 (accessed 02.15.2011).

Wollen, K. 2010. Alzheimer’s disease: the pros and cons of pharmaceutical, nutritional, botanical, and stimulatory therapies, with a discussion of treatment strategies from the perspective of patients and practitioners. Altern. Med. Rev., 15 (3), 223–244. URL (PDF): http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/15/3/223.pdf (accessed 02.15.2011).

Vakhapova, V., et al. 2010. Phosphatidylserine containing omega-3 fatty acids may improve memory abilities in non-demented elderly with memory complaints: A double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Dement. Geriatr. Cogn. Disord., 29 (5), 467–474. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20523044 (accessed 02.15.2011).

Araujo, J., et al. 2008. Improvement of short-term memory performance in aged beagles by a nutraceutical supplement containing phosphatidylserine, Ginkgo biloba, vitamin E, and pyridoxine. Can. Vet. J., 49 (4), 379–385. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2275342/?tool=pubmed (accessed 02.16.2011).

Baumeister, J., et al. 2008. Influence of phosphatidylserine on cognitive performance and cortical activity after induced stress. Nutr. Neurosci., 11 (3), 103–110. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18616866 (accessed 02.16.2011).

[No authors listed.] 2008. Phosphatidylserine. Monograph. Altern. Med. Rev., 13 (3), 245–247. URL (PDF): http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/13/3/245.pdf (accessed 02.15.2011).

Starks, M., et al. 2008. The effects of phosphatidylserine on endocrine response to moderate intensity exercise. J. Int. Soc. Sports Nutr., 5 (1), 11. URL: http://www.jissn.com/content/5/1/11 (accessed 01.20.2011).

Jäger, R., et al. 2007. The effect of phosphatidylserine on golf performance. J. Int. Soc. Sports Nutr., 4 (1), 23. URL: http://www.jissn.com/content/4/1/23 (accessed 02.16.2011).

Kingsley, M., et al. 2006. Effects of phosphatidylserine on exercise capacity during cycling in active males. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 38 (1), 64–71. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16394955 (accessed 02.16.2011).

Kingsley, M. 2006. Effects of phosphatidylserine supplementation on exercising humans. Sports Med., 36 (8), 657–69. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16869708 (accessed 02.16.2011).

Kataoka–Kato, A., et al. 2005. Enhanced learning of normal adult rodents by repeated oral administration of soybean transphosphatidylated phosphatidylserine. J. Pharmacol. Sci., 98, 307–314. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jphs/98/3/98_307/_article (accessed 02.16.2011).

Kingsley, M., et al. 2005. Effects of phosphatidylserine on oxidative stress following intermittent running. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 37 (8), 1300–1306. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16118575 (accessed 02.16.2011).

Hellhammer, J., et al. 2004. Effects of soy lecithin phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine complex (PAS) on the endocrine and psychological responses to mental stress. Stress, 7 (2), 119–126. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15512856 (accessed 01.31.2011).

McDaniel, M., et al. 2003. “Brain-specific” nutrients: A memory cure? Nutrition, 19 (11–12), 957–975. URL (PDF): http://www.psychologicalscience.org/journals/pspi/pdf/pspi312.pdf (accessed 01.31.2011).

Jorissen, B., et al. 2002. Safety of soy-derived phosphatidylserine in elderly people. Nutr. Neurosci., 5 (5), 337–343. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12385596 (accessed 01.20.2011).

Benton, D. et al. 2001. The influence of phosphatidylserine supplementation on mood and heart rate when faced with an acute stressor. Nutr. Neurosci., 4 (3), 169–178. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11842886 (accessed 01.20.2011).

Suzuki, S., et al. 2001. Oral administration of soybean lecithin transphophatidylate phosphatidylserine improves memory impairment in aged rats. J. Nutr., 131, 2951–2956. URL: http://jn.nutrition.org/content/131/11/2951.long (accessed 02.18.2011).

Blokland, A., et al. 1999. Cognition-enhancing properties of subchronic phosphatidylserine (PS) treatment in middle-aged rats: Comparison of bovine cortex PS with egg PS and soybean PS. Nutrition, 15 (10), 778–783. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10501292 (accessed 02.07.2011).

Kelly, G. 1999. Nutritional and botanical interventions to assist with the adaptation to stress. Altern. Med. Rev., 4 (4), 249–265. URL (PDF): http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/4/4/249.pdf (accessed 01.20.2011).

Fahey, T., & Pearl, M. 1998. The hormonal and perceptive effects of phosphatidylserine administration during two weeks of resistive exercise-induced overtraining. Biol. Sport, 15, 135–144.

Furushiro, M., et al. 1997. Effects of oral administration of soybean lecithin transphosphatidylated phosphatidylserine on impaired learning of passive avoidance in mice. Jpn. J. Pharmacol., 75, 447–450. URL: http://www.journalarchive.jst.go.jp/english/jnlabstract_en.php?cdjournal=jphs1951&cdvol=75&noissue=4&startpage=447 (accessed 02.18.2011).

Pepeu, G., et al. 1996. A review of phosphatidylserine pharmacological and clinical effects. Is phosphatidylserine a drug for the ageing brain? Pharmacol Res., 33 (2), 73–80. URL (no abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8870022 (accessed 02.18.2011).

Cenacchi, B., et al. 1993. Cognitive decline in the elderly: A double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study on efficacy of phosphatidylserine administration. Aging, 5 (2), 123–133. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8323999 (accessed 02.18.2011).

Cohen, S., & Muller, W. 1992. Age-related alterations of NMDA-receptor properties in the mouse forebrain: Partial restoration by chronic phosphatidylserine treatment. Brain Res., 584, 174–180. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1355390 (accessed 02.01.2011).

Crook, T., et al. 1992. Effects of phosphatidylserine in Alzheimer’s disease. Psychopharmacol. Bull, 28 (1), 61–66. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1609044 (accessed 02.18.2011).

Engel, R., et al. 1992. Double-blind cross-over study of phosphatidylserine vs. placebo in patients with early dementia of the Alzheimer type. Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol., 2 (2), 149–155. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1633433 (accessed 02.18.2011).

Monteleone, P., et al. 1992. Blunting by chronic phosphatidylserine administration of the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy men. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol., 42 (4), 385–388. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1325348 (accessed 01.31.2011).

Casamenti, F., et al. 1991. Phosphatidyl serine reverses the age-dependent decrease in cortical acetylcholine release: A microdialysis study. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 194 (1), 11–16. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2060587 (accessed 02.01.2011).

Crook, T., et al. 1991. Effects of Phosphatidylserine in age-associated memory impairment. Neurol., 41 (5), 644–649. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2027477 (accessed 02.18.2011).

Drago, F., et al. 1991. Protective action of phosphatidylserine on stress-induced behavioral and autonomic changes in aged rats. Neurobiol. Aging, 12 (5), 437–440. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1770977 (accessed 02.18.2011).

Klinkhammer, P., et al. 1990. Effect of phosphatidylserine on cerebral glucose metabolism in Alzheimer’s disease. Dementia, 1, 197–201. URL (abstract): http://content.karger.com/ProdukteDB/produkte.asp?Doi=107142 (accessed 02.08.2011).

Maggioni, M., et al. 1990. Effects of phosphatidylserine therapy in geriatric patients with depressive disorders. Acta Psychiatr. Scand., 81 (3), 265–270. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1693032 (accessed 02.18.2011).

Monteleone, P., et al. 1990. Effects of phosphatidylserine on the neuroendocrine response to physical stress in humans. Neuroendocrinology, 52 (3), 243–248. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2170852 (accessed 01.31.2011).

Rosadini, G., et al. 1990–1991. Phosphatidylserine: Quantitative EEG effects in healthy volunteers. Neuropsychobiology, 24 (1), 42–48. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2132640 (accessed 02.18.2011).

Vannucchi, M., et al. 1990. Decrease of acetylcholine release from cortical slices in aged rats: Investigations into its reversal by phosphatidylserine. J. Neurochem., 55 (3), 819–825. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2384755 (accessed 02.01.2011).

Lombardi, G. 1989. [Pharmacological treatment with phosphatidyl serine of 40 ambulatory patients with senile dementia syndrome]. Minerva Med.,;80 (6), 599–602. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2747990 (accessed 02.18.2011).

Slack, B., et al. 1989. Uptake of exogenous phosphatidylserine by human neuroblastoma cells stimulates the incorporation of [methyl-14C]choline into phosphatidylcholine. J. Neurochem., 53 (2), 472–481. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2746233 (accessed 02.08.2011).

Stockert, M., et al. 1989. In vivo action of phosphatidylserine, amitriptyline and stress on the binding of [3H] imipramine to membranes of the rat cerebral cortex. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 160 (1), 11–16. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2714356 (accessed 02.18.2011).

Amaducci, L. 1988. Phosphatidylserine in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: Results of a multicenter study. Psychopharmacol. Bull., 24 (1), 130–134. URL (no abstract available): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3290936 (accessed 02.08.2011).

Blusztajn, J., et al. 1987. Phospholipids in cellular survival and growth. In Hanin, I., & Ansell, G. (eds.), Lecithin: Technological, biological, and therapeutic aspects, 85–94. NY: Plenum Press.

Nunzi, M., et al. 1987. Dendritic spine loss in hippocampus of aged rats: Effects of brain phosphatidylserine administration. Neurobiol. Aging, 8, 501–510. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3431625 (accessed 02.01.2011).

Toffano, 1987. The therapeutic value of phosphatidylserine effect in the aging brain. In Hanin, I., & Ansell, G. (eds.), Lecithin: Technological, biological, and therapeutic aspects, 137–146. NY: Plenum Press.


Passionflower (Passiflora incarnata)

Ngan, A., & Conduit, R. 2011. A double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the effects of Passiflora incarnata (passionflower) herbal tea on subjective sleep quality. Phytother. Res. [Epub ahead of print]. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21294203 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Natural Standard. 2011. Passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.). Professional monograph. URL (subscription required): http://naturalstandard.com/databases/herbssupplements/all/passionflower.asp (accessed 01.31.2011).

Appel, K., et al. 2010. Modulation of the ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system by Passiflora incarnata L. Phytother. Res. [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21089181 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Boeira, J., et al. 2010. Toxicity and genotoxicity evaluation of Passiflora alata Curtis (Passifloraceae). J. Ethnopharmacol., 128 (2), 526–532. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&cmd=prlinks&retmode=ref&id=19799991 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Cravotto, G., et al. 2010. Phytotherapeutics: An evaluation of the potential of 1000 plants. J. Clin. Pharm. Ther., 35 (1), 11–48. Review. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20175810 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Deng, J., et al. 2010. Anxiolytic and sedative activities of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa. J. Ethnopharmacol., 128, 148–153. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&cmd=prlinks&retmode=ref&id=20051259 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Elsas, S., et al. 2010. Passiflora incarnata L. (Passionflower) extracts elicit GABA currents in hippocampal neurons in vitro, and show anxiogenic and anticonvulsant effects in vivo, varying with extraction method. Phytomedicine, 17 (12), 940–949. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20382514 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Faustino, T., et al. 2010. [Medicinal plants for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: A review of controlled clinical studies.] Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr., 32 (4), 429–436. URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462010000400017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en (accessed 02.14.2011).

Fiebich, B., et al. 2010. Pharmacological studies in an herbal drug combination of St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) and passion flower (Passiflora incarnata): In vitro and in vivo evidence of synergy between Hypericum and Passiflora in antidepressant pharmacological models. Fitoterapia [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21185920 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Holbik, M., et al. 2010. Apparently no sedative benzoflavone moiety in passiflorae herba. Planta Med., 76 (7), 662–664. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20301055 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Lakhan, S., & Vieira, K. 2010. Nutritional and herbal supplements for anxiety and anxiety-related disorders: Systematic review. Nutr. J., 9 (1), 42. URL: http://www.nutritionj.com/content/9/1/42 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Sampath, C., et al. 2010. Anxiolytic effects of fractions obtained from Passiflora incarnata L. in the elevated plus maze in mice. Phytother. Res. [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21077264 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Wohlmuth, H., et al. 2010. Pharmacognosy and chemotypes of passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.). Biol. Pharm. Bull., 33 (6), 1015–1018. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/33/6/33_1015/_article (accessed 09.28.2010).

Carrasco, M., et al. 2009. Interactions of Valeriana officinalis L. and Passiflora incarnata L. in a patient treated with lorazepam. Phytother. Res., 23 (12), 1795–1796. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19441067 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Grundmann, O., et al. 2009. Anxiolytic effects of a passion flower (Passiflora incarnata L.) extract in the elevated plus maze in mice. Pharmazie, 64 (1), 63–64. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19216234 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Tabach, R., et al. 2009. Preclinical toxicological assessment of a phytotherapeutic product — CPV (based on dry extracts of Crataegus oxyacantha L., Passiflora incarnata L., and Valeriana officinalis L.). Phytother. Res., 23 (1), 33–40. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19048610 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Weeks, B. 2009. Formulations of dietary supplements and herbal extracts for relaxation and anxiolytic action: Relarian. Med. Sci. Monit., 15 (11), RA256–RA262. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19865069 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Barbosa, P., et al. 2008. The aqueous extracts of Passiflora alata and Passiflora edulis reduce anxiety-related behaviors without affecting memory process in rats. J. Med. Food, 11 (2), 282–288. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18598170 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Beaumont, D., et al. 2008. The effects of chrysin, a Passiflora incarnata extract, on natural killer cell activity in male Sprague–Dawley rats undergoing abdominal surgery. AANA J., 76 (2), 113–117. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18478816 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Grundmann, O., et al. 2008. Anxiolytic activity of a phytochemically characterized Passiflora incarnata extract is mediated via the GABAergic system. Planta Med., 74 (15), 1769–1773. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19006051 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Masteikova, R., et al. 2008. Antiradical activities of the extract of Passiflora incarnata. Acta Pol. Pharm., 65 (5), 577–583. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19051605 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Movafegh, A., et al. 2008. Preoperative oral Passiflora incarnata reduces anxiety in ambulatory surgery patients: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Anesth. Analg., 106 (6), 1728–1732. URL: http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/106/6/1728.long (accessed 01.28.2011).

Nassiri–Asl, M., et al. 2008. Possible role of GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor in anticonvulsant effects of Pasipay in rats. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao, 6 (11), 1170–1173. URL: http://www.jcimjournal.com/en/showAbstrPage.aspx?articleid=167219772008111170 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Rodriguez–Fragoso, L., et al. 2008. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in México. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 227 (1), 125–135. URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2322858/?tool=pubmed (accessed 02.14.2011).

Zhai, K., et al. 2008. Chrysin induces hyperalgesia via the GABAA receptor in mice. Planta Med., 74 (10), 1229–1234. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18612941 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Brown, E., et al. 2007. Evaluation of the anxiolytic effects of chrysin, a Passiflora incarnata extract, in the laboratory rat. AANA J., 75 (5), 333–337. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17966676 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Lolli, L., et al. 2007. Possible involvement of GABA A-benzodiazepine receptor in the anxiolytic-like effect induced by Passiflora actinia extracts in mice. J. Ethnopharmacol., 111 (2), 308–314. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17196350 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Miyasaka, L., et al. 2007. Passiflora for anxiety disorder. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. (1), CD004518. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17253512 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Nassiri-Asl, M., et al. 2007. Anticonvulsant effects of aerial parts of Passiflora incarnata extract in mice: Involvement of benzodiazepine and opioid receptors. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 7, 26. URL: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/7/26 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Sarris, J. 2007. Herbal medicines in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: A systematic review. Phytother. Res., 21 (8), 703–716. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17562566 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Capasso, A., & Sorrentino, L. 2005. Pharmacological studies on the sedative and hypnotic effect of kava kava and Passiflora extracts combination. Phytomedicine, 12 (1–2), 39–45. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15693706 (accessed 02.14.2011).

[No authors listed.] 2005. Management of insomnia: A place for traditional herbal remedies. Prescrire Int., 14 (77), 104–107. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15984105 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Santos, K., et al. 2005. Passiflora actinia Hooker extracts and fractions induce catalepsy in mice. J. Ethnopharmacol., 100 (3), 306–309. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15882936 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Ulbricht, C., & Basch, E., Eds. 2005. Natural Standard Herb & Supplement Reference: Evidence-based Clinical Reviews. Natural Standard Research Collaboration. NY: Elsevier Mosby.

Dhawan, K., et al. 2004. Passiflora: A review update. J. Ethnopharmacol., 94 (1), 1–23. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15261959 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Peeters, E., et al. 2004. Effect of supplemental tryptophan, vitamin E, and a herbal product on responses by pigs to vibration. J. Anim. Sci., 82 (8), 2410–2420. URL: http://jas.fass.org/cgi/content/full/82/8/2410 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Wheatley, D. 2005. Medicinal plants for insomnia: A review of their pharmacology, efficacy and tolerability. J. Psychopharmacol., 19 (4), 414–421. Review. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15982998 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Hidaka, M., et al. 2004. Potent inhibition by star fruit of human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity. Drug Metab. Dispos., 32 (6), 581–583. URL: http://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/32/6/581.long (accessed 01.28.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2003. Attenuation of benzodiazepine dependence in mice by a tri-substituted benzoflavone moiety of Passiflora incarnata Linnaeus: A non-habit forming anxiolytic. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci., 6 (2), 215–222. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12935433 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Dhawan, K. 2003. Drug/substance reversal effects of a novel tri-substituted benzoflavone moiety (BZF) isolated from Passiflora incarnata Linn. — a brief perspective. Addict. Biol., 8 (4), 379–386. Review. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14690874 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Dhawan, K., & Sharma, A. 2003. Restoration of chronic-Delta 9-THC-induced decline in sexuality in male rats by a novel benzoflavone moiety from Passiflora incarnata Linn. Br. J. Pharmacol., 138 (1), 117–120. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1573641/?tool=pubmed (accessed 02.09.2011).

Dhawan, K., & Sharma, A. 2002. Antitussive activity of the methanol extract of Passiflora incarnata leaves. Fitoterapia, 73 (5), 397–399. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12165335 (accessed 02.15.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2002. Beneficial effects of chrysin and benzoflavone on virility in 2-year-old male rats. J. Med. Food, 5 (1), 43–48. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12511112 (accessed 02.15.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2002. Comparative anxiolytic activity profile of various preparations of Passiflora incarnata Linneaus: A comment on medicinal plants’ standardization. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 8 (3), 283–291. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12165186 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2002. Nicotine reversal effects of the benzoflavone moiety from Passiflora incarnata Linneaus in mice. Addict. Biol., 7 (4), 435–441. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14690874 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2002. Reversal of cannabinoids (delta9-THC) by the benzoflavone moiety from methanol extract of Passiflora incarnata Linnaeus in mice: A possible therapy for cannabinoid addiction. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 54 (6), 875–881. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12244887 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2002. Suppression of alcohol-cessation-oriented hyper-anxiety by the benzoflavone moiety of Passiflora incarnata Linnaeus in mice. J. Ethnopharmacol., 81 (2), 239–244. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12065157 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Krenn, L. 2002. [Passion Flower (Passiflora incarnata L.) — a reliable herbal sedative.] Wien Med. Wochenschr., 152 (15–16), 404–406. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12244887 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Akhondzadeh, S., et al. 2001a. Passionflower in the treatment of opiates withdrawal: A double-blind randomized controlled trial. J. Clin. Pharm. Ther., 26 (5), 369–373. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11679027 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Akhondzadeh, S., et al. 2001b. Passionflower in the treatment of generalized anxiety: A pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial with oxazepam. J. Clin. Pharm. Ther., 26, 363–367. URL (abstract): http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2710.2001.00367.x/abstract (accessed 01.28.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2001. Anti-anxiety studies on extracts of Passiflora incarnata Linnaeus. J. Ethnopharmacol., 78 (2–3), 165–170. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11694362 (accessed 01.26.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2001. Comparative biological activity study on Passiflora incarnata and P. edulis. Fitoterapia, 72 (6), 698–702. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11543974 (accessed 02.15.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2001. Correct identification of Passiflora incarnata Linn., a promising herbal anxiolytic and sedative. J. Med. Food, 4 (3), 137–144. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12639407 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Fisher, A., et al. 2000. Toxicity of Passiflora incarnata L. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol., 38 (1), 63–66. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10696928 (accessed 02.15.2011).

Bourin, M., et al. 1997. A combination of plant extracts in the treatment of outpatients with adjustment disorder with anxious mood: Controlled study versus placebo. Fundamental. Clin. Pharmacol., 11 (2), 127–132. URL (abstract): http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1472-8206.1997.tb00179.x/abstract (accessed 01.27.2011).

Salgueiro, J., et al. 1997. Anxiolytic natural and synthetic flavonoid ligands of the central benzodiazepine receptor have no effect on memory tasks in rats. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 58 (4), 887–891. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9408191 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Soulimani, R., et al. 1997. Behavioral effects of Passiflora incarnata L. and its indole alkaloid and flavonoid derivatives and maltol in the mouse. J. Ethnopharmacol., 57 (1), 11–20. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9234160 (accessed 02.15.2011).

Rommelspacher, H., et al. 1994. Harman (1-methyl-beta-carboline) is a natural inhibitor of monoamine oxidase type A in rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 252 (1), 51–59. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8149995 (accessed 01.27.2011).

Wolfman, C., et al. 1994. Possible anxiolytic effects of chrysin, a central benzodiazepine receptor ligand isolated from Passiflora coerulea. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 47 (1), 1–4. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7906886 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Medina, J., et al. 1990. Chrysin (5,7-di-OH-flavone), a naturally-occurring ligand for benzodiazepine receptors, with anticonvulsant properties. Biochem. Pharmacol., 40 (10), 2227–2231. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2173925 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Speroni, E., & Minghetti, A. 1988. Neuropharmacological activity of extracts from Passiflora incarnata. Planta Med., 54 (6), 588–491. URL (abstract): https://www.thieme-connect.com/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-2006-962525 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Aoyagi, N., et al. 1974. Studies on Passiflora incarnata dry extract. I. Isolation of maltol and pharmacological action of maltol and ethyl maltol. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo), 22 (5), 1008–1013). URL (no abstract available): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4421168 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Average Ratings

100% recommend Calming Combo

Overall Rating:
Quality:
Satisfaction:
Customer Service:

Showing all 5 reviews

Review by Mslgs on 04/01/2017

Would Recommend: Yes
Overall Rating:
Quality:
Satisfaction:
Customer Service:
It think it really has an effect on your symptoms after 2 weeks for me... I am definitely calmer... still get sweats but not as often or interruptive of my sleep. It's working. Diet would probably make it extra effective

Review by Jojo on 03/12/2017

Would Recommend: Yes
Overall Rating:
Quality:
Satisfaction:
Customer Service:
The products are great but be patient- they take a while to take effect!

Review by Sandy on 12/24/2016

Would Recommend: Yes
Overall Rating:
Quality:
Satisfaction:
Customer Service:
I have recommended this to co workers. they have ordered and like it as much as i do quality product at fair price and it works great. Thank you

Review by Laila on 10/09/2016

Would Recommend: Yes
Overall Rating:
Quality:
Satisfaction:
Customer Service:
It really helps to make you feel better, look better and healthier. It's Awesome to feel great again. Very happy with womenshealthnetwork. Thank you so much.

Review by Kathy on 09/10/2016

Would Recommend: Yes
Overall Rating:
Quality:
Satisfaction:
Customer Service: