Urinary System Support


Allen, F. M. Blueberry leaf extract: Physiologic and clinical properties in relation to carbohydrate metabolism. 89:1577-81, 1927. JAMA 1927;89:1577-1581.

Amouretti, M. [Therapeutic value of Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides in an internal medicine department]. Therapeutique. 1972;48(9):579-581.

Bao L, Yao XS, Tsi D, et al. Protective effects of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extract on KBrO3-induced kidney damage in mice. J Agric Food Chem 2008;56:420-5.

Bao L, Yao XS, Yau CC, et al. Protective effects of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extract on restraint stress-induced liver damage in mice. J Agric Food Chem 2008;56:7803-7.

Bertuglia, S., Malandrino, S., and Colantuoni, A. Effect of Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides on ischaemia reperfusion injury in hamster cheek pouch microcirculation. Pharmacol Res 1995;31(3-4):183-187.

Bettini V, Mayellaro F, Ton P, and et al. Interactions between

Bettini V. Effects of Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides on vascular smooth muscle. Fitoterapia 1984;55(5):265-272.

Bever B. Plants with oral hypoglycemic action. Q J Crude Drugs Res 1979;17:139-196.

Biedermann L, Mwinyi J, Scharl M, Frei P, Zeitz J, Kullak-Ublick GA, et al. Bilberry ingestion improves disease activity in mild to moderate ulcerative colitis-an open pilot study. 2013 May;7(4):271-9.

Blumenthal M, ed. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Trans. S. Klein. Boston, MA: American Botanical Council, 1998.

Bomser, J., Madhavi, D. L., Singletary, K., and Smith, M. A. In vitro anticancer activity of fruit extracts from Vaccinium species. Planta Med 1996;62(3):212-216.

Boniface, R. and Robert, A. M. [Effect of anthocyanins on human connective tissue metabolism in the human]. Klin Monatsbl.Augenheilkd. 1996;209(6):368-372.

Bottecchia D. Preliminary report on the inhibitory effect of vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides on platelet aggregation and clot retraction. Fitoterapia 1987;48:3-8.

Brantner, A. and Grein, E. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts used externally in traditional medicine. J Ethnopharmacol 1994;44(1):35-40.

Bravetti GO, Fraboni E, and Maccolini E. Preventive medical treatment of senile cataract with vitamin E and Vaccinium Myrtillus anthocyanosides: Clinical evaluation. Ann Ottalmol Clin Ocul 1989;115:109-116.

Buliero G. The inhibitory effects of anthocyanosides on human platelet aggregation. Fitoterapia 1989;60:69.

Burdulis D, Ivanauskas L, Dirse V, et al. Study of diversity of anthocyanin composition in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) fruits. Medicina (Kaunas) 2007;43:971-7.

Canter PH, Ernst E. Anthocyanosides of Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry) for night vision--a systematic review of placebo-controlled trials. Surv Ophthalmol 2004;49:38-50.

Chatterjee, A., Yasmin, T., Bagchi, D., and Stohs, S. J. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori in vitro by various berry extracts, with enhanced susceptibility to clarithromycin. Mol.Cell Biochem. 2004;265(1-2):19-26.

Cignarella A, Nastasi M, Cavalli E, Puglisi L. Novel lipid-lowering properties of Vaccinium myrtillus L. leaves, a traditional antidiabetic treatment, in several models of rat dyslipidaemia: a comparison with ciprofibrate. Thromb Res 1996;84:311-22.

Cirla, A. M., Cirla, P. E., Parmiani, S., and Pecora, S. A pre-seasonal birch/hazel sublingual immunotherapy can improve the outcome of grass pollen injective treatment in bisensitized individuals. A case-referent, two-year controlled study. Allergol.Immunopathol.(Madr.) 2003;31(1):31-43.

Cluzel, C., Bastide, P., Wegman, R., and Tronche, P. [Enzymatic activities of retina and anthocyanoside extracts of Vaccinium myrtillus (lactate dehydrogenase, alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, 5-nucleotidase, phosphoglucose isomerase)]. Biochem.Pharmacol 1970;19(7):2295-2302.

Coget, J. and Merlen, J. F. [Clinical study of a new chemical agent for vascular protection, Difrarel 20, composed of anthocyanosides extracted from Vaccinum Myrtillus]. Phlebologie 1968;21(2):221-228.

Colantuoni, A., Bertuglia, S., Magistretti, M. J., and Donato, L. Effects of Vaccinium Myrtillus anthocyanosides on arterial vasomotion. Arzneimittelforschung. 1991;41(9):905-909.

Colombo D and Vescovini R. Controlled clinical trial of anthocyanosides from Vaccinium myrtillus in primary dysmenorrhea. G Ital Obstet Ginecol 1985;7:1033-1038.

Cravotto, G., Boffa, L., Genzini, L., and Garella, D. Phytotherapeutics: an evaluation of the potential of 1000 plants. J Clin Pharm Ther 2010;35(1):11-48.

Cristoni, A. and Magistretti, M. J. Antiulcer and healing activity of Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides. Farmaco [Prat.] 1987;42(2):29-43.

de Mello, V. D., Schwab, U., Kolehmainen, M., Koenig, W., Siloaho, M., Poutanen, K., Mykkanen, H., and Uusitupa, M. A diet high in fatty fish, bilberries and wholegrain products improves markers of endothelial function and inflammation in individuals with impaired glucose metabolism in a randomised controlled trial: the Sysdimet study. Diabetologia 2011;54(11):2755-2767.

Detre, Z., Jellinek, H., Miskulin, M., and Robert, A. M. Studies on vascular permeability in hypertension: action of anthocyanosides. Clin Physiol Biochem. 1986;4(2):143-149.

Edwards AM, Blackburn L Christie S Townsend S David J. Food supplements in the treatment of primary fibromyalgia: a double-blind, crossover trial of anthocyanidins and placebo. Journal of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine 2000;10:189-199.

Egorov, E. A., Gvetadze, A. A., and Vinogradova, E. P. [Efficacy of vision correcting system "focus" for prevention and treatment of dry form of age macular degeneration]. Vestn.Oftalmol. 2012;128(1):44-46.

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182

Erlund I, Marniemi J, Hakala P, et al. Consumption of black currants, lingonberries and bilberries increases serum quercetin concentrations. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003;57:37-42.

Erlund, I., Koli, R., Alfthan, G., Marniemi, J., Puukka, P., Mustonen, P., Mattila, P., and Jula, A. Favorable effects of berry consumption on platelet function, blood pressure, and HDL cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87(2):323-331.

Fdez, M., Zaragoza, F., and Alvarez, P. In vitro platelet aggregation effects of anthocyanosides of vaccinium myrtilus L. Anales de la Real Academia de Farmacia 1983;49:79-90.

Fraisse D, Carnat A, Lamaison JL. [Polyphenolic composition of the leaf of bilberry]. Ann Pharm Fr 1996;54:280-3.

Fuchikami H, Satoh H, Tsujimoto M, Ohdo S, Ohtani H, Sawada Y. Effects of herbal extracts on the function of human organic anion-transporting polypeptide OATP-B. Drug Metab Dispos 2006;34:577-82.

Gabor, M. Pharmacologic effects of flavonoids on blood vessels. Angiologica. 1972;9(3-6):355-374.

Gatta L. Experimental single-blind study: 60 pts with venous insufficiency received Bilberry extract equivalent to 173 mg anthocyanins daily or placebo for 30 days. Fitoterapia 1988;59 (suppl 1):19.

Ghiringhelli, C., Gregoratti, L., and Marastoni, F. [Capillarotropic action of anthocyanosides in high dosage in phlebopathic statis]. Minerva Cardioangiol 1978;26(4):255-276.

Gottikh, M. B. and Tashlitskii, V. N. [Determination of the qualitative and quantitative composition of antocyan pigments as components of dietary supplements and drugs for vision]. Vestn.Oftalmol. 2010;126(5):34-37.

Granfeldt, Y. E. and Bjorck, I. M. A bilberry drink with fermented oatmeal decreases postprandial insulin demand in young healthy adults. Nutr.J. 2011;10:57.

Havsteen, B. Flavonoids, a class of natural products of high pharmacological potency. Biochem.Pharmacol 4-1-1983;32(7):1141-1148.

Hawrelak, J. A. and Myers, S. P. Effects of two natural medicine formulations on irritable bowel syndrome symptoms: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med 2010;16(10):1065-1071.

Hoggard N, Cruickshank M, Moar KM, Bestwick C, Holst J, Russell W, et al. A single supplement of a standardized bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extract (36% wet weight anthocyanins) modifies glycaemic response in individuals with type 2 diabetes controlled by diet and lifestyle. J Nutr Sci. 2013 Jul;2(e22):1-9.

Ichiyanagi T, Shida Y, Rahman MM, et al. Bioavailability and tissue distribution of anthocyanins in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extract in rats. J Agric Food Chem 2006;54:6578-87.

Jayle GE and Aubert L. Action des glucosides d'anthocyanes sur la vision scotopique et mésopique du sujet normal. Therapie 1964;19:171-185.

Jayle, G. E., Aubry, M., Gavini, H., Braccini, G., and De la Baume, C. [Study concerning the action of anthocyanoside extracts of Vaccinium Myrtillus on night vision]. Ann Ocul (Paris) 1965;198(6):556-562.

Jensen, I. J., Abrahamsen, H., Maehre, H. K., and Elvevoll, E. O. Changes in antioxidative capacity of saithe (Pollachius virens) and shrimp (Pandalus borealis) during in vitro digestion. J.Agric.Food Chem. 11-25-2009;57(22):10928-10932.

Jonadet, M., Meunier, M. T., Bastide, J., and Bastide, P. [Anthocyanosides extracted from Vitis vinifera, Vaccinium myrtillus and Pinus maritimus. I. Elastase-inhibiting activities in vitro. II. Compared angioprotective activities in vivo]. J Pharm Belg 1983;38(1):41-46.

Kadar, A., Robert, L., Miskulin, M., Tixier, J. M., Brechemier, D., and Robert, A. M. Influence of anthocyanoside treatment on the cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis in the rabbit. Paroi.Arterielle. 1979;5(4):187-205.

Kamiya K, Kobashi H, Fujiwara K, Ando W, Shimizu K. Effect of fermented bilberry extract on visual outcomes in eyes with myopia: a prospective, randomized, placbo-controlled study. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Apr;29(3):256-9.

Karlsen, A., Paur, I., Bohn, S. K., Sakhi, A. K., Borge, G. I., Serafini, M., Erlund, I., Laake, P., Tonstad, S., and Blomhoff, R. Bilberry juice modulates plasma concentration of NF-kappaB related inflammatory markers in subjects at increased risk of CVD. Eur.J.Nutr. 2010;49(6):345-355.

Karlsen, A., Retterstol, L., Laake, P., Paur, I., Bohn, S. K., Sandvik, L., and Blomhoff, R. Anthocyanins inhibit nuclear factor-kappaB activation in monocytes and reduce plasma concentrations of pro-inflammatory mediators in healthy adults. J.Nutr. 2007;137(8):1951-1954.

Kawabata, F. and Tsuji, T. Effects of dietary supplementation with a combination of fish oil, bilberry extract, and lutein on subjective symptoms of asthenopia in humans. Biomed Res 2011;32(6):387-393.

Kolehmainen, M., Mykkanen, O., Kirjavainen, P. V., Leppanen, T., Moilanen, E., Adriaens, M., Laaksonen, D. E., Hallikainen, M., Puupponen-Pimia, R., Pulkkinen, L., Mykkanen, H., Gylling, H., Poutanen, K., and Torronen, R. Bilberries reduce low-grade inflammation in individuals with features of metabolic syndrome. Mol Nutr Food Res 2012;56(10):1501-1510.

Koli, R., Erlund, I., Jula, A., Marniemi, J., Mattila, P., and Alfthan, G. Bioavailability of various polyphenols from a diet containing moderate amounts of berries. J.Agric.Food Chem. 4-14-2010;58(7):3927-3932.

Lagrue G, Robert AM, Miskulin M, and et al. Pathology of the microcirculation in diabetes and alterations of the biosynthesis of intercellular matrix macromolecules. Front Matrix Biol 1979;7:324-335.

Lankinen, M., Schwab, U., Kolehmainen, M., Paananen, J., Poutanen, K., Mykkanen, H., Seppanen-Laakso, T., Gylling, H., Uusitupa, M., and Oresic, M. Whole grain products, fish and bilberries alter glucose and lipid metabolism in a randomized, controlled trial: the Sysdimet study. PLoS One 2011;6(8):e22646.

Laplaud, P. M., Lelubre, A., and Chapman, M. J. Antioxidant action of Vaccinium myrtillus extract on human low density lipoproteins in vitro: initial observations. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 1997;11(1):35-40.

Lehtonen, H. M., Suomela, J. P., Tahvonen, R., Yang, B., Venojarvi, M., Viikari, J., and Kallio, H. Different berries and berry fractions have various but slightly positive effects on the associated variables of metabolic diseases on overweight and obese women. Eur J Clin Nutr 2011;65(3):394-401.

Leonardi, M. [Treatment of fibrocystic disease of the breast with myrtillus anthocyanins. Our experience]. Minerva Ginecol 1993;45(12):617-621.

Levy Y, Glovinsky Y. The effect of anthocyanosides on night vision. Eye 1998;12:967-9..

Lietti A, Cristoni A, Picci M. Studies on Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides. I. Vasoprotective and antiinflammatory activity. Arzneimittelforschung 1976;26:829-32.

Lietti A, Forni G. Studies on Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides. II. Aspects of anthocyanins pharmacokinetics in the rat. Arzneimittelforschung 1976;26:832-5.

Lietti, A., Cristoni, A., and Picci, M. Studies on Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides. I. Vasoprotective and antiinflammatory activity. Arzneimittelforschung. 1976;26(5):829-832.

Lyons MM, Yu C, Toma RB, et al. Resveratrol in raw and baked blueberries and bilberries. J Agric Food Chem 2003;51:5867-70.

Magistretti MJ, Conti M, Cristoni A. Antiulcer activity of an anthocyanidin from Vaccinium myrtillus. Arzneimittelforschung 1988;38:686-90.

Martin-Aragon S, Basabe B, Benedi J, and et all. Antioxidant action of Vaccinium myrtillus L. Phytotherapy 1998;46:S104-S106.

Martin-Aragon S, Basabe B, Benedi JM, and et all. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties of Vaccinium myrtillus. Pharmaceutical Biology 1999;37(2):109-113.

Matsunaga N, Chikaraishi Y, Shimazawa M, et al. Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry) extracts reduce angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2010;7:47-56.

Mertz-Nielsen, A., Munck, L. K., Bukhave, K., and Rask-Madsen, J. A natural flavonoid, IdB 1027, increases gastric luminal release of prostaglandin E2 in healthy subjects. Ital J Gastroenterol. 1990;22(5):288-290.

Mian E. Anthocyanosides and microvessel walls: new findings on the mechanism of action of their protective effect in syndromes due to abnormal capillary fragility. Minerva Med 1977;68(52):3565-3581.

Milbury, P. E., Graf, B., Curran-Celentano, J. M., and Blumberg, J. B. Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) anthocyanins modulate heme oxygenase-1 and glutathione S-transferase-pi expression in ARPE-19 cells. Invest Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci 2007;48(5):2343-2349.

Mitcheva, M., Astroug, H., Drenska, D., Popov, A., and Kassarova, M. Biochemical and morphological studies on the effects of anthocyans and vitamin E on carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury. Cell Microbiol 1993;39(4):443-448.

Monographs on the medicinal uses of plant drugs. Exeter, UK: European Scientific Co-op Phytother, 1997.

Morazzoni P and Bombardelli E. Vaccinium myrtillus L. Fitoterapia 1996;66:3-29.

Morazzoni P and Magistretti MJ. Effects of Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides on prostacyclin-like activity in rat arterial issue. Fitoterapia 1986;57:11-14.

Morazzoni P, Magistretti MJ. Activity of Myrtocyan, an anthosyanoside complex from Vaccinium myrtillus (VMA), on platelet aggregation and adhesiveness. Fitoterapia 1990;61:13-21.

Morazzoni, P., Livio, S., Scilingo, A., and Malandrino, S. Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides pharmacokinetics in rats. Arzneimittelforschung. 1991;41(2):128-131.

Mosci C, Fioretto M, Polizzi A, and et all. The influence of procyanidolic anthocyanosides on macular recovery time and oscillatory potentials in the diabetic subject. Annli di Ottalmologi e Clinica Oculistica 1988;114:473-479.

Muth ER, Laurent JM, Jasper P.The effect of bilberry nutritional supplementation on night visual acuity andcontrast sensitivity. Altern Med Rev 2000;5:164-73.

Neef H, Declercq P, and Laekeman G. Hypoglycaemic activity of selected European plants. Phytotherapy Research 1995;9:45-48.

Pautler, E. L., Maga, J. A., and Tengerdy, C. A pharmacologically potent natural product in the bovine retina. Exp.Eye Res 1986;42(3):285-288.

Perossini M and et al. Diabetic and hypertensive retinopathy therapy with Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides (Tegens): Double blind placebo controlled clinical trial. Annali di Ottalmaologia e Clinica Oculistica 1987;113:1173-1190.

Perossini M, Guidi G, Chiellini S, Siravo D. [Diabetic and hypertensive retinopathy therapy with Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides (Tegens). Double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial]. Ann Ottalmol Clin Ocul 1987;113:1173-7.

Prior R, Cao G, Martin A, and et all. Antioxidant capacity as influence by total phenolic and anthocyanin content, maturity, and variety of Vaccinium species. J Agricult Food Chem 1998;46:2686-2693.

Prudden JF. The treatment of human cancer with agents prepared from bovine cartilage. J Biol Response Mod 1985;4:551-84.

Pulliero G, Montin S, Bettini V, and et al. Ex vivo study of the inhibitory effects of Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides on human platelet aggregation. Fitoterapia 1989;60:69-75.

Rasetti FRM, Caruso D, Galli G, and et al. Extracts of Ginkgo biloba L. leaves and Vaccinium myrtillus L. fruits prevent photo induced oxidation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Phytomedicine 1997;3:335-338.

Repossi P, Malagola R, and De Cadilhac C. The role of anthocyanosides on vascular permeability in diabetic retinopathy. Ann Ottalmol Clin Ocul 1987;113:357-361.

Rimando, A. M., Kalt, W., Magee, J. B., Dewey, J., and Ballington, J. R. Resveratrol, pterostilbene, and piceatannol in vaccinium berries. J Agric Food Chem 7-28-2004;52(15):4713-4719.

Scharrer A, Ober M. [Anthocyanosides in the treatment of retinopathies]. Kiln Monastbl Augenheilkd 1981;178:386-9.

Shim, S. H., Kim, J. M., Choi, C. Y., Kim, C. Y., and Park, K. H. Ginkgo biloba extract and bilberry anthocyanins improve visual function in patients with normal tension glaucoma. J Med Food 2012;15(9):818-823.

Spinella G. Natural anthocyanosides in treatment of peripheral venous insufficiency. Arch Med Int 1985;37:219.

Steigerwalt, R. D., Gianni, B., Paolo, M., Bombardelli, E., Burki, C., and Schonlau, F. Effects of Mirtogenol on ocular blood flow and intraocular hypertension in asymptomatic subjects. Mol Vis 2008;14:1288-1292.

Tori A and D'Errico F. [Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides in the treatment of stasis venous diseases of the lower limbs.]. Gazz Med Ital 1980;139:217-224.

Tyler VE. Herbs of Choice. Binghamton, NY: Pharmaceutical Products Press, 1994.

Varma, S. D., Mizuno, A., and Kinoshita, J. H. Diabetic cataracts and flavonoids. Science 1-14-1977;195(4274):205-206.

Viana, M., Barbas, C., Bonet, B., Bonet, M. V., Castro, M., Fraile, M. V., and Herrera, E. In vitro effects of a flavonoid-rich extract on LDL oxidation. Atherosclerosis 1996;123(1-2):83-91.

Wichtl MW. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. Ed. N.M. Bisset. Stuttgart: Medpharm GmbH Scientific Publishers, 1994.

Wu, Q. K., Koponen, J. M., Mykkanen, H. M., and Torronen, A. R. Berry phenolic extracts modulate the expression of p21(WAF1) and Bax but not Bcl-2 in HT-29 colon cancer cells. J Agric Food Chem 2-21-2007;55(4):1156-1163.

Zadok D, Levy Y, Glovinskly Y, and et al. The effect of anthocyanosides on night vision tests. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 1997;38(4):S633.

Zadok D, Levy Y, Glovinsky Y, et al. The effect of anthocyanosides on night vision (abstract). Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1997;38:S633.

Zadok, D., Levy, Y., and Glovinsky, Y. The effect of anthocyanosides in a multiple oral dose on night vision. Eye (Lond) 1999;13 ( Pt 6):734-736.

Zaragoza, F., Iglesias, I., and Benedi, J. [Comparative study of the anti-aggregation effects of anthocyanosides and other agents]. Arch Farmacol Toxicol 1985;11(3):183-188.

Zhao, C., Giusti, M. M., Malik, M., Moyer, M. P., and Magnuson, B. A. Effects of commercial anthocyanin-rich extracts on colonic cancer and nontumorigenic colonic cell growth. J Agric.Food Chem. 10-6-2004;52(20):6122-6128.

Zhu, Y., Xia, M., Yang, Y., Liu, F., Li, Z., Hao, Y., Mi, M., Jin, T., and Ling, W. Purified anthocyanin supplementation improves endothelial function via NO-cGMP activation in hypercholesterolemic individuals. Clin.Chem. 2011;57(11):1524-1533.


Ahuja S, Kaack B, Roberts J. Loss of fimbrial adhesion with the addition of Vaccinum macrocarpon to the growth medium of P-fimbriated Escherichia coli. J Urol 1998;159:559-62.

Allison, D. G., Cronin, M. A., Hawker, J., and Freeman, S. Influence of cranberry juice on attachment of Escherichia coli to glass. J Basic Microbiol. 2000;40(1):3-6.

Anon. Possible interaction between warfarin and cranberry juice. Current Problems in Pharmacovigilance 2003;29:8.

Ansell J, McDonough M, Zhao Y, et al. The absence of an interaction between warfarin and cranberry juice: a randomized, double-blind trial. J Clin Pharmacol 2009;49:824-30.

Apostolidis E, Kwon YI, Shetty K. Potential of cranberry-based herbal synergies for diabetes and hypertension management. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2006;15:433-41.

Ariga, T. The antioxidative function, preventive action on disease and utilization of proanthocyanidins. Biofactors 2004;21(1-4):197-201.

Avorn J, Manone M, Gurwitz JH, et al. Reduction of bacteriuria and pyuria after ingestion of cranberry juice. JAMA 1994;271:751-4.

Avorn J, Monane M, Gurwitz J, Glynn R I, Choodnovskiy I, and Lipsitz L A. Reduction of bacteriuria and pyuria using cranberry juice. JAMA 1994;272(8):588-590.

Avorn J. The effect of cranberry juice on the presence of bacteria and white blood cells in the urine of elderly women. What is the role of bacterial adhesion? Adv Exp Med Biol 1996;408:185-6.

Bailey, D. T., Dalton, C., Joseph, Daugherty F., and Tempesta, M. S. Can a concentrated cranberry extract prevent recurrent urinary tract infections in women? A pilot study. Phytomedicine 2007;14(4):237-241.

Barbosa-Cesnik C, Brown MB, Buxton M, et al. Cranberry juice fails to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection: results from a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis 2011;52:23-30.

Basu, A., Betts, N. M., Ortiz, J., Simmons, B., Wu, M., and Lyons, T. J. Low-energy cranberry juice decreases lipid oxidation and increases plasma antioxidant capacity in women with metabolic syndrome. Nutr Res 2011;31(3):190-196.

Beerepoot MA, ter Riet G, Nys S, et al. cranberries vs antibiotics to prevent urinary tract infections: a randomized double-blind noninferiority trial in premenopausal women. Arch Intern Med 2011;171:1270-8.

Beerepoot, M. A., Stobberingh, E. E., and Geerlings, S. E. [A study of non-antibiotic versus antibiotic prophylaxis for recurrent urinary-tract infections in women (the NAPRUTI study)]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 3-11-2006;150(10):574-575.

Bianco, L., Perrelli, E., Towle, V., Van Ness, P. H., and Juthani-Mehta, M. Pilot randomized controlled dosing study of cranberry capsules for reduction of bacteriuria plus pyuria in female nursing home residents. J Am.Geriatr Soc 2012;60(6):1180-1181.

Blacklock CJ, Lawrence JR, Wiles D, et al. Salicylic acid in the serum of subjects not taking aspirin. Comparison of salicylic acid concentrations in the serum of vegetarians, non-vegetarians, and patients taking low dose aspirin. J Clin Pathol 2001;54:553-5.

Blatherwick NR and Long ML. Studies of urinary acidity II: The increased acidity produced by eating prunes and cranberries. J Biol Chem 1923;57:815.

Bodel P, Cotran R, and Kass E. Cranberry juice and the antibacterial action of hippuric acid. J.Lab & Clin.Med. 1959;54(6):881-888.

Bodet, C., Chandad, F., and Grenier, D. Anti-inflammatory activity of a high-molecular-weight cranberry fraction on macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharides from periodontopathogens. J Dent Res 2006;85(3):235-239.

Bodet, C., Chandad, F., and Grenier, D. Cranberry components inhibit interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and prostaglandin E production by lipopolysaccharide-activated gingival fibroblasts. Eur J Oral Sci 2007;115(1):64-70.

Bodet, C., Chandad, F., and Grenier, D. Inhibition of host extracellular matrix destructive enzyme production and activity by a high-molecular-weight cranberry fraction. J Periodontal Res 2007;42(2):159-168.

Bodet, C., Grenier, D., Chandad, F., Ofek, I., Steinberg, D., and Weiss, E. I. Potential oral health benefits of cranberry. Crit Rev.Food Sci Nutr 2008;48(7):672-680.

Boivin, D., Blanchette, M., Barrette, S., Moghrabi, A., and Beliveau, R. Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and suppression of TNF-induced activation of NFkappaB by edible berry juice. Anticancer Res 2007;27(2):937-948.

Bomser J, Madhavi DL, Singletary K, Smith MA. In vitro anticancer activity of fruit extracts from Vaccinium species. Planta Med 1996;62:212-6..

Bonetta A, Di pierro F. Enteric-coated, highly standardized cranberry extract reduces risk of UTIs and urinary symptoms during radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma. Cancer Manag Res. 2012;4:281-6.

Burger O, Ofek I, Tabak M, et al. A high molecular mass constituent of cranberry juice inhibits helicobacter pylori adhesion to human gastric mucus. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2000;29:295-301.

Cadkova, I., Doudova, L., Novackova, M., Huvar, I., and Chmel, R. [Effect of cranberry extract capsules taken during the perioperative period upon the post-surgical urinary infection in gynecology]. Ceska.Gynekol. 2009;74(6):454-458.

Caljouw MA, van den Hout WB, Putter H, Achterberg WP, Cools HJ, Gussekloo J. Effectiveness of cranberry capsules to prevent urinary tract infections in vulnerable older persons: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial in long-term care facilities. J Am Geriatr Soc 2014;62(1):103-10.

Campbell, G., Pickles, T., and D'yachkova, Y. A randomised trial of cranberry versus apple juice in the management of urinary symptoms during external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Clin Oncol.(R.Coll Radiol.) 2003;15(6):322-328.

Chambers BK, Camire ME. Can cranberry supplementation benefit adults with type 2 diabetes? Diabetes Care 2003;26:2695-6.

Chu, Y. F. and Liu, R. H. Cranberries inhibit LDL oxidation and induce LDL receptor expression in hepatocytes. Life Sci 8-26-2005;77(15):1892-1901.

Conquy, S. [Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections?]. Prog Urol 2006;16(4 Suppl FMC):3-4.

Cowan, C. C., Hutchison, C., Cole, T., Barry, S. J., Paul, J., Reed, N. S., and Russell, J. M. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of cranberry juice on decreasing the incidence of urinary symptoms and urinary tract infections in patients undergoing radiotherapy for cancer of the bladder or cervix. Clin.Oncol.(R.Coll.Radiol.) 2012;24(2):e31-e38.

Cravotto, G., Boffa, L., Genzini, L., and Garella, D. Phytotherapeutics: an evaluation of the potential of 1000 plants. J Clin Pharm Ther 2010;35(1):11-48.

Crews, W. D., Jr., Harrison, D. W., Griffin, M. L., Addison, K., Yount, A. M., Giovenco, M. A., and Hazell, J. A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of the neuropsychologic efficacy of cranberry juice in a sample of cognitively intact older adults: pilot study findings. J Altern Complement Med 2005;11(2):305-309.

Di Martino, P., Agniel, R., David, K., Templer, C., Gaillard, J. L., Denys, P., and Botto, H. Reduction of Escherichia coli adherence to uroepithelial bladder cells after consumption of cranberry juice: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled cross-over trial. World J Urol 2006;24(1):21-27.

Dignam R, Ahmed M, Denman S, and et al. The effect of cranberry juice on UTI rates in a long-term care facility. J Amer Geriat Soc 1997;45(9):S53.

Doad GJ, Kabange W. Cranberry juice, atorvastatin and back pain. J Med Assoc Ga 2014;103(1):14.

Dohadwala, M. M., Holbrook, M., Hamburg, N. M., Shenouda, S. M., Chung, W. B., Titas, M., Kluge, M. A., Wang, N., Palmisano, J., Milbury, P. E., Blumberg, J. B., and Vita, J. A. Effects of cranberry juice consumption on vascular function in patients with coronary artery disease. Am.J Clin.Nutr 2011;93(5):934-940.

Duarte, S., Gregoire, S., Singh, A. P., Vorsa, N., Schaich, K., Bowen, W. H., and Koo, H. Inhibitory effects of cranberry polyphenols on formation and acidogenicity of Streptococcus mutans biofilms. FEMS Microbiol.Lett 2006;257(1):50-56.

DuGan C and Cardaciotto P. Reduction of ammoniacal urinary odors by the sustained feeding of cranberry juice. J Psych Nurs 1966;4:467-470.

DuGan CR, Cardaciotto PS. Reduction of ammoniacal urinary odors by the sustained feeding of cranberry juice. J Psychiatr Nurs 1966;467-70.

Duthie GG, Kyle JA, Jenkinson AM, et al. Increased salicylate concentrations in urine of human volunteers after consumption of cranberry juice. J Agric Food Chem 2005;53:2897-2900.

Duthie, S. J., Jenkinson, A. M., Crozier, A., Mullen, W., Pirie, L., Kyle, J., Yap, L. S., Christen, P., and Duthie, G. G. The effects of cranberry juice consumption on antioxidant status and biomarkers relating to heart disease and cancer in healthy human volunteers. Eur.J Nutr 2006;45(2):113-122.

Efros, M., Bromberg, W., Cossu, L., Nakeleski, E., and Katz, A. E. Novel concentrated cranberry liquid blend, UTI-STAT with Proantinox, might help prevent recurrent urinary tract infections in women. Urology 2010;76(4):841-845.

Epp, A., Larochelle, A., Lovatsis, D., Walter, J. E., Easton, W., Farrell, S. A., Girouard, L., Gupta, C., Harvey, M. A., Robert, M., Ross, S., Schachter, J., Schulz, J. A., Wilkie, D., Ehman, W., Domb, S., Gagnon, A., Hughes, O., Konkin, J., Lynch, J., Marshall, C., and Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Recurrent urinary tract infection. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2010;32(11):1082-1101.

Essadi F, Elmehashi MO. Efficacy of cranberry juice for the prevention of urinary tract infections in pregnancy [abstract]. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2010;23:378.

Fanos, V., Atzei, A., Zaffanello, M., Piras, A., and Cataldi, L. Cranberry and prevention of urinary tract infections in children. J Chemother. 2006;18 Spec no 3:21-24.

Ferguson, P. J., Kurowska, E. M., Freeman, D. J., Chambers, A. F., and Koropatnick, J. In vivo inhibition of growth of human tumor lines by flavonoid fractions from cranberry extract. Nutr Cancer 2006;56(1):86-94.

Ferguson, P. J., Kurowska, E., Freeman, D. J., Chambers, A. F., and Koropatnick, D. J. A flavonoid fraction from cranberry extract inhibits proliferation of human tumor cell lines. J Nutr. 2004;134(6):1529-1535.

Ferrara, P., Romaniello, L., Vitelli, O., Gatto, A., Serva, M., and Cataldi, L. Cranberry juice for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections: a randomized controlled trial in children. Scand.J Urol.Nephrol. 2009;43(5):369-372.

Fleet JC. New support for a folk remedy: Cranberry juice reduces bacteriuria and pyuria in elderly women. Nutr Rev 1994;52:168-70.

Foda M, Middlebrook PF, Gatfield CT, and et al. Efficacy of cranberry in prevention of urinary tract infection in a susceptible pediatric population. Canadian J Urology 1995;2(1):98-102.

Foda MM, Middlebrook PF, Gatfield CT, et al. Efficacy of cranberry in prevention of urinary tract infection in a susceptible pediatric population. Can J Urol 1995;2:98-102.

Foo LY, Lu Y, Howell AB, Vorsa N. The structure of cranberry proanthocyanidins which inhibit adherence of uropathogenic P-fimbriated Escherichia coli in vitro. Phytochemistry 2000;54:173-81.

Foxman, B., Geiger, A. M., Palin, K., Gillespie, B., and Koopman, J. S. First-time urinary tract infection and sexual behavior. Epidemiology 1995;6(2):162-168.

Garcia-Calatayud, S., Larreina Cordoba, J. J., and Lozano De La Torre MJ. [Severe cranberry juice poisoning]. An.Esp.Pediatr. 2002;56(1):72-73.

Gettman, M. T., Ogan, K., Brinkley, L. J., Adams-Huet, B., Pak, C. Y., and Pearle, M. S. Effect of cranberry juice consumption on urinary stone risk factors. J Urol 2005;174(2):590-594.

Gibson L, Pike L, and Kilbourne J. Effectiveness of cranberry juice in preventing urinary tract infections in long-term care facility patients. J Naturopath Med 1991;2(1):45-47.

Goodfriend, R. Reduction of bacteriuria and pyuria using cranberry juice. JAMA 8-24-1994;272(8):588-590.

Gotteland, M., Andrews, M., Toledo, M., Munoz, L., Caceres, P., Anziani, A., Wittig, E., Speisky, H., and Salazar, G. Modulation of Helicobacter pylori colonization with cranberry juice and Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 in children. Nutrition 2008;24(5):421-426.

Grant P. Warfarin and cranberry juice: An interaction? J Heart Valve Dis 2004;13:25-6.

Greenblatt DJ, von Moltke LL, Perloff ES, et al. Interaction of flurbiprofen with cranberry juice, grape juice, tea, and fluconazole: in vitro and clinical studies. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2006;79:125-33.

Greenlee, H., White, E., Patterson, R. E., and Kristal, A. R. Supplement use among cancer survivors in the Vitamins and Lifestyle (VITAL) study cohort. J Altern.Complement Med 2004;10(4):660-666.

Griffiths AP, Beddall A, Pegler S. Fatal haemopericardium and gastrointestinal haemorrhage due to possible interaction of cranberry juice with warfarin. J R Soc Promot Health 2008;128(6):324-6.

Habash MB, van der Mei HC, Busscher HJ, Reid G. The effect of water, ascorbic acid, and cranberry derived supplementation on human urine and uropathogen adhesion to silicone rubber. Can J Microbiol 1999;45:691-4.

Haber SL, Cauthon KA, Raney EC. Cranberry and warfarin interaction: a case report and review of the literature. Consult Pharm 2012;27:58-65.

Hamann GL, Campbell JD, George CM. Warfarin-cranberry juice interaction. Ann Pharmacother 2011;45:e17.

Harkins K. What's the use of cranberry juice? Age Ageing 2000;29:9-12.

Haverkorn MJ, Mandigers J. Reduction of bacteriuria and pyuria using cranberry juice. JAMA 1994;272:590.

He, X. and Liu, R. H. Cranberry phytochemicals: Isolation, structure elucidation, and their antiproliferative and antioxidant activities. J Agric Food Chem 9-20-2006;54(19):7069-7074.

Hess, M. J., Hess, P. E., Sullivan, M. R., Nee, M., and Yalla, S. V. Evaluation of cranberry tablets for the prevention of urinary tract infections in spinal cord injured patients with neurogenic bladder. Spinal Cord. 2008;46(9):622-626.

Hodek P, Trefil P, Stiborova M. Flavonoids-potent and versatile biologically active compounds interacting with cytochromes P450. Chem Biol Interact 2002;139:1-21..

Hopkins, W. J., Heisey, D. M., Jonler, M., and Uehling, D. T. Reduction of bacteriuria and pyuria using cranberry juice. JAMA 8-24-1994;272(8):588-589.

Howell AB, Vorsa N, Foo LY, et al. Inhibition of the Adherence of P-Fimbriated Escherichia coli to Uroepithelial-Cell Surfaces by Proanthocyanidin Extracts from Cranberries (letter). N Engl J Med 1998;339:1085-6.

Howell, A. B. and Foxman, B. Cranberry juice and adhesion of antibiotic-resistant uropathogens. JAMA 6-19-2002;287(23):3082-3083.

Howell, A. B., Botto, H., Combescure, C., Blanc-Potard, A. B., Gausa, L., Matsumoto, T., Tenke, P., Sotto, A., and Lavigne, J. P. Dosage effect on uropathogenic Escherichia coli anti-adhesion activity in urine following consumption of cranberry powder standardized for proanthocyanidin content: a multicentric randomized double blind study. BMC.Infect.Dis. 2010;10:94.

Isele, H. [Fatal bleeding under warfarin plus cranberry juice. Is it due to salicylic acid?]. MMW.Fortschr.Med 3-11-2004;146(11):13.

Jackson B, Hicks LE. Effect of cranberry juice on urinary pH in older adults. Home Healthc Nurse 1997;15:199-202.

Jepson RG, Craig JC. A systematic review of the evidence for cranberries and blueberries in UTI prevention. Mol Nutr Food Res 2007;51:738-45.

Jepson RG, Craig JC. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;(1):CD001321.

Jepson RG, Mihaljevic L, Craig J. Cranberries for treating urinary tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;2:CD001322.

Jepson RG, Williams G, Craig JC. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012 17;10:CD001321.

Jepson, R. G., Mihaljevic, L., and Craig, J. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2000;(2):CD001321.

Johnson RL. Desk Reference to Nature's Medicine. National Geographic Society, 2006.

Johnston, S. L., Farrell, S. A., Bouchard, C., Farrell, S. A., Beckerson, L. A., Comeau, M., Johnston, S. L., Lefebvre, G., and Papaioannou, A. The detection and management of vaginal atrophy. J Obstet.Gynaecol.Can. 2004;26(5):503-515.

Juthani-Mehta M, Van Ness PH, Bianco L, et al. Effect of cranberry capsules on bacteriuria plus pyuria among older women in nursing homes: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2016;316(18):1879-87.

Kahn, H. D., Panariello, V. A., Saeli, J., Sampson, J. R., and Schwartz, E. Effect of cranberry juice on urine. J Am Diet.Assoc 1967;51(3):251-254.

Kemper, K. J. Cranberry therapy for children's urinary tract infections. Arch Pediatr Adolesc.Med 2006;160(4):451-452.

Kinney AB, Blount M. Effect of cranberry juice on urinary pH. Nurs Res 1979;28:287-90.

Konowalchuk, J. and Speirs, J. I. Antiviral effect of commercial juices and beverages. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 1978;35(6):1219-1220.

Kontiokari T, Sundqvist K, Nuutinen M, et al. Randomised trial of cranberry-lingonberry juice and Lactobacillus GG drink for the prevention of urinary tract infections in women. BMJ 2001;322:1571.

Kontiokari, T., Salo, J., Eerola, E., and Uhari, M. Cranberry juice and bacterial colonization in children--a placebo-controlled randomized trial. Clin Nutr 2005;24(6):1065-1072.

Kushnerova, N. F., Merzliakov, V. I., Fomenko, S. E., Sprygin, V. G., Momot, T. V., and Bogdanovich, L. N. [Prevention of stress-related disorders in medical personnel]. Med Tr.Prom Ekol. 2012;(6):44-48.

Labrecque, J., Bodet, C., Chandad, F., and Grenier, D. Effects of a high-molecular-weight cranberry fraction on growth, biofilm formation and adherence of Porphyromonas gingivalis. J Antimicrob.Chemother. 2006;58(2):439-443.

Leaver, R. B. Cranberry juice. Prof.Nurse 1996;11(8):525-526.

Lee YL, Owens J, Thrupp L, Cesario TC. Does cranberry juice have antibacterial activity? JAMA 2000;283:1691.

Lee, B. B., Haran, M. J., Hunt, L. M., Simpson, J. M., Marial, O., Rutkowski, S. B., Middleton, J. W., Kotsiou, G., Tudehope, M., and Cameron, I. D. Spinal-injured neuropathic bladder antisepsis (SINBA) trial. Spinal.Cord. 2007;45(8):542-550.

Li Z, Seeram NP, Carpenter CL, et al. Cranberry does not affect prothrombin time in male subjects on warfarin. J Am Diet Assoc 2006;106:2057-61.

Light, I., Gursel, E., and Zinnser, H. H. Urinary ionized calcium in urolithiasis. Effect of cranberry juice. Urology 1973;1(1):67-70.

Lilja JJ, Backman JT, Neuvonen PJ. Effects of daily ingestion of cranberry juice on the pharmacokinetics of warfarin, tizanidine, and midazolam - probes of CYP2C9, CYP1A2 and CYP3A4. Clin Pharmacol The 2007:81:833-9.

Lin, Y. T., Kwon, Y. I., Labbe, R. G., and Shetty, K. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori and Associated Urease by Oregano and Cranberry Phytochemical Synergies. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 2005;71(12):8558-8564.

Linsenmeyer, T. A., Harrison, B., Oakley, A., Kirshblum, S., Stock, J. A., and Millis, S. R. Evaluation of cranberry supplement for reduction of urinary tract infections in individuals with neurogenic bladders secondary to spinal cord injury. A prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study. J Spinal Cord.Med 2004;27(1):29-34.

Liska DJ, Kern HJ, Maki KC. Cranberries and urinary tract infections: How can the same evidence lead to conflicting advice? Adv Nutr. 2016;7(3):498-506.

Lowe FC, Fagelman E. Cranberry juice and urinary tract infections: what is the evidence? Urology 2001;57:407-13.

Luís Â, Domingues F, Pereira L. Can cranberries contribute to reduce the incidence of urinary tract infections? - A systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of clinical trials. J Urol. 2017.

Lynch, D. M. Cranberry for prevention of urinary tract infections. Am Fam.Physician 12-1-2004;70(11):2175-2177.

Mazokopakis EE, Karefilakis CM, Starakis IK. Efficacy of cranberry capsules in prevention of urinary tract infections in postmenopausal women. J Altern Complement Med 2009;15:1155.

McGuinness SD, Krone R, and Metz LM. A double blind randomized, placebo-controlled trial of cranberry supplements in multiple sclerosis. J NeurosciNurs 2002;34(1):4-7.

McHarg, T., Rodgers, A., and Charlton, K. Influence of cranberry juice on the urinary risk factors for calcium oxalate kidney stone formation. BJU.Int 2003;92(7):765-768.

McMurdo MET, Argo I, Phillips G, et al. Cranberry or trimethoprim for the prevention of recurrently urinary tract infections? A randomized controlled trial in older women. J Antimicrob Chemother 2009;63:389-95.

McMurdo, M. E., Bissett, L. Y., Price, R. J., Phillips, G., and Crombie, I. K. Does ingestion of cranberry juice reduce symptomatic urinary tract infections in older people in hospital? A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Age Ageing 2005;34(3):256-261.

Mellen CK, Ford M, Rindone JP. Effect of high-dose cranberry juice on the pharmacodynamics of warfarin in patients. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2010;70(1):139-42.

Mergenhagen KA, Sherman O. Elevated International Normalized Ratio after concurrent ingestion of cranberry sauce and warfarin. Am J Health-Syst Pharm 2008;65:2113-6.

Milbury, P. E., Vita, J. A., and Blumberg, J. B. Anthocyanins are bioavailable in humans following an acute dose of cranberry juice. J Nutr 2010;140(6):1099-1104.

Moen DV. Observations on the effectiveness of cranberry juice in urinary infections. Wisconsin Med J 1962;61:282-283.

Mohammed Abdul MI, Jiang X, Williams KM, et al. Pharmacodynamic interaction of warfarin with cranberry but not with garlic in healthy subjects. Br J Pharmacol 2008;154:1691-700.

Monroy-Torres, R. and Macias, A. E. [Does cranberry juice have bacteriostatic activity?]. Rev Invest Clin 2005;57(3):442-446.

Nahata, M. C., Cummins, B. A., McLeod, D. C., and Butler, R. Predictability of methenamine efficacy based on type of urinary pathogen and pH. J Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1981;29(5):236-239.

Nahata, M. C., Cummins, B. A., McLeod, D. C., Schondelmeyer, S. W., and Butler, R. Effect of urinary acidifiers on formaldehyde concentration and efficacy with methenamine therapy. Eur.J Clin Pharmacol. 1982;22(3):281-284.

Nantz MP, Rowe CA, Muller C, Creasy R, Colee J, Khoo C, Percival SS. Consumption of cranberry polyphenols enhances human ?d-T cell proliferation and reduces the number of symptoms associated with colds and influenza: a randomized, placebo-controlled intervention study. Nutr J 2013;12:161. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-12-161.

Neto, C. C. Cranberry and blueberry: evidence for protective effects against cancer and vascular diseases. Mol.Nutr Food Res 2007;51(6):652-664.

Neto, C. C. Cranberry and its phytochemicals: a review of in vitro anticancer studies. J Nutr 2007;137(1 Suppl):186S-193S.

Neto, C. C., Amoroso, J. W., and Liberty, A. M. Anticancer activities of cranberry phytochemicals: an update. Mol.Nutr Food Res 2008;52 Suppl 1:S18-S27.

Niklasson, A. and Andren, L. [Interaction between Waran and cranberry juice]. Lakartidningen 3-15-2006;103(11):853-854.

Ofek I, Goldhar J, Zafriri D, et al. Anti-Escherichia coli adhesin activity of cranberry and blueberry juices. N Engl J Med 1991;324:1599.

Ohnishi, R., Ito, H., Kasajima, N., Kaneda, M., Kariyama, R., Kumon, H., Hatano, T., and Yoshida, T. Urinary excretion of anthocyanins in humans after cranberry juice ingestion. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem 2006;70(7):1681-1687.

Opperman, E. A. Cranberry is not effective for the prevention or treatment of urinary tract infections in individuals with spinal cord injury. Spinal.Cord. 2010;48(6):451-456.

Papas, P. N., Brusch, C. A., and Ceresia, G. C. Cranberry juice in the treatment of urinary tract infections. Southwest.Med 1966;47(1):17-20.

Parry, J., Su, L., Moore, J., Cheng, Z., Luther, M., Rao, J. N., Wang, J. Y., and Yu, L. L. Chemical compositions, antioxidant capacities, and antiproliferative activities of selected fruit seed flours. J Agric Food Chem 5-31-2006;54(11):3773-3778.

Patel, D. A., Gillespie, B., Sobel, J. D., Leaman, D., Nyirjesy, P., Weitz, M. V., and Foxman, B. Risk factors for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in women receiving maintenance antifungal therapy: results of a prospective cohort study. Am J Obstet.Gynecol. 2004;190(3):644-653.

Pedersen CB, Kyle J, Jenkinson AM, et al. Effects of blueberry and cranberry juice consumption on the plasma antioxidant capacity of healthy female volunteers. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000;54:405-8.

Pham, D. Q. and Pham, A. Q. Interaction potential between cranberry juice and warfarin. Am J Health Syst.Pharm 3-1-2007;64(5):490-494.

Product Information. Coumadin (warfarin sodium). Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ. January 2010.

Raz, R., Chazan, B., and Dan, M. [Cranberry juice and urinary tract infection]. Harefuah 2004;143(12):891-4, 909.

Regal, R. E., Pham, C. Q., and Bostwick, T. R. Urinary tract infections in extended care facilities: preventive management strategies. Consult Pharm 2006;21(5):400-409.

Reid, G., Hsiehl, J., Potter, P., Mighton, J., Lam, D., Warren, D., and Stephenson, J. Cranberry juice consumption may reduce biofilms on uroepithelial cells: pilot study in spinal cord injured patients. Spinal Cord. 2001;39(1):26-30.

Rindone, J. P. and Murphy, T. W. Warfarin-cranberry juice interaction resulting in profound hypoprothrombinemia and bleeding. Am J Ther 2006;13(3):283-284.

Roberts D, Flanagan P. Case report: Cranberry juice and warfarin. Home Healthc Nurse 2011;29:92-7.

Royer, D. J., George, J. N., and Terrell, D. R. Thrombocytopenia as an adverse effect of complementary and alternative medicines, herbal remedies, nutritional supplements, foods, and beverages. Eur J Haematol 2010;84(5):421-429.

Ruel, G., Pomerleau, S., Couture, P., Lemieux, S., Lamarche, B., and Couillard, C. Favourable impact of low-calorie cranberry juice consumption on plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations in men. Br J Nutr 2006;96(2):357-364.

Salo, J., Uhari, M., Helminen, M., Korppi, M., Nieminen, T., Pokka, T., and Kontiokari, T. Cranberry juice for the prevention of recurrences of urinary tract infections in children: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Clin.Infect.Dis. 2-1-2012;54(3):340-346.

Saltzman JR, Kemp JA, Golner BB, et al. Effect of hypochlorhydria due to omeprazole treatment or atrophic gastritis on protein-bound vitamin B12 absorption. J Am Coll Nutr 1994;13:584-91.

Santillo, V. M. and Lowe, F. C. Cranberry juice for the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections. Drugs Today (Barc.) 2007;43(1):47-54.

Scheier L. Salicylic acid: one more reason to eat your fruits and vegetables. J Am Diet Assoc 2001;101:1406-8.

Schlager TA, Anderson S, Trudell J, Hendley JO. Effect of cranberry juice on bacteriuria in children with neurogenic bladder receiving intermittent catheterization. J Pediatr 1999;135:698-702.

Schmidt DR, Sobota AE. An examination of the anti-adherence activity of cranberry juice on urinary and nonurinary bacterial isolates. Microbios 1988;55:173-81.

Seeram, N. P., Adams, L. S., Zhang, Y., Lee, R., Sand, D., Scheuller, H. S., and Heber, D. Blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts inhibit growth and stimulate apoptosis of human cancer cells in vitro. J Agric.Food Chem 12-13-2006;54(25):9329-9339.

Shmuely, H., Yahav, J., Samra, Z., Chodick, G., Koren, R., Niv, Y., and Ofek, I. Effect of cranberry juice on eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients treated with antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitor. Mol.Nutr Food Res 2007;51(6):746-751.

Singh I, Gautam LK, Kaur IR. Effect of oral cranberry extract (standardized proanthocyanidin-A) in patients with recurrent UTI by pathogenic E. coli: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical research study. Int Urol Nephrol 2016;48(9):1379-86.

Sobota AE. Inhibition of bacterial adherence by cranberry juice: potential use for the treatment of urinary tract infections. J Urol 1984;131:1013-6.

Stapleton, A. E., Dziura, J., Hooton, T. M., Cox, M. E., Yarova-Yarovaya, Y., Chen, S., and Gupta, K. Recurrent urinary tract infection and urinary Escherichia coli in women ingesting cranberry juice daily: a randomized controlled trial. Mayo.Clin.Proc. 2012;87(2):143-150.

Stothers, L. A randomized trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost effectiveness of naturopathic cranberry products as prophylaxis against urinary tract infection in women. Can j urol 2002;9(3):1558-1562.

Sun, J. and Hai, Liu R. Cranberry phytochemical extracts induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Cancer Lett 9-8-2006;241(1):124-134.

Suvarna R, Pirmohamed M, Henderson L. Possible interaction between warfarin and cranberry juice. BMJ 2003;327:1454.

Swartz, J. H. and Medrek, T. F. Antifungal properties of cranberry juice. Appl.Microbiol. 1968;16(10):1524-1527.

Sylvan, L. and Justice, N. P. Possible interaction between warfarin and cranberry juice. Am Fam.Physician 9-15-2005;72(6):1000.

Takahashi S, Hamasuna R, Yasuda M, Arakawa S, Tanaka K, Ishikawa K, Kiyota H, Hayami H, Yamamoto S, Kubo T, Matsumoto T. A randomized clinical trial to evaluate the preventive effect ofcranberry juice (UR65) for patients with recurrent urinary tract infection. J Infect Chemother 2013;19(1):112-7.

Tempera, G., Corsello, S., Genovese, C., Caruso, F. E., and Nicolosi, D. Inhibitory activity of cranberry extract on the bacterial adhesiveness in the urine of women: an ex-vivo study. Int J Immunopathol.Pharmacol. 2010;23(2):611-618.

Terris MK, Issa MM, Tacker JR. Dietary supplementation with cranberry concentrate tablets may increase the risk of nephrolithiasis. Urology 2001;57:26-9.

Tsukada, K., Tokunaga, K., Iwama, T., Mishima, Y., Tazawa, K., and Fujimaki, M. Cranberry juice and its impact on peri-stomal skin conditions for urostomy patients. Ostomy.Wound.Manage. 1994;40(9):60-68.

Uesawa, Y. and Mohri, K. Effects of cranberry juice on nifedipine pharmacokinetics in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol 2006;58(8):1067-1072.

Ushijima K, Tsuruoka S, Tsuda H, Hasegawa G, Obi Y, Kaneda T, Takahashi M, Maekawa T, Sasaki T, Koshimizu TA, Fujimura A. Cranberry juice suppressed the diclofenac metabolism by human liver microsomes, but not in healthy human subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2009;68(2):194-200.

Valentova, K., Stejskal, D., Bednar, P., Vostalova, J., Cihalik, C., Vecerova, R., Koukalova, D., Kolar, M., Reichenbach, R., Sknouril, L., Ulrichova, J., and Simanek, V. Biosafety, antioxidant status, and metabolites in urine after consumption of dried cranberry juice in healthy women: a pilot double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Agric Food Chem 4-18-2007;55(8):3217-3224.

Vidlar A, Vostalova J, Ulrichova J, et al. The effectiveness of dried cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) in men with lower urinary tract symptoms. Br J Nutr 2010;104:1181-9.

Vinson, J. A., Bose, P., Proch, J., Al Kharrat, H., and Samman, N. Cranberries and cranberry products: powerful in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo sources of antioxidants. J Agric.Food Chem. 7-23-2008;56(14):5884-5891.

Waites KB, Canupp KC, Armstrong S, DeVivo MJ. Effect of cranberry extract on bacteriuria and pyuria in persons with neurogenic bladder secondary to spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 2004;27:35-40.

Walker EB, Barney DP, Mickelsen JN, et al. Cranberry concentrate: UTI prophylaxis. J Fam Pract 1997;45:167-8.

Walsh, B. A. Urostomy and urinary pH. J ET Nurs. 1992;19(4):110-113.

Wang SY, Jiao H. Scavenging capacity of berry crops on superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, and singlet oxygen. J Agric Food Chem 2000;48:5677-84..

Wang, C. H., Fang, C. C., Chen, N. C., Liu, S. S., Yu, P. H., Wu, T. Y., Chen, W. T., Lee, C. C., and Chen, S. C. Cranberry-containing products for prevention of urinary tract infections in susceptible populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern.Med 7-9-2012;172(13):988-996.

Weiss EI, Lev-Dor R, Kashamn Y, et al. Inhibiting interspecies coaggregation of plaque bacteria with a cranberry juice constituent. J Am Dent Assoc 1998;129:1719-23.

Weiss, E. I., Houri-Haddad, Y., Greenbaum, E., Hochman, N., Ofek, I., and Zakay-Rones, Z. Cranberry juice constituents affect influenza virus adhesion and infectivity. Antiviral Res. 2005;66(1):9-12.

Wilson, T., Porcari, J. P., and Harbin, D. Cranberry extract inhibits low density lipoprotein oxidation. Life Sci 1998;62(24):L381-L386.

Wing DA, Rumney PJ, Preslicka CW, Chung JH. Daily cranberry juice for the prevention of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy: a randomized, controlled pilot study. J Urol 2008;180:1367-72.

Yan, X., Murphy, B. T., Hammond, G. B., Vinson, J. A., and Neto, C. C. Antioxidant activities and antitumor screening of extracts from cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon). J Agric.Food Chem. 10-9-2002;50(21):5844-5849.

Zafriri, D., Ofek, I., Adar, R., Pocino, M., and Sharon, N. Inhibitory activity of cranberry juice on adherence of type 1 and type P fimbriated Escherichia coli to eucaryotic cells. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 1989;33(1):92-98.

Zhang, L., Ma, J., Pan, K., Go, V. L., Chen, J., and You, W. C. Efficacy of cranberry juice on Helicobacter pylori infection: a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. Helicobacter. 2005;10(2):139-145.

Zikria J, Goldman R, Ansell J. Cranberry juice and warfarin: when bad publicity trumps science. Am J Med 2010;123(5):384-92. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2009.08.019.


Agarwal SC, Crook JR, Pepper CB. Herbal remedies -- how safe are they? A case report of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation induced by herbal medication used for obesity. Int J Cardiol 2006;106:260-1.

Akhtar, M. S., Khan, Q. M., and Khaliq, T. Effects of Portulaca oleracae (Kulfa) and Taraxacum officinale (Dhudhal) in normoglycaemic and alloxan-treated hyperglycaemic rabbits. J Pak.Med Assoc 1985;35(7):207-210.

Baba K, Abe S, Mizuno D. [Antitumor activity of hot water extract of dandelion, Taraxacum officinale-correlation between antitumor activity and timing of administration (author's transl)]. Yakugaku Zasshi 1981;101:538-43.

Blanchet KD. Focus on herbs: Dandelion: Leaves are rich source of vitamins and minerals. Altern Complement Ther. 1995;1(2):115-117.

Bohm K. Studies on the choleretic action of some drugs. Azneim-Forsh 1959;9:376-378.

Catania, M. A., Oteri, A., Caiello, P., Russo, A., Salvo, F., Giustini, E. S., Caputi, A. P., and Polimeni, G. Hemorrhagic cystitis induced by an herbal mixture. South.Med.J. 2010;103(1):90-92.

Chakurski I, Matev M, Koichev A, et al. [Treatment of chronic colitis with an herbal combination of Taraxacum officinale, Hipericum perforatum, Melissa officinaliss, Calendula officinalis and Foeniculum vulgare]. Vutr Boles. 1981;20:51-4.

Chen, Z. [Clinical study of 96 cases with chronic hepatitis B treated with jiedu yanggan gao by a double-blind method]. Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1990;10(2):71-4, 67.

Chivato T, Juan F, Montoro A, Laguna R. Anaphylaxis induced by ingestion of a pollen compound. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 1996;6:208-9.

Clare, B. A., Conroy, R. S., and Spelman, K. The diuretic effect in human subjects of an extract of Taraxacum officinale folium over a single day. J Altern.Complement Med 2009;15(8):929-934.

Cohen SH, Yunginger JW, Rosenberg N, Fink JN. Acute allergic reaction after composite pollen ingestion. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1979;64:270-4.

Collier MH, Rogstad SH. Clonal variation in floral stage timing in the common dandelion Taraxacum officinale (Asteraceae). Am J Bot. 2004 Nov;91(11):1828-33.

Collins JM and Miller DR. Dandelion green bezoar following antrectomy and vagotomy - case report. J Kansas Med Soc 1966;67(6):303-304.

Cuzzolin L, Zaffani S, and Benoni G. Safety implications regarding use of phytomedicines. Eur.J Clin Pharmacol. 2006;62:37-42.

Davies, M. G. and Kersey, P. J. Contact allergy to yarrow and dandelion. Contact Dermatitis 1986;14(4):256-257.

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182

Fernandez-Gonzalez, D., Gonzalez-Parrado, Z., Vega-Maray, A. M., Valencia-Barrera, R. M., Camazon-Izquierdo, B., De, Nuntiis P., and Mandrioli, P. Platanus pollen allergen, Pla a 1: quantification in the atmosphere and influence on a sensitizing population. Clin Exp Allergy 2010;40(11):1701-1708.

Goksu, E., Eken, C., Karadeniz, O., and Kucukyilmaz, O. First report of hypoglycemia secondary to dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) ingestion. Am J Emerg.Med 2010;28(1):111-112.

González-Castejón M, Visioli F, Rodriguez-Casado A. Diverse biological activities of dandelion. Nutr Rev. 2012;70(9):534-47.

Hagymasi, K., Blazovics, A., Feher, J., Lugasi, A., Kristo, S. T., and Kery, A. The in vitro effect of dandelions antioxidants on microsomal lipid peroxidation. Phytother Res 2000;14(1):43-44.

Han, H., He, W., Wang, W., and Gao, B. Inhibitory effect of aqueous Dandelion extract on HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase activity. BMC.Complement Altern.Med 2011;11:112.

Hata, K., Ishikawa, K., Hori, K., and Konishi, T. Differentiation-inducing activity of lupeol, a lupane-type triterpene from Chinese dandelion root (Hokouei-kon), on a mouse melanoma cell line. Biol Pharm Bull 2000;23(8):962-967.

He, W., Han, H., Wang, W., and Gao, B. Anti-influenza virus effect of aqueous extracts from dandelion. Virol.J 2011;8:538.

Hook I, McGee A, Henman M, and et al. Evaluation of dandelion for diuretic activity and variation in potassium content. Int J Pharmacog 1993;31(1):29-34.

Hu C, Kitts DD. Antioxidant, prooxidant, and cytotoxic activities of solvent-fractionated dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) flower extracts in vitro. J Agric Food Chem 2003;51:301-10.

Hu C, Kitts DD. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) flower extract suppresses both reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide and prevents lipid oxidation in vitro. Phytomedicine 2005;12:588-97.

Hu C, Kitts DD. Luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside from dandelion flower suppress iNOS and COX-2 in RAW264.7 cells. Mol Cell Biochem 2004;265:107-13.

Huang, Y., Wu, T., Zeng, L., and Li, S. Chinese medicinal herbs for sore throat. Cochrane Database Syst.Rev 2012;3:CD004877.

Hussain Z, Waheed A, Qureshi RA, et al. The effect of medicinal plants of Islamabad and Murree region of Pakistan on insulin secretion from INS-1 cells. Phytother Res 2004;18:73-7.

Ingber, A. Seasonal allergic contact dermatitis from Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) in an Israeli florist. Contact Dermatitis 2000;43(1):49.

Jovanovic M, Mimica-Dukic N, Poljacki M, Boza P. Erythema multiforme due to contact with weeds: a recurrence after patch testing. Contact Dermatitis 2003;48:17-25.

Kashiwada Y, Takanaka K, Tsukada H, et al. Sesquiterpene glucosides from anti-leukotriene B4 release fraction of Taraxacum officinale. J Asian Nat Prod Res 2001;3:191-7.

Kim, H. M., Lee, E. H., Shin, T. Y., Lee, K. N., and Lee, J. S. Taraxacum officinale restores inhibition of nitric oxide production by cadmium in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Immunopharmacol.Immunotoxicol. 1998;20(2):283-297.

Kim, H. M., Oh, C. H., and Chung, C. K. Activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase by Taraxacum officinale in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Gen.Pharmacol 1999;32(6):683-688.

Koo, H. N., Hong, S. H., Song, B. K., Kim, C. H., Yoo, Y. H., and Kim, H. M. Taraxacum officinale induces cytotoxicity through TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha secretion in Hep G2 cells. Life Sci 1-16-2004;74(9):1149-1157.

Larsson B, Jonasson A, Fianu S. Prophylactic effect of UVA-E in women with recurrent cystitis: a preliminary report. Curr Ther Res 1993;53:441-3.

Liang, K. L., Su, M. C., Shiao, J. Y., Wu, S. H., Li, Y. H., and Jiang, R. S. Role of pollen allergy in Taiwanese patients with allergic rhinitis. J Formos.Med Assoc. 2010;109(12):879-885.

Lovell CR, Rowan M. Dandelion dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 1991;25:185-8.

Luo ZH. [The use of Chinese traditional medicines to improve impaired immune functions in scald mice]. Zhonghua Zheng Xing Shao Shang Wai Ke Za Zhi 1993;9:56-8, 80.

Maliakal PP, Wanwimolruk S. Effect of herbal teas on hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol 2001;53:1323-9.

Martín-Muñoz MF, Bartolome B, Caminoa M, et al. Bee pollen: a dangerous food for allergic children. Identification of responsible allergens. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2010;38:263-5.

Mascolo N, Autore G, Capassa F, et al. Biological screening of Italian medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory activity. Phytother Res 1987:28-31.

McGuffin M, Hobbs C, Upton R, Goldberg A, eds. American Herbal Products Association's Botanical Safety Handbook. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, LLC 1997.

Menghini, L., Genovese, S., Epifano, F., Tirillini, B., Ferrante, C., and Leporini, L. Antiproliferative, protective and antioxidant effects of artichoke, dandelion, turmeric and rosemary extracts and their formulation. Int J Immunopathol.Pharmacol 2010;23(2):601-610.

Moriarty B, Pinney JH, Owen-Casey MP, Rustin MH, Deroide F, Laing C, Davenport A. Digital necrosis from dandelion tea. Br J Dermatol. 2013 Jul;169(1):227-30.

Neef H, Cilli F, Declerck PJ, et al. Platelet anti-aggregating activity of Taraxacum officinale Weber. Phytotherapy Research 1996;10:s138-s140.

Onal S, Timur S, Okutucu B, Zihnioglu F. Inhibition of alphaglucosidase by aqueous extracts of some potent antidiabetic medicinal herbs. Prep Biochem Biotechnol 2005;35:29-36.

Ovadje, P., Chatterjee, S., Griffin, C., Tran, C., Hamm, C., and Pandey, S. Selective induction of apoptosis through activation of caspase-8 in human leukemia cells (Jurkat) by dandelion root extract. J Ethnopharmacol. 1-7-2011;133(1):86-91.

Ovadje, P., Chochkeh, M., Akbari-Asl, P., Hamm, C., and Pandey, S. Selective induction of apoptosis and autophagy through treatment with dandelion root extract in human pancreatic cancer cells. Pancreas 2012;41(7):1039-1047.

Ovadje, P., Hamm, C., and Pandey, S. Efficient induction of extrinsic cell death by dandelion root extract in human chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) cells. PLoS.One. 2012;7(2):e30604.

Posadzki, P., Watson, L. K., and Ernst, E. Adverse effects of herbal medicines: an overview of systematic reviews. Clin Med 2013;13(1):7-12.

Racz-Kotilla E, Racz G, Solomon A. The action of Taraxacum officinale extracts on the body weight and diuresis of laboratory animals. Planta Med 1974;26:212-7.

Rodriguez, B., Rodriguez, A., de Barrio, M., Tornero, P., and Baeza, M. L. Asthma induced by canary food mix. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2003;24(4):265-268.

Rodriguez-Fragoso L, Reyes-Esparza J, Burchiel SW, Herrera-Ruiz D, Torres E. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008 Feb 15;227(1):125-35.

Seo SW, Koo HN, An HJ, et al. Taraxacum officinale protects against cholecystokinin-induced acute pancreatitis in rats. World J Gastroenterol 2005;11:597-9.

Swanston-Flatt, S. K., Day, C., Flatt, P. R., Gould, B. J., and Bailey, C. J. Glycaemic effects of traditional European plant treatments for diabetes. Studies in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice. Diabetes Res 1989;10(2):69-73.

Syhaieva, I. A. [Efficiency of specific immunotherapy in treatment of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis]. Lik.Sprava. 2006;(1-2):51-53.

Tan YM, Wang LH Chen SK. Compound Pugongying decoction for acute suppurative tonsillitis. Journal Of An Hui Zhong YI College 2010;29(4):9-12.

Tan YM, Wang LH, Chen SK. Compound Pugongying decoction for acute suppurative tonsillitis. Journal Of An Hui Zhong YI College 2010;29:9-12.

Tita B, Bello U, Faccendini P, and et al. Taraxacum officinale W.: pharmacological effect of ethanol extract. Pharmacological Res 1993;27(Suppl 1):23-24.

Trojanova I, Rada V, Kokoska L, Vlkova E. The bifidogenic effect of Taraxacum officinale root. Fitoterapia 2004;75:760-3.

Wakelin, S. H., Marren, P., Young, E., and Shaw, S. Compositae sensitivity and chronic hand dermatitis in a seven-year-old boy. Br J Dermatol 1997;137(2):289-291.

Williams CA, Goldstone F, Greenham J. Flavonoids, cinnamic acids and coumarins from the different tissues and medicinal preparations of Taraxacum officinale. Phytochemistry 1996;42:121-7.

Yang, Y., Zhao, Y., Wang, C. S., Wang, X. D., and Zhang, L. [Prevalence of sensitization to aeroallergens in 10 030 patients with allergic rhinitis]. Zhonghua Er.Bi Yan.Hou Tou.Jing.Wai Ke Za Zhi 2011;46(11):914-920.

Zhu M, Wong PY, Li RC. Effects of taraxacum mongolicum on the bioavailability and disposition of ciprofloxacin in rats. J Pharm Sci 1999;88:632-4.


Alton G, Hasilik M, Niehues R, et al. Direct utilization of mannose for mammalian glycoprotein biosynthesis. Glycobiology 1998;8:285-95.

Davis JA, Freeze HH. Studies of mannose metabolism and effects of long-term mannose ingestion in the mouse. Biochim Biophys Acta 2001;1528:116-26.

de Lonlay P, Cuer M, Vuillaumier-Barrot S, et al. Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia as a presenting sign in phosphomannose isomerase deficiency: A new manifestation of carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome treatable with mannose. J Pediatr 1999;135:379-83.

Domenici L, Monti M, Bracchi C, Giorgini M, Colagiovanni V, Muzii L, Benedetti Panici P. D-mannose: a promising support for acute urinary tract infections in women. A pilot study. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2016 Jul;20(13):2920-5.

Freinkel N, Lewis NJ, Akazawa S, et al. The honeybee syndrome - implications of the teratogenicity of mannose in rat-embryo culture. N Engl J Med 1984;310:223-30.

Hendriksz CJ, McClean P, Henderson MJ, et al. Successful treatment of carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome type 1b with oral mannose. Arch Dis Child 2001;85:339-40.

Kranjcec B, Papeš D, Altarac S. D-mannose powder for prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections in women: a randomized clinical trial. World J Urol. 2014 Feb;32(1):79-84.

Michaels EK, Chmiel JS, Plotkin BJ, Schaeffer AJ. Effect of D-mannose and D-glucose on Escherichia coli bacteriuria in rats. Urol Res 1983;11:97-102 .

Niehues R, Hasilik M, Alton G, et al. Carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type Ib. Phosphomannose isomerase deficiency and mannose therapy. J Clin Invest 1998;101:1414-20.

Ofek I, Goldhar J, Eshdat Y, Sharon N. The importance of mannose specific adhesins (lectins) in infections caused by Escherichia coli. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl 1982;33:61-7.

Ofek I, Mosek A, Sharon N. Mannose-specific adherence of Escherichia coli freshly excreted in the urine of patients with urinary tract infections, and of isolates subcultured from the infected urine. Infect Immun 1981;34:708-11.

Schaeffer AJ, Chmiel JS, Duncan JL, Falkowski WS. Mannose-sensitive adherence of Escherichia coli to epithelial cells from women with recurrent urinary tract infections. J Urol 1984;131:906-10.

Venegas MF, Navas EL, Gaffney RA, et al. Binding of type 1-piliated Escherichia coli to vaginal mucus. Infect Immun 1995;63:416-22.

Vicariotto F. Effectiveness of an association of a cranberry dry extract, D-mannose, and the two microorganisms Lactobacillus plantarum LP01 and Lactobacillus paracasei LPC09 in women affected by cystitis: a pilot study. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2014 Nov-Dec;48 Suppl 1:S96-101.

Westphal V, Kjaergaard S, Davis JA, et al. Genetic and metabolic analysis of the first adult with congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ib: long-term outcome and effects of mannose supplementation. Mol Genet Metab 2001;73:77-85.

Lemon Balm

Abuhamdah, S., Huang, L., Elliott, M. S., Howes, M. J., Ballard, C., Holmes, C., Burns, A., Perry, E. K., Francis, P. T., Lees, G., and Chazot, P. L. Pharmacological profile of an essential oil derived from Melissa officinalis with anti-agitation properties: focus on ligand-gated channels. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2008;60(3):377-384.

Akhondzadeh S, Noroozian M, Mohammadi M, et al. Melissa officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003;74:863-6.

Albrecht M, Berger W, Laux P, Schmidt U, et al. Psychopharmaka und Verkehrssicherheit. Der Einfluß von Euvegal® - Dragees forte auf die Fahrtüchtigkeit und Kombinationswirkungen mit Alkohol Z Allg Med 1995;71:1215-25.

Alijaniha F, et al. Heart palpitation relief with Melissa officinalis leaf extract: double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial of efficacy and safety. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;164:378-384. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.02.007. Epub 2015 Feb 11.

Allahverdiyev, A., Duran, N., Ozguven, M., and Koltas, S. Antiviral activity of the volatile oils of Melissa officinalis L. against Herpes simplex virus type-2. Phytomedicine. 2004;11(7-8):657-661.

Araujo, C., Sousa, M. J., Ferreira, M. F., and Leao, C. Activity of essential oils from Mediterranean Lamiaceae species against food spoilage yeasts. J Food Prot. 2003;66(4):625-632.

Auf'mkolk M, Ingbar JC, Amir SM, et al. Inhibition by certain plant extracts of the binding and adenylate cyclase stimulatory effect of bovine thyrotropin in human thyroid membranes. Endocrinology. 1984 Aug;115:527-34.

Awad, R., Levac, D., Cybulska, P., Merali, Z., Trudeau, V. L., and Arnason, J. T. Effects of traditionally used anxiolytic botanicals on enzymes of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system. Can.J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007;85(9):933-942.

Awad, R., Muhammad, A., Durst, T., Trudeau, V. L., and Arnason, J. T. Bioassay-guided fractionation of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) using an in vitro measure of GABA transaminase activity. Phytother.Res. 2009;23(8):1075-1081.

Babpour, E., Angaji, S. A., and Angaji, S. M. Antimicrobial effects of four medicinal plants on dental plaque. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 2009;3(3):132-137.

Ballard CG, O'Brien JT, Reichelt K, Perry EK. Aromatherapy as a safe and effective treatment for the management of agitation in severe dementia: the results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with Melissa. J Clin Psychiatry 2002 Jul;63:553-8.

Bisler H, Pfeifer R, Kluken N, Pauschinger P. [Effects of horse-chestnut seed on transcapillary filtration in chronic venous insufficiency]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1986;111:1321-9.

Borho, B. Biologische Therapie von funktionellen Magenerkrankungen. 1991;6:501-509.

Buchner KH, Hellings H, Huber M, and et al. [Double blind study as evidence of the therapeutic effect of Melissengeist on psycho-vegetative syndromes]. Medizinische Klinik 1974;69(23):1032-1036.

Büchner KH, Hellings H, Huber M, et al. [Double blind study as evidence of the therapeutic effect of Melissengeist on psycho-vegetative syndromes (author's transl)]. Med Klin. 1974 Jun 7;69:1032-6.

Budzynska, A., Wieckowska-Szakiel, M., Sadowska, B., Kalemba, D., and Rozalska, B. Antibiofilm activity of selected plant essential oils and their major components. Pol.J.Microbiol. 2011;60(1):35-41.

Burns A, Byrne J, Ballard C, Holmes C. Sensory stimulation in dementia. BMJ 2002;325:1312-3..

Burns A, Perry E, Holmes C, et al. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial of Melissa officinalis oil and donepezil for the treatment of agitation in Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2011;31:158-64.

Cases J. Leaf extract in the treatment of volunteers suffering from mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances. Mediterr J Nutr Metab. 2010;4(3):211-218.

Cases J. Leaf extract in the treatment of volunteers suffering from mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances. Mediterr J Nutr Metab. 2010;4(3):211-218.

Cerny A, Shmid K. Tolerability and efficacy of valerian/lemon balm in healthy volunteers (a double blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study). Fitoterapia 1999;70:221-8.

Cerny AS and Schmid K. Tolerability and efficacy of valerian/lemon balm in healthy volunteers; a double-blind placebo-controlled, multicentre study. Fitoterapia 1999;70(3):221-228.

Chakurski I, Matev M, Koichev A, et al. [Treatment of chronic colitis with an herbal combination of Taraxacum officinale, Hipericum perforatum, Melissa officinaliss, Calendula officinalis and Foeniculum vulgare]. Vutr Boles. 1981;20:51-4.

Chung MJ, Cho SY, Bhuiyan MJ, et al. Anti-diabetic effects of lemon balm ( Melissa officinalis) essential oil on glucose- and lipid-regulating enzymes in type 2 diabetic mice. Br.J.Nutr. 2010;104:180-188.

Cohen RA, Kucera LS, and Herrmann EC. Antiviral activity of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) extract (29600). Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 1964;117:431-434.

Dall'Acqua S, Perissutti B, Grabnar I, Farra R, Comar M, Agostinis C, et al. Pharmacokinetics and immunomodulatory effect of lipophilic Echinacea extract formulated in softgel capsules. C, et al. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2015 Nov;97(Pt A):8-14. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2015.09.021.

de Sousa, A. C., Alviano, D. S., Blank, A. F., Alves, P. B., Alviano, C. S., and Gattass, C. R. Melissa officinalis L. essential oil: antitumoral and antioxidant activities. J Pharm.Pharmacol. 2004;56(5):677-681.

Dimitrova, Z., Dimov, B., Manolova, N., Pancheva, S., Ilieva, D., and Shishkov, S. Antiherpes effect of Melissa officinalis L. extracts. Acta Microbiol Bulg. 1993;29:65-72.

Dkbas, N., Bagc, E., Kotan, R., Cakmakc, R., Ozer, H., Mete, E., and Erdogan, G. Comparative antibacterial activities and chemical composition of some plants' oils against Salmonella enteritidis. Research on Crops 2010;11(1):118-124.

Dressing H, Kohler S, and Muller WE. Improvement in sleep quality with a high dose valerian-melissa preparation . Psychopharmakotherapie 1996;3:123-130.

Dressing H, Kohler S, and Muller WE. Improvement in sleep quality with a high dose valerian-melissa preparation . Psychopharmakotherapie 1996;3:123-130.

Dressing H. Valerian combination therapy vs. benzodiazepine: same efficacy in the treatment of sleeping disorders? Therapiewoche 1992;42(12):726-736.

Drozd, J. and Anuszewska, E. The effect of the Melissa officinalis extract on immune response in mice. Acta Pol.Pharm. 2003;60(6):467-470.

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182

Englberger, W., Hadding, U., Etschenberg, E., Graf, E., Leyck, S., Winkelmann, J., and Parnham, M. J. Rosmarinic acid: a new inhibitor of complement C3-convertase with anti- inflammatory activity. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1988;10(6):729-737.

Gaby, A. R. Natural remedies for Herpes simplex. Altern.Med Rev. 2006;11(2):93-101.

Gazola, R., Machado, D., Ruggiero, C., Singi, G., and Macedo, Alexandre M. Lippia alba, Melissa officinalis and Cymbopogon citratus: effects of the aqueous extracts on the isolated hearts of rats. Pharmacol.Res 2004;50(5):477-480.

Guginski, G., Luiz, A. P., Silva, M. D., Massaro, M., Martins, D. F., Chaves, J., Mattos, R. W., Silveira, D., Ferreira, V. M., Calixto, J. B., and Santos, A. R. Mechanisms involved in the antinociception caused by ethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) in mice. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav. 2009;93(1):10-16.

Gyllenhaal, C., Merritt, S. L., Peterson, S. D., Block, K. I., and Gochenour, T. Efficacy and safety of herbal stimulants and sedatives in sleep disorders. Sleep Med Rev. 2000;4(3):229-251.

Hanganu, D., Vlase, L., Filip, L., Sand, C., Mirel, S., and Indrei, L. L. The study of some polyphenolic compounds from Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae). Rev.Med.Chir Soc.Med.Nat.Iasi 2008;112(2):525-529.

Herberg, KW. Nebenwirkungen pflanzlicher Beruhigungsmittel/ Leistung und Befinden nach Einnahme einer Baldrian-Hopfen-Kombination. Z.Allg Med 1996;72:234-240.

Herberg, KW. Nebenwirkungen pflanzlicher Beruhigungsmittel/ Leistung und Befinden nach Einnahme einer Baldrian-Hopfen-Kombination. Z.Allg Med 1996;72:234-240.

Herrmann, E. C., Jr. and Kucera, L. S. Antiviral substances in plants of the mint family (labiatae). II. Nontannin polyphenol of Melissa officinalis. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1967;124(3):869-874.

Hohmann, J., Zupko, I., Redei, D., Csanyi, M., Falkay, G., Mathe, I., and Janicsak, G. Protective effects of the aerial parts of Salvia officinalis, Melissa Officinalis and Lavandula angustifolia and their constituents against enzyme-dependent and enzyme-independent lipid peroxidation. Planta Med 1999;65(6):576-578.

Holtmann G, Madisch A, Juergen H, et al. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial on the effects of an herbal preparation in patients with functional dyspepsia [Abstract]. Ann Mtg Digestive Disease Week 1999 May.

Holtmann, G., Madisch, A., and Juergen, H. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial on the effects of an herbal preparation in patients with functional dyspepsia [Abstract]. Ann Mtg Digestive Disease Week 1999;May:A65.

Hussain, A. I., Farooq Anwar, Nigam, P. S., Sarker, S. D., Moore, J. E., Rao, J. R., and Mazumdar, A. Antibacterial activity of some Lamiaceae essential oils using resazurin as an indicator of cell growth. LWT - Food Science and Technology 2012;44(4):1199-1206.

Ibarra, A., Feuillere, N., Roller, M., Lesburgere, E., and Beracochea, D. Effects of chronic administration of Melissa officinalis L. extract on anxiety-like reactivity and on circadian and exploratory activities in mice. Phytomedicine. 2010;17(6):397-403.

Ivanova, D., Gerova, D., Chervenkov, T., and Yankova, T. Polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of Bulgarian medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 1-4-2005;96(1-2):145-150.

Karimi, I., Hayatgheybi, H., Razmjo, M., Yousefi, M., Dadyan, A., and Hadipour, M. Anti-hyperlipidaemic effects of an essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Journal of Applied Biological Sciences 2010;4(1):17-22.

Kennedy DO, Little W, Haskell CF, et al. Anxiolytic effects of a combination of Melissa officinalis and Valeriana officinalis during laboratory induced stress. Phytother Res. 2006 Feb;20:96-102.

Kennedy DO, Little W, Scholey AB. Attenuation of laboratory-induced stress in humans after acute administration of Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm). Psychosom Med. 2004 Jul-Aug;66:607-13.

Kennedy DO, Scholey AB, Tildesley NT, et al. Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm). Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2002;72:953-64.

Kennedy DO, Wake G, Savelev S, et al. Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of single doses of Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) with human CNS nicotinic and muscarinic receptor-binding properties. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003 Oct;28:1871-81.

Keskn, D., Oskay, D., and Oskay, M. Antimicrobial activity of selected plant spices marketed in the West Anatolia. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 2010;12(6):916-920.

Kim, M. Y., Park, B. Y., Lee, H. S., Park, E. K., Hahm, J. C., Lee, J., Hong, Y., Choi, S., Park, D., Lee, H., and Yoon, M. The anti-angiogenic herbal composition Ob-X inhibits adipose tissue growth in obese mice. Int.J.Obes.(Lond) 2010;34(5):820-830.

Kizaibek, M., Kopp, B., Prinz, S., Popescu, R., and Upur, H. Antiproliferative activity of individual herbs of Abnormal Savda Munziq on HL-60 cells. Science & Technology Review 2009;19:94-98.

Koytchev R, Alken RG, Dundarov S. Balm mint extract (Lo-701) for topical treatment of recurring herpes labialis. Phytomedicine 1999;6:225-30.

Kucera, L. S. and Herrmann, E. C., Jr. Antiviral substances in plants of the mint family (labiatae). I. Tannin of Melissa officinalis. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1967;124(3):865-869.

Kucera, L. S., Cohen, R. A., and Herrmann, E. C., Jr. Antiviral activities of extracts of the lemon balm plant. Ann N.Y.Acad Sci 7-30-1965;130(1):474-482.

Lagoni, N. Wirksamkeitsprüfung eines pflanzlichen Tagessedativums in einer multizentrischen Studie. 1998;39(3):166-169.

Lara, M. S., Gutierrez, J. I., Timon, M., and Andres, A. I. Evaluation of two natural extracts (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Melissa officinalis L.) as antioxidants in cooked pork patties packed in MAP. Meat.Sci. 2011;88(3):481-488.

Larrondo, J. V., Agut, M., and Calvo-Torras, M. A. Antimicrobial activity of essences from labiates. Microbios 1995;82(332):171-172.

Lee J, Chae K, Ha J, et al. Regulation of obesity and lipid disorders by herbal extracts from Morus alba, Melissa officinalis, and Artemisia capillaris in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;115:263-70.

Lindahl O, Lindwall L. Double blind study of a valerian preparation. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1989 Apr;32:1065-6.

Madisch A, Holtmann G, Mayr G, et al. Treatment of functional dyspepsia with a herbal preparation. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Digestion 2004;69:45-52.

Madisch A, Melderis H, Mayr G, et al. [A plant extract and its modified preparation in functional dyspepsia. Results of a double-blind placebo controlled comparative study]. Z Gastroenterol 2001;39(7):511-7.

Martinelli M, Ummarino D, Giugliano FP, et al. Efficacy of a standardized extract of Matricariae chamomilla L., Melissa officinalis L. and tyndallized Lactobacillus acidophilus (HA122) in infantile colic: an open randomized controlled trial. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2017 Dec;29:e13145.

Meftahizade, H., Sargsyan, E., and Moradkhani, H. Investigation of antioxidant capacity of Melissa officinalis L. essential oils. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 2010;4(14):1391-1395.

Meier S, Haschke M, Zahner C, et al. Effects of a fixed herbal drug combination (Ze 185) to an experimental acute stress setting in healthy men - An explorative randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study. Phytomedicine. 2018 Jan 15;39:85-92.

Melzer J, Rosch W, Reichling J, et al. Meta-analysis: phytotherapy of functional dyspepsia with the herbal drug preparation STW 5 (Iberogast). Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004;20:1279-87.

Melzer J, Schrader E, Brattström A, et al. Fixed herbal drug combination with and without butterbur (Ze 185) for the treatment of patients with somatoform disorders: randomized, placebo-controlled pharmaco-clinical trial. Phytother Res. 2009 Sep;23:1303-8.

Mencherini, T., Picerno, P., Russo, P., Meloni, M., and Aquino, R. Composition of the fresh leaves and stems of Melissa officinalis and evaluation of skin irritation in a reconstituted human epidermis model. J.Nat.Prod. 2009;72(8):1512-1515.

Meolie, A. L., Rosen, C., Kristo, D., Kohrman, M., Gooneratne, N., Aguillard, R. N., Fayle, R., Troell, R., Townsend, D., Claman, D., Hoban, T., and Mahowald, M. Oral nonprescription treatment for insomnia: an evaluation of products with limited evidence. J Clin.Sleep Med 4-15-2005;1(2):173-187.

Mikus, J., Harkenthal, M., Steverding, D., and Reichling, J. In vitro effect of essential oils and isolated mono- and sesquiterpenes on Leishmania major and Trypanosoma brucei. Planta Med 2000;66(4):366-368.

Mimica-Dukic, N., Bozin, B., Sokovic, M., and Simin, N. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil. J Agric.Food Chem. 5-5-2004;52(9):2485-2489.

Mrlianova, M., Tekel'ova, D., Felklova, M., Reinohl, V., and Toth, J. The influence of the harvest cut height on the quality of the herbal drugs Melissae folium and Melissae herba. Planta Med 2002;68(2):178-180.

Muller SF, Klement S. A combination of valerian and lemon balm is effective in the treatment of restlessness and dyssomnia in children. Phytomedicine 2006;13:383-7.

Niculae, M., Spînu, M., Stefan, R., Sandru, C. D., Mircean, V., Brudasca, G. F., Bolfa, P., and Uricariu, R. In vitro efficacy of gentamicin and Mellisa officinalis essential oil against Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from dogs with otitis externa. Scientific Works - University of Agronomical Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Bucharest Series C, Veterinary Medicine 2010;56(3/4):280-284.

Ntalli, N. G., Ferrari, F., Giannakou, I., and Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, U. Phytochemistry and nematicidal activity of the essential oils from 8 Greek Lamiaceae aromatic plants and 13 terpene components. J.Agric.Food Chem. 7-14-2010;58(13):7856-7863.

Orth-Wagner, S, Ressin, WJ, and Friedrich, I. Phytosedativum gegen Schlafstörungen / Klinische Wirksamkeit und Verträglichkeit eines Phytosedativums mit Auszügen aus Baldrianwurzel, Hopfenzapfen und Melissenblättern. 1995;16(147):156.

PARDO-ALDAVE K, DIAZ-PIZAN ME, VILLEGAS LF, et al. Child behaviour modulation during first dental visit after administration of lemon balm, Poster Sessions. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2009;19(1):66-170.

PARDO-ALDAVE, K. DIAZ-PIZAN M. E. VILLEGAS L. F. BERNABE E. Child behaviour modulation during first dental visit after administration of lemon balm, Poster Sessions. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2009;19(1):66-170.

Patora, J., Majda, T., Gora, J., and Klimek, B. Variability in the content and composition of essential oil from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) cultivated in Poland. Acta Pol.Pharm. 2003;60(5):395-400.

Perry NSL, Menzies R, Hodgson F, et al. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a combined extract of sage, rosemary and Melissa, traditional herbal medicines, on the enhancement of memory in normal healthy subjects, including influence of age. Phytomedicine. 2018 Jan 15;39:42-48.

Perry, E. and Howes, M. J. Medicinal plants and dementia therapy: herbal hopes for brain aging? CNS.Neurosci.Ther 2011;17(6):683-698.

Perry, E. K., Pickering, A. T., Wang, W. W., Houghton, P. J., and Perry, N. S. Medicinal plants and Alzheimer's disease: from ethnobotany to phytotherapy. J Pharm Pharmacol 1999;51(5):527-534.

Perry, E. K., Pickering, A. T., Wang, W. W., Houghton, P., and Perry, N. S. Medicinal plants and Alzheimer's disease: Integrating ethnobotanical and contemporary scientific evidence. J Altern Complement Med 1998;4(4):419-428.

Raines, T., Jones, P., Moe, N., Duncan, R., McCall, S., and Ceremuga, T. E. Investigation of the anxiolytic effects of luteolin, a lemon balm flavonoid in the male Sprague-Dawley rat. AANA.J. 2009;77(1):33-36.

Ranjbar M, Salehi A, Rezaeizadeh H, et al. Efficacy of a combination of Melissa officinalis L. and Nepeta Menthoides Boiss. and Buhse on insomnia: a triple-blind, randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2018 May 9.

Rojas, J., Solís, H., and Palacios, O. In vitro anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of essential oils of ten medicinal plants. / Evaluación in vitro de la actividad anti Trypanosoma cruzi de aceites esenciales de diez plantas medicinales.1. Anales de la Facultad de Medecina 2010;71(3):161-165.

Santini F, Vitti P, Ceccarini G, et al. In vitro assay of thyroid disruptors affecting TSH-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. J Endocrinol Invest. 2003 Oct;26:950-5.

Savino F, Cresi F, Castagno E, et al. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a standardized extract of Matricariae recutita, Foeniculum vulgare and Melissa officinalis (ColiMil) in the treatment of breastfed colicky infants. Phytother Res 2005;19:335-40.

Schmidt, U, Krieger, W, Frerick, H, and Schenk, N. Psychosomatische und psychische Störungen / Baldrian und Melisse statt synthetischer Psychopharmaka. 1992;14:15-19.

Schmidt, U, Krieger, W, Frerick, H, and Schenk, N. Psychosomatische und psychische Störungen / Baldrian und Melisse statt synthetischer Psychopharmaka. 1992;14:15-19.

Scholey A, et al. Anti-stress effects of lemon balm-containing foods. Nutrients. 3014;6(11):4805-4821. doi: 10.3390/nu6114805.

Soh, N. L. and Walter, G. Complementary medicine for psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. Curr.Opin.Psychiatry 2008;21(4):350-355.

Solberg E. The effects of powdered fertilized eggs on depression. J Med Food. 2011 Jul-Aug;14:870-5.

Soulimani R, Fleurentin J, Mortier F, et al. Neurotropic action of the hydroalcoholic extract of Melissa officinalis in the mouse. Planta Med. 1991 Apr;57:105-9.

Sourgens H, Winterhoff H, Gumbinger HG, et al. Antihormonal effects of plant extracts. TSH- and prolactin-suppressing properties of Lithospermum officinale and other plants. Planta Med. 1982 Jun;45:78-86.

Stanojevic, D., Èomic´, L., Stefanovic´, O., and Sukdolak, S. S. In vitro synergistic antibacterial activity of Melissa officinalis L. and some preservatives. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 2010;8(1):109-115.

St-Onge MP, Jones PJ. Physiological effects of medium-chain triglycerides: potential agents in the prevention of obesity. J Nutr 2002;132:329-32..

Taguchi, Y., Takizawa, T., Ishibashi, H., Sagawa, T., Arai, R., Inoue, S., Yamaguchi, H., and Abe, S. Therapeutic effects on murine oral candidiasis by oral administration of cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) preparation. Nihon Ishinkin.Gakkai Zasshi 2010;51(1):13-21.

Thompson A, Meah D, Ahmed N, et al. Comparison of the antibacterial activity of essential oils and extracts of medicinal and culinary herbs to investigate potential new treatments for irritable bowel syndrome. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013;13:338.

Tittel G, Wagner H, and Bos R. [Chemical composition of the essential oil from Melissa]. Planta Medica 1982;46:91-98.

Triantaphyllou, K., Blekas, G., and Boskou, D. Antioxidative properties of water extracts obtained from herbs of the species Lamiaceae. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2001;52(4):313-317.

Tyler VE. Herbs of Choice. Binghamton, NY: Pharmaceutical Products Press, 1994.

Vejdani R, Shalmani HR, Mir-Fattahi M, et al. The efficacy of an herbal medicine, Carmint, on the relief of abdominal pain and bloating in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a pilot study. Dig Dis Sci. 2006 Aug;51:1501-7.

Vogt M, Tausch I, Wölbling RH, and et al. [Melissa extract in herpes simplex: a double-blind placebo-controlled study]. Der Allgemeinarzt 1991;13:832-841.

Vogt M, Tausch I, Wölbling RH, and et al. [Melissa extract in herpes simplex: a double-blind placebo-controlled study]. Der Allgemeinarzt 1991;13:832-841.

Wake, G., Court, J., Pickering, A., Lewis, R., Wilkins, R., and Perry, E. CNS acetylcholine receptor activity in European medicinal plants traditionally used to improve failing memory. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;69(2):105-114.

Weizman Z, Alkrinawi S, Goldfarb D, et al. Efficacy of herbal tea preparation in infantile colic. J Pediatr 1993;122(4):650-652.

Widy-Tyszkiewicz, E and Schminda, R. A randomized double blind study of sedative effects of phytotherapeutic containing valerian, hops, balm and motherwort versus placebo. Herb Polon 1997;2:154-159.

Widy-Tyszkiewicz, E and Schminda, R. A randomized double blind study of sedative effects of phytotherapeutic containing valerian, hops, balm and motherwort versus placebo. Herb Polon 1997;2:154-159.

Wolbling RH and Leonhardt K. Local therapy of herpes simplex with dried extract from Melissa officinalis. Phytomedicine 1994;1:25-31.

Wolbling RH and Milbradt R. [Clinical manifestations and treatment of Herpes simplex infections]. Therapiewoche 1984;34:1193-1200.

Wolbling RH, Leonhardt K. Local therapy of herpes simplex with dried extract from Melissa officinalis. Phytomedicine 1994;1:25-31.

Wong, A. H., Smith, M., and Boon, H. S. Herbal remedies in psychiatric practice. Arch Gen.Psychiatry 1998;55(11):1033-1044.

Yamasaki, K., Nakano, M., Kawahata, T., Mori, H., Otake, T., Ueba, N., Oishi, I., Inami, R., Yamane, M., Nakamura, M., Murata, H., and Nakanishi, T. Anti-HIV-1 activity of herbs in Labiatae. Biol.Pharm Bull 1998;21(8):829-833.

Yoon, M. and Kim, M. Y. The anti-angiogenic herbal composition Ob-X from Morus alba, Melissa officinalis, and Artemisia capillaris regulates obesity in genetically obese ob/ob mice. Pharm.Biol. 2011;49(6):614-619.

Uva Ursi

Arndt KA, Fitzpatrick TB. Topical use of hydroquinone as a depigmenting agent. JAMA 1965;194(9):965-967.

Assaf, M. H., Ali, A. A., Makboul, M. A., Beck, J. P., and Anton, R. Preliminary study of phenolic glycosides from Origanum majorana; quantitative estimation of arbutin; cytotoxic activity of hydroquinone. Planta Med 1987;53(4):343-345.

Beaux, D., Fleurentin, J., and Mortier, F. Effect of extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth, Hieracium pilosella L., Sambucus nigra L. and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. in rats. Phytother.Res 1999;13(3):222-225.

Blumenthal M, ed. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Trans. S. Klein. Boston, MA: American Botanical Council, 1998.

Brinker F. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions. 2nd ed. Sandy, OR: Eclectic Medical Publications, 1998.

Chakraborty AK, Funasaka Y, Komoto M, et al. Effect of arbutin on melanogenic proteins in human melanocytes. Pigment Cell Res 1998;11(4):206-212.

Chauhan B, Yu C, Krantis A, et al. In vitro activity of uva-ursi against cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and P-glycoprotein. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007;85(11):1099-107.

de Arriba SG, Naser B, Nolte KU. Risk assessment of free hydroquinone derived from Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi folium herbal preparations. Int J Toxicol. 2013;32(6):442-453.

Foster S, Tyler VE. Tyler's Honest Herbal, 4th ed., Binghamton, NY: Haworth Herbal Press, 1999.

Foster S, Tyler VE. Tyler's Honest Herbal: A Sensible Guide to the Use of Herbs and Related Remedies. 3rd ed., Binghamton, NY: Haworth Herbal Press, 1993.

Grases, F., Melero, G., Costa-Bauza, A., Prieto, R., and March, J. G. Urolithiasis and phytotherapy. Int Urol Nephrol 1994;26(5):507-511.

Gruenwald J, Brendler T, Jaenicke C. PDR for Herbal Medicines. 1st ed. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc., 1998.

Jin YH, Lee SJ, Chung MH, et al. Aloesin and arbutin inhibit tyrosinase activity in a synergistic manner via a different action mechanism. Arch Pharm Res 1999;22(3):232-236.

Kruszewska H, Zareba T, Tyski S. Examination of antimicrobial activity of selected non-antibiotic drugs. Acta Pol Pharm 2004;61 Suppl:18-21.

Kubo M, Ito M, Nakata H, et al. [Pharmacological studies on leaf of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. I. Combined effect of 50% methanolic extract from Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. (bearberry leaf) and prednisolone on immuno-inflammation]. Yakugaku Zasshi 1990;110(1):59-67.

Larsson B, Jonasson A, Fianu S. Prophylactic effect of UVA-E in women with recurrent cystitis: a preliminary report. Curr Ther Res 1993;53:441-3.

Larsson B, Jonasson A, Fianu S. Prophylactic effect of UVA-E in women with recurrent cystitis: a preliminary report. Current Therapeutic Research 1993;53(4):441-443.

Maeda K, Fukuda M. Arbutin: mechanism of its depigmenting action in human melanocyte culture. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1996;276(2):765-769.

Matsuda H, Higashino M, Nakai Y, et al. Studies of cuticle drugs from natural sources. IV. Inhibitory effects of some Arctostaphylos plants on melanin biosynthesis. Biol Pharm Bull 1996;19(1):153-156.

McGuffin M, Hobbs C, Upton R, Goldberg A, eds. American Herbal Products Association's Botanical Safety Handbook. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, LLC 1997.

Newall CA, Anderson LA, Philpson JD. Herbal Medicine: A Guide for Healthcare Professionals. London, UK: The Pharmaceutical Press, 1996.

Nowak AK, Shilkin KB, Jeffrey GP. Darkroom hepatitis after exposure to hydroquinone. Lancet 1995;345(8958):1187.

Paper DH, Koehler J, Franz G. Bioavailability of drug preparations containing a leaf extract of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. (Uvae ursi folium). Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Lett 1993;3:63-66.

Parejo I, Viladomat F, Bastida J, et al. A single extraction step in the quantitative analysis of arbutin in bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) leaves by high-performance liquid chromatography. Phytochem Anal 2001;12(5):336-339.

Park JB, Kim D, Min JS, et al. Identification and characterization of in vitro inhibitors against UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 in uva-ursi extracts and evaluation of in vivo uva-ursi-drug interactions. Food Chem Toxicol. 2018;120:651-661.

Pizzorno J, Murry M. Textbook of Natural Medicine. 1999;989-990, 1187.

Quintus J, Kovar KA, Link P, et al. Urinary excretion of arbutin metabolites after oral administration of bearberry leaf extracts. Planta Med 2005;71(2):147-152.

Schindler G, Patzak U, Brinkhaus B, et al. Urinary excretion and metabolism of arbutin after oral administration of Arctostaphylos uvae ursi extract as film-coated tablets and aqueous solution in healthy humans. J Clin Pharmacol 2002;42(8):920-927.

Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physician's Guide to Herbal Medicine. Terry C. Telger, transl. 3rd ed. Berlin, GER: Springer, 1998.

Shimizu M, Shiota S, Mizushima T, et al. Marked potentiation of activity of beta-lactams against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by corilagin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2001;45(11):3198-3201.

Sugai T. [Clinical effects of arbutin in patients with chloasma]. Skin Research 1992;34:522-529.

The Review of Natural Products by Facts and Comparisons. St. Louis, MO: Wolters Kluwer Co., 1999.

Turi, M., Turi, E., Koljalg, S., and Mikelsaar, M. Influence of aqueous extracts of medicinal plants on surface hydrophobicity of Escherichia coli strains of different origin. APMIS 1997;105(12):956-962.

Wahner C, Schonert J, Friedrich H. [Knowledge of the tannin contained in leaves of the bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L)]. Pharmazie 1974;29(9):616-617.

Wang L, Del Priore LV. Bull's-eye maculopathy secondary to herbal toxicity from uva ursi. Am J Ophthalmol 2004;137:1135-7.

Wichtl MW. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. Ed. N.M. Bisset. Stuttgart: Medpharm GmbH Scientific Publishers, 1994.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus

Aaron JG, Sobieszczyk ME, Weiner SD, Whittier S, Lowy FD Lactobacillus rhamnosus endocarditis after upper endoscopy Open Forum Infect Dis 2017;4(2):ofx085

Abrahamsson TR, Jakobsson T, Björkstén B, Oldaeus G, Jenmalm MC No effect of probiotics on respiratory allergies: a seven-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial in infancy Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2013;24(6):556-61

Abrahamsson TR, Jakobsson T, Bottcher MF, et al Probiotics in prevention of IgE-associated eczema: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007;119:1174-80

Al Faleh K, Anabrees J Probiotics for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014;(4):CD005496

Alak JI, Wolf BW, Mdurvwa EG, et al Effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on intestinal resistance to Cryptosporidium parvum infection in a murine model of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome J Infect Dis 1997;175:218-21

Alander M, Satokari R, Korpela R, et al Persistence of colonization of human colonic mucosa by a probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, after oral consumption Appl Environ Microbiol 1999;65:351-4

Alipour B, Homayouni-Rad A, Vaghef-Mehrabany E, Sharif SK, Vaghef-Mehrabany L,Asghari-Jafarabadi M, Nakhjavani MR, Mohtadi-Nia J Effects of Lactobacillus casei supplementation on disease activity and inflammatory cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a randomized double-blind clinical trial Int J Rheum Dis 2014;17(5):519-27

Allen SJ, Jordan S, Storey M, Thornton CA, Gravenor MB, Garaiova I, Plummer SF, Wang D, Morgan G Probiotics in the prevention of eczema: a randomised controlled trial Arch Dis Child 2014;99(11):1014-9

Allen SJ, Wareham K, Wang D, Bradley C, Hutchings H, Harris W, Dhar A, Brown H, Foden A, Gravenor MB, Mack D Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and Clostridium difficile diarrhoea in older inpatients (PLACIDE): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial Lancet 2013 Oct 12;382(9900):1249-57

Allen SJ, Wareham K, Wang D, Bradley C, Sewell B, Hutchings H, Harris W, Dhar A, Brown H, Foden A, Gravenor MB, Mack D, Phillips CJ A high-dose preparation of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the prevention of antibiotic-associated and Clostridium difficile diarrhoea in older people admitted to hospital: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel arm trial (PLACIDE) Health Technol Assess 2013;17(57):1-140

Arvola T, Laiho K, Torkkeli S, et al Prophylactic Lactobacillus GG reduces antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children with respiratory infections: a randomized study Pediatrics 1999;104:e64

Badehnoosh B, Karamali M, Zarrati M, et al The effects of probiotic supplementation on biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress and pregnancy outcomes in gestational diabetes J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2018 May;31(9):1128-1136

Baerheim A, Larsen E, Digranes A Vaginal application of lactobacilli in the prophylaxis of recurrent lower urinary tract infection in women Scand J Prim Health Care 1994;12:239-43

Barrett JS, Canale KE, Gearry RB, et al Probiotic effects on intestinal fermentation patterns in patients with irritable bowel syndrome World J Gastroenterol 2008 28;14(32):5020-4

Beausoleil, M , Fortier, N , Guenette, S , L'ecuyer, A , Savoie, M , Franco, M , Lachaine, J , and Weiss, K Effect of a fermented milk combining Lactobacillus acidophilus Cl1285 and Lactobacillus casei in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial Can J Gastroenterol 2007;21(11):732-736

Beerepoot MA, ter Riet G, Nys S, van der Wal WM, de Borgie CA, de Reijke TM,Prins JM, Koeijers J, Verbon A, Stobberingh E, Geerlings SE Lactobacilli vs antibiotics to prevent urinary tract infections: a randomized, double-blind, noninferiority trial in postmenopausal women Arch Intern Med 2012;172(9):704-12

Begtrup LM, de Muckadell OB, Kjeldsen J, Christensen RD, Jarbøl DE Long-term treatment with probiotics in primary care patients with irritable bowel syndrome--a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial Scand J Gastroenterol 2013;48(10):1127-35

Berggren A, Lazou Ahrén I, Larsson N, Onning G Randomised, double-blind and placebo-controlled study using new probiotic lactobacilli for strengthening the body immune defence against viral infections Eur J Nutr 2011;50:203-10

Berni Canani R, Di Costanzo M, Bedogni G, et al Extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reduces the occurrence of other allergic manifestations in children with cow's milk allergy: 3-year randomized controlled trial J Allergy Clin Immunol 2017;139(6):1906-1913

Bibiloni R, Fedorak RN, Tannock GW, et al VSL#3 probiotic-mixture induces remission in patients with active ulcerative colitis Am J Gastroenterol 2005;100:1539-46

Biller JA, Katz AJ, Flores AF, et al Treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis with Lactobacillus GG J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1995;21:224-6

Blaabjerg S, Artzi DM, Aabenhus R Probiotics for the Prevention of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Outpatients-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Antibiotics (Basel) 2017;6(4)

Bradshaw CS, Pirotta M, De Guingand D, Hocking JS, Morton AN, Garland SM,Fehler G, Morrow A, Walker S, Vodstrcil LA, Fairley CK Efficacy of oral metronidazole with vaginal clindamycin or vaginal probiotic for bacterial vaginosis: randomised placebo-controlled double-blind trial PLoS One 2012;7(4):e34540

Bruce AW, Reid G Intravaginal instillation of Lactobacilli for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections Can J Microbiol 1988;34:339-43

Cadieux P, Burton J, Gardiner G, et al Lactobacillus strains and vaginal ecology JAMA 2002;287:1940-1

Canducci F, Armuzzi A, Cremonini F, et al A lyophilized and inactivated culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus increases Helicobacter pylori eradication rates Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2000;14:1625-9

Casas IA, Dobrogosz WJ Validation of the probiotic concept: Lactobacillus reuteri confers broad-spectrum protection against disease in humans and animals Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 2000;12:247-85

Chan RCY, Reid G, Irvin RT, et al Competitive exclusion of uropathogens from human uroepithelial cells by Lactobacillus whole cells and cell wall fragments Infect Immun 1985;47:84-9

Chandra RK Effect of Lactobacillus on the incidence and severity of acute rotavirus diarrhoea in infants A prospective placebo-controlled double-blind study Nutr Res 2001;22:65-9

Chang HY, Chen JH, Chang JH, Lin HC, Lin CY, Peng CC Multiple strains probiotics appear to be the most effective probiotics in the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis and mortality: An updated meta-analysis PLoS One 2017;12(2):e0171579

Chatterjee S, Kar P, Das T, Ray S, Gangulyt S, Rajendiran C, Mitra M Randomised placebo-controlled double blind multicentric trial on efficacy and safety of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium BB-12 for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea J Assoc Physicians India 2013;61(10):708-12

Chau K, Lau E, Greenberg S, Jacobson S, Yazdani-Brojeni P, Verma N, Koren G Probiotics for infantile colic: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigating Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 J Pediatr 2015;166(1):74-8

Choi CH, Chang SK Role of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2016 31;22(1):3-5

Cianci A, Cicinelli E, De Leo V, et al Observational prospective study on Lactobacillus plantarum P 17630 in the prevention of vaginal infections, during and after systemic antibiotic therapy or in women with recurrent vaginal or genitourinary infections J Obstet Gynaecol 2018 Jul;38(5):693-696

Cimperman L, Bayless G, Best K, et al A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in hospitalized adults J Clin Gastroenterol 2011;45(9):785-9

Coccorullo P, Strisciuglio C, Martinelli M, Miele E, Greco L, Staiano A Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938) in infants with functional chronic constipation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study J Pediatr 2010;157(4):598-602

Cohen SH, Gerding DN, Johnson S, et al ; Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America; Infectious Diseases Society of America Clinical practice guidelines for Clostridium difficile infection in adults: 2010 update by the society for healthcare epidemiology of America (SHEA) and the infectious diseases society of America (IDSA) Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010;31(5):431-55

Costa DJ, Marteau P, Amouyal M, Poulsen LK, Hamelmann E, Cazaubiel M, Housez B, Leuillet S, Stavnsbjerg M, Molimard P, Courau S, Bousquet J Efficacy and safety of the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei LP-33 in allergic rhinitis: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (GA2LEN Study) Eur J Clin Nutr 2014;68(5):602-7

Cremonini F, Di Caro S, Covino M, et al Effect of different probiotic preparations on anti-helicobacter pylori therapy-related side effects: a parallel group, triple blind, placebo-controlled study Am J Gastroenterol 2002;97:2744-9

Darouiche RO, Hull RA Bacterial interference for prevention of urinary tract infection: an overview J Spinal Cord Med 2000;23:136-41

De Groote MA, Frank DN, Dowell E, et al Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG bacteremia associated with probiotic use in a child with short gut syndrome Pediatr Infect Dis J 2005;24:278-80

de Roos NM, Katan MB Effects of probiotic bacteria on diarrhea, lipid metabolism, and carcinogenesis: a review of papers published between 1988 and 1998 Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:405-11

Deguchi R, Nakaminami H, Rimbara E, Noguchi N, Sasatsu M, Suzuki T, Matsushima M, Koike J, Igarashi M, Ozawa H, Fukuda R, Takagi A Effect of pretreatment with Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2716 on first-line Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2012;27(5):888-92

Di Nardo G, Oliva S, Menichella A, Pistelli R, De Biase RV, Patriarchi F,Cucchiara S, Stronati L Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC55730 in cystic fibrosis J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2014;58(1):81-6

Dickerson F, Adamos M, Katsafanas E, et al Adjunctive probiotic microorganisms to prevent rehospitalization in patients with acute mania: A randomized controlled trial Bipolar Disord 2018 Apr 25

Dimidi E, Christodoulides S, Fragkos KC, Scott SM, Whelan K The effect of probiotics on functional constipation in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials Am J Clin Nutr 2014;100(4):1075-84

Dinleyici EC; PROBAGE Study Group, Vandenplas Y Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 effectively reduces the duration of acute diarrhoea in hospitalised children Acta Paediatr 2014;103(7):e300-5

Doege K, Grajecki D, Zyriax BC, Detinkina E, Zu Eulenburg C, Buhling KJ Impact of maternal supplementation with probiotics during pregnancy on atopic eczema in childhood--a meta-analysis Br J Nutr 2012;107(1):1-6

Dolatkhah N, Hajifaraji M, Abbasalizadeh F, Aghamohammadzadeh N, Mehrabi Y, Abbasi MM Is there a value for probiotic supplements in gestational diabetes mellitus? A randomized clinical trial J Health Popul Nutr 2015;33:25

Doncheva NI, Antov GP, Softove EB, Nyagolov YP Experimental and clinical study on the hypolipidemic and antisclerotic effect of Lactobacillus bulgaricus strain GB N 1 (48) Nutr Res 2002;22:393-403

D'Souza AL, Rajkumar C, Cooke J, Bulpitt CJ Probiotics in prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea: meta-analysis BMJ 2002;324:1361

Du YQ, Su T, Fan JG, Lu YX, Zheng P, Li XH, Guo CY, Xu P, Gong YF, Li ZS Adjuvant probiotics improve the eradication effect of triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection World J Gastroenterol 2012;18(43):6302-7

Ducrotté P, Sawant P, Jayanthi V Clinical trial: Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (DSM 9843) improves symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome World J Gastroenterol 2012;18(30):4012-8

Efrati C, Nicolini G, Cannaviello C, O'Sed NP, Valabrega S Helicobacter pylori eradication: sequential therapy and Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation World J Gastroenterol 2012;18(43):6250-4

Elazab N, Mendy A, Gasana J, Vieira ER, Quizon A, Forno E Probiotic administration in early life, atopy, and asthma: a meta-analysis of clinical trials Pediatrics 2013;132(3):e666-76

El-Nezami H, Kankaanpaa P, Salminen S, et al Ability of dairy strains of lactic acid bacteria to bind a common food carcinogen, aflatoxin B1 Food Chem Toxicol 1998;36:321-6

Evans M, Salewski RP, Christman MC, Girard SA, Tompkins TA Effectiveness of Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus for the management of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in healthy adults: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial Br J Nutr 2016;116(1):94-103

Felley CP, Corthesy-Theulaz I, Blanco Rivero JL, et al Favourable effect of an acidified milk (LC-1) on Helicobacter pylori gastritis in man Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001;13:25–9

Fernández-Carrocera LA, Solis-Herrera A, Cabanillas-Ayón M, Gallardo-Sarmiento RB, García-Pérez CS, Montaño-Rodríguez R, Echániz-Aviles MO Double-blind,randomised clinical assay to evaluate the efficacy of probiotics in preterm newborns weighing less than 1500 g in the prevention of necrotising enterocolitis Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2013;98(1):F5-9

Fetrow CW, Avila JR Professional's Handbook of Complementary & Alternative Medicines 1st ed Springhouse, PA: Springhouse Corp , 1999

Francavilla R, Polimeno L, Demichina A, Maurogiovanni G, Principi B, Scaccianoce G, Ierardi E, Russo F, Riezzo G, Di Leo A, Cavallo L, Francavilla A, Versalovic J Lactobacillus reuteri strain combination in Helicobacter pylori infection: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study J Clin Gastroenterol 2014;48(5):407-13

Franko B, Vaillant M, Recule C, Vautrin E, Brion JP, Pavese P Lactobacillus paracasei endocarditis in a consumer of probiotics Med Mal Infect 2013;43(4):171-3

Freedman SB, Williamson-Urquhart S, Farion KJ, et al Multicenter Trial of a Combination Probiotic for Children with Gastroenteritis N Engl J Med 2018 Nov 22;379(21):2015-2026

Friend BA, Shahani KM Nutritional and therapeutic aspects of lactobacilli J Appl Nut 1984;36:125-153

Fuentes MC, Lajo T, Carrión JM, Cuñé J Cholesterol-lowering efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 7527, 7528 and 7529 in hypercholesterolaemic adults Br J Nutr 2013;109(10):1866-72

Fujisawa T, Benno Y, Yaeshima T, Mitsuoka T Taxonomic study of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group, with recognition of Lactobacillus gallinarum sp nov and Lactobacillus johnsonii sp nov and synonymy of Lactobacillus acidophilus group A3 (Johnson et al 1980) with the type strain of Lactobacillus amylovorus (Nakamura 1981) Int J Syst Bacteriol 1992;42:487-91

Gao XW, Mubasher M, Fang CY, et al Dose-response efficacy of a proprietary probiotic formula of Lactobacillus acidophilus CL 1285 and Lactobacillus casei LBC80R for antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea prophylaxis in adult patients Am J Gastroenterol 2010;105;1636-41

Gaon D, Garmendia C, Murrielo NO, et al Effect of Lactobacillus strains (L casei and L Acidophillus Strains cerela) on bacterial overgrowth-related chronic diarrhea Medicina (B Aires) 2002;62(2):159-63

Gerasimov SV, Ivantsiv VA, Bobryk LM, et al Role of short-term use of L acidophilus DDS-1 and B lactis UABLA-12 in acute respiratory infections in children: a randomized controlled trial Eur J Clin Nutr 2016 Apr;70(4):463-9

Gill HS, Rutherfurd KJ Probiotic supplementation to enhance natural immunity in the elderly: effects of a newly characterized immunostimulatory strain of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (DR20) on leucocyte phagocytosis Nutr Res 2001;21:183-9

Gionchetti P, Rizzello F, Venturi A, et al Oral bacteriotherapy as maintenance treatment in patients with chronic pouchitis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial Gastroenterology 2000;119:305-9

Gleeson M, Bishop NC, Struszczak L Effects of Lactobacillus casei Shirota ingestion on common cold infection and herpes virus antibodies in endurance athletes: a placebo-controlled, randomized trial Eur J Appl Physiol 2016 Aug;116(8):1555-63

Goldenberg JZ, Lytvyn L, Steurich J, Parkin P, Mahant S, Johnston BC Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015;(12):CD004827

Goldenberg JZ, Ma SS, Saxton JD, et al Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in adults and children Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;(5):CD006095

Goldin BR, Gualtieri LJ, Moore RP The effect of Lactobacillus GG on the initiation and promotion of DMH-induced intestinal tumors in the rat Nutr Cancer 1996;25:197-204

Goldin BR Health Benefits of probiotics Br J Nutr 1998;80:S203-7

Gorbach SL Probiotics and gastrointestinal health Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95:S2-S4

Gore C, Custovic A, Tannock GW, Munro K, Kerry G, Johnson K, Peterson C, Morris J, Chaloner C, Murray CS, Woodcock A Treatment and secondary prevention effects of the probiotics Lactobacillus paracasei or Bifidobacterium lactis on early infant eczema: randomized controlled trial with follow-up until age 3 years Clin Exp Allergy 2012;42(1):112-22

Grin PM, Kowalewska PM, Alhazzan W, Fox-Robichaud AE Lactobacillus for preventing recurrent urinary tract infections in women: meta-analysis Can J Urol 2013;20(1):6607-14

Guandalini S, Pensabene L, Zikri MA, et al Lactobacillus GG administered in oral rehydration solution to children with acute diarrhea: a multicenter European trial J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2000;30:54

Guarino A, Ashkenazi S, Gendrel D, Lo Vecchio A, Shamir R, Szajewska H; European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition; European Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition/European Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases evidence-based guidelines for the management of acute gastroenteritis in children in Europe: update 2014 J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2014 Jul;59(1):132-52

Guarino A, Canani RB, Spagnuolo MI, et al Oral bacterial therapy reduces the duration of symptoms and of viral excretion in children with mild diarrhea J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1997;25:516-9

Gupta K, Stapleton AE, Hooton TM, et al Inverse association of H2O2-producing Lactobacilli and vaginal Escherichia coli colonization in women with recurrent urinary tract infections J Infect Dis 1998;178:446-50

Hallen A, Jarstrand C, Pahlson C Treatment of bacterial vaginosis with lactobacilli Sex Transm Dis 1992;19:146-8

Halpern GM, Prindiville T, Blankenburg M, et al Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with Lacteol Fort: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial Am J Gastroenterol 1996;91:1579-85

Han Y, Kim B, Ban J, Lee J, Kim BJ, Choi BS, Hwang S, Ahn K, Kim J A randomized trial of Lactobacillus plantarum CJLP133 for the treatment of atopic dermatitis Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2012;23(7):667-73

Hasslöf P, West CE, Videhult FK, Brandelius C, Stecksén-Blicks C Early intervention with probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei F19 has no long-term effect on caries experience Caries Res 2013;47(6):559-65

Hatakka K, Savilahti E, Ponka A, et al Effect of long term consumption of probiotic milk on infections in children attending day care centres: double blind, randomised trial BMJ 2001;322:1327

Hegar B, Hutapea EI, Advani N, Vandenplas Y A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial on probiotics in small bowel bacterial overgrowth in children treated with omeprazole J Pediatr (Rio J) 2013;89(4):381-7

Hempel S, Newberry SJ, Maher AR, Wang Z, Miles JN, Shanman R, Johnsen B, Shekelle PG Probiotics for the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a systematic review and meta-analysis JAMA 2012 9;307(18):1959-69

Herthelius M, Gorbach SL, Mollby R, et al Elimination of vaginal colonization with Escherichia coli by administration of indigenous flora Infect Immun 1989;57:2447-51

Hickson M, D'Souza AL, Muthu N, et al Use of probiotic Lactobacillus preparation to prevent diarrhoea associated with antibiotics: randomised double blind placebo controlled trial BMJ 2007;335:80

Hilton E, Kolakowski P, Singer C, et al Efficacy of Lactobacillus GG as a Diarrheal Preventative in Travelers J Travel Med 1997;4:41-3

Hilton E, Rindos P, Isenberg HD Lactobacillus GG Vaginal Suppositories and Vaginitis J Clin Microbiol 1995;33:1433

Hong Chau TT, Minh Chau NN, Hoang Le NT, et al Oxford-Vietnam Probiotics Study Group A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of Lactobacillus acidophilus for the treatment of acute watery diarrhea in Vietnamese children Pediatr Infect Dis J 2018;37(1):35-42

Hudault S, Lievin V, Bernet-Camard MF, Servin AL Antagonistic activity exerted in vitro and in vivo by Lactobacillus casei (strain GG) against Salmonella typhimurium C5 infection Appl Environ Microbiol 1997;63:513-8

Indrio F, Di Mauro A, Riezzo G, Civardi E, Intini C, Corvaglia L, Ballardini E, Bisceglia M, Cinquetti M, Brazzoduro E, Del Vecchio A, Tafuri S, Francavilla R Prophylactic use of a probiotic in the prevention of colic, regurgitation, and functional constipation: a randomized clinical trial JAMA Pediatr 2014;168(3):228-33

Isolauri E, Juntunen M, Rautanen T, et al A human Lactobacillus strain (Lactobacillus casei sp strain GG) promotes recovery from acute diarrhea in children Pediatrics 1991;88:90-7

Isolauri E, Sutas Y, Kankaanpaa P, et al Probiotics: effects on immunity Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:444S-450S

Jaisamrarn U, Triratanachat S, Chaikittisilpa S, Grob P, Prasauskas V, Taechakraichana N Ultra-low-dose estriol and lactobacilli in the local treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy Climacteric 2013;16(3):347-55

Jayasimhan S, Yap NY, Roest Y, Rajandram R, Chin KF Efficacy of microbial cell preparation in improving chronic constipation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial Clin Nutr 2013;32(6):928-34

Johnston BC, Ma SSY, Goldenberg JZ, et al Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea Ann Intern Med 2012;157:878-8

Jones ML, Martoni CJ, Parent M, Prakash S Cholesterol-lowering efficacy of a microencapsulated bile salt hydrolase-active Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30242 yoghurt formulation in hypercholesterolaemic adults Br J Nutr 2012;107(10):1505-13

Jones ML, Martoni CJ, Prakash S Cholesterol lowering and inhibition of sterol absorption by Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30242: a randomized controlled trial Eur J Clin Nutr 2012;66(11):1234-41

Jung GW, Tse JE, Guiha I, Rao J Prospective, randomized, open-label trial comparing the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of an acne treatment regimen with and without a probiotic supplement and minocycline in subjects with mild to moderate acne J Cutan Med Surg 2013;17(2):114-22

Kalima P, Masterton RG, Roddie PH, et al Lactobacillus rhamnosus infection in a child following bone marrow transplant J Infect 1996;32:165-7

Kalliomaki M, Salminen S, Arvilommi H et al Probiotics in primary prevention of atopic disease: a randomised placebo-controlled trial Lancet 2001;357:1076-1079

Kalliomaki M, Salminen S, Poussa T, et al Probiotics and prevention of atopic disease: 4-year follow-up of a randomised placebo-controlled trial Lancet 2003;361:1869-71

Karamali M, Dadkhah F, Sadrkhanlou M, et al Effects of probiotic supplementation on glycaemic control and lipid profiles in gestational diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial Diabetes Metab 2016;42(4):234-41

Kasravi FB, Adawi D, Molin G, et al Effect of oral supplementation of lactobacilli on bacterial translocation in acute liver injury induced by D-galactosamine J Hepatol 1997;26:417-24

Kato K, Funabashi N, Takaoka H, et al Lactobacillus paracasei endocarditis in a consumer of probiotics with advanced and severe bicuspid aortic valve stenosis complicated with diffuse left ventricular mid-layer fibrosis Int J Cardiol 2016;224:157-61

Kim HJ, Camilleri M, McKinzie S, et al A randomized controlled trial of a probiotic, VSL#3, on gut transit and symptoms in diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003;17:895-904

Kim J, Yun JM, Kim MK, Kwon O, Cho B Lactobacillus gasseri BNR17 Supplementation Reduces the Visceral Fat Accumulation and Waist Circumference in Obese Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial J Med Food 2018 May;21(5):454-461

Kishi A, Uno K, Matsubara Y, et al Effect of the oral administration of Lactobacillus brevis subsp coagulans on interferon-alpha producing capacity in humans J Am Coll Nutr 1996;15:408-12

Klein G, Zill E, Schindler R, et al Peritonitis associated with vancomycin-resistant Lactobacillus rhamnosus in a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patient; organism identification, antibiotic therapy, and case report J Clin Microbiol 1998;36:1781-3

Koning CJ, Jonkers DM, Stobberingh EE, et al The effect of a multispecies probiotic on the intestinal microbiota and bowel movements in healthy volunteers taking the antibiotic amoxycillin Am J Gastroenterol 2008;103(1):178-89

Krag A, Munkholm P, Israelsen H, von Ryberg B, Andersen KK, Bendtsen F Profermin is efficacious in patients with active ulcerative colitis--a randomized controlled trial Inflamm Bowel Dis 2013;19(12):2584-92

Kuhbacher T, Ott SJ, Helwig U, et al Bacterial and fungal microbiota in relation to probiotic therapy (VSL#3) in pouchitis Gut 2006;55:833-41

Land MH, Rouster-Stevens K, Woods CR, et al Lactobacillus sepsis associated with probiotic therapy Pediatrics 2005;115:178-81

Langkamp-Henken B, Rowe CC, Ford AL, Christman MC, Nieves C Jr, Khouri L,Specht GJ, Girard SA, Spaiser SJ, Dahl WJ Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071 results in a greater proportion of healthy days and a lower percentage of academically stressed students reporting a day of cold/flu: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study Br J Nutr 2015 14;113(3):426-34

Larsson PG, Stray-Pedersen B, Ryttig KR, Larsen S Human lactobacilli as supplementation of clindamycin to patients with bacterial vaginosis reduce the recurrence rate; a 6-month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study BMC Womens Health 2008;8:3

Lau CS, Chamberlain RS Probiotics are effective at preventing Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: a systematic review and meta-analysis Int J Gen Med 2016;9:27-37

Leyer GJ, Li S, Mubasher ME, et al Probiotic effects on cold and influenza-like symptom incidence and duration in children Pediatrics 2009;124:e172-e179

Lin MY, Yen CL, Chen SH Management of lactose maldigestion by consuming milk containing lactobacilli Dig Dis Sci 1998;43:133-7

Lindsay KL, Brennan L, Kennelly MA, et al Impact of probiotics in women with gestational diabetes mellitus on metabolic health: a randomized controlled trial Am J Obstet Gynecol 2015;212(4):496 e1-11

Liu S, Hu P, Du X, Zhou T, Pei X Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplementation for preventing respiratory infections in children: a meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled trials Indian Pediatr 2013;50(4):377-81

Losada MA, Olleros T Towards a healthier diet for the colon: the influence of fructooligosaccharides and lactobacilli on intestinal health Nutr Res 2002;22:71-84

Lu L, Walker WA Pathologic and physiologic interactions of bacteria with the gastrointestinal epithelium Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73;1124S-1130S

Lü M, Yu S, Deng J, et al Efficacy of probiotic supplementation therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials PLoS One 2016;11(10):e0163743

Lue KH, Sun HL, Lu KH, Ku MS, Sheu JN, Chan CH, Wang YH A trial of adding Lactobacillus johnsonii EM1 to levocetirizine for treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis in children aged 7-12 years Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2012;76(7):994-1001

Luoto R, Matomäki J, Isolauri E, Lehtonen L Incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in very-low-birth-weight infants related to the use of Lactobacillus GG Acta Paediatr 2010;99:1135-8

Lyra A, Hillilä M, Huttunen T, et al Irritable bowel syndrome symptom severity improves equally with probiotic and placebo World J Gastroenterol 2016;22(48):10631-42

MacGregor G, Smith AJ, Thakker B, Kinsella J Yoghurt biotherapy: contraindicated in immunosuppressed patients? Postgrad Med J 2002;78:366-7

Mack DR, Michail S, Shu W, et al Probiotics inhibit enteropathogenic E coli adherence in vitro by inducing intestinal mucin gene expression Am J Physiol 1999;276(4 Pt 1):G941-50

Madsen KL, Doyle JS, Jewell LD, et al Lactobacillus species prevents colitis in interleukin 10 gene-deficient mice Gastroenterology 1999;116:1107-14

Maggi L, Mastromarino P, Macchia S, et al Technological and biological evaluation of tablets containing different strains of lactobacilli for vaginal administration Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2000;50:389-95

Magro DO, de Oliveira LM, Bernasconi I, Ruela Mde S, Credidio L, Barcelos IK, Leal RF, Ayrizono Mde L, Fagundes JJ, Teixeira Lde B, Ouwehand AC, Coy CS Effect of yogurt containing polydextrose, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study in chronic constipation Nutr J 2014 24;13:75

Majamaa H, Isolauri E Probiotics: a novel approach in the management of food allergy J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;99:179-85

Mao Y, Nobaek S, Kasravi B, et al The effects of Lactobacillus strains and oat fiber on methotrexate-induced enterocolitis in rats Gastroenterology 1996;111:334-44

Marini A, Jaenicke T, Grether-Beck S, Le Floc'h C, Cheniti A, Piccardi N,Krutmann J Prevention of polymorphic light eruption by oral administration of a nutritional supplement containing lycopene, ß-carotene, and Lactobacillus johnsonii: results from a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2014;30(4):189-94

Marteau P, Lemann M, Seksik P, et al Ineffectiveness of Lactobacillus johnsonii LA1 for prophylaxis of postoperative recurrence in Crohn's disease: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled GETAID trial Gut 2006;55:842-7

Martinelli M, Ummarino D, Giugliano FP, et al Efficacy of a standardized extract of Matricariae chamomilla L , Melissa officinalis L and tyndallized Lactobacillus acidophilus (HA122) in infantile colic: an open randomized controlled trial Neurogastroenterol Motil 2017 Dec;29:e13145

McFarland LV Meta-analysis of probiotics for the prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhea and the treatment of Clostridium difficile disease Am J Gastroenterol 2006;101:812-22

McFarland LV Probiotics for the Primary and Secondary Prevention of C difficile Infections: A Meta-analysis and Systematic Review Antibiotics 2015;4:160-178

McGroarty JA Probiotic use of lactobacilli in the human female urogenital tract FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 1993;6:251-64

McIntosh GH, Royle PJ, Playne MJ A probiotic strain of L acidophilus reduces DMH-induced large intestinal tumors in male Sprague-Dawley rats Nutr Cancer 1999;35:153-9

Meini S, Laureano R, Fani L, et al Breakthrough Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG bacteremia associated with probiotic use in an adult patient with severe active ulcerative colitis: case report and review of the literature Infection 2015;43(6):777-81

Michalickova D, Minic R, Dikic N, et al Lactobacillus helveticus Lafti L10 supplementation reduces respiratory infection duration in a cohort of elite athletes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2016 Jul;41(7):782-9

Miele E, Pascarella F, Giannetti E et al Effect of a probiotic preparation (VSL#3) on induction and maintenance of remission in children with ulcerative colitis Am J Gastroenterol 2009;104:437-43

Mimura T, Rizzello F, Helwig U, et al Once daily high dose probiotic therapy (VSL#3) for maintaining remission in recurrent or refractory pouchitis Gut 2004;53:108-14

Morita Y, Jounai K, Miyake M, Inaba M, Kanauchi O Effect of Heat-Killed Lactobacillus paracasei KW3110 Ingestion on Ocular Disorders Caused by Visual Display Terminal (VDT) Loads: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Parallel-Group Study Nutrients 2018 Aug 9;10(8)

Morrow LE, Kollef MH, Casale TB Probiotic prophylaxis of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a blinded, randomized, controlled trial Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2010;182:1058-64

Mustapha A, Jiang T, Savaiano DA Improvement of lactose digestion by humans following ingestion of unfermented acidophilus milk: influence of bile sensitivity, lactose transport, and acid tolerance of Lactobacillus acidophilus J Dairy Sci 1997;80:1537-45

Navarro-Rodriguez T, Silva FM, Barbuti RC, Mattar R, Moraes-Filho JP, de Oliveira MN, Bogsan CS, Chinzon D, Eisig JN Association of a probiotic to a Helicobacter pylori eradication regimen does not increase efficacy or decreases the adverse effects of the treatment: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study BMC Gastroenterol 2013 26;13:56

Newcomer AD, Park HS, O'Brien PC, McGill DB Response of patients with irritable bowel syndrome and lactase deficiency using unfermented acidophilus milk Am J Clin Nutr 1983;38:257-63

Niedzielin K, Kordecki H, Birkenfeld B A controlled, double-blind, randomized study on the efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum 299V in patients with irritable bowel syndrome Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001;13:1143-7

Nixon AF, Cunningham SJ, Cohen HW, Crain EF The effect of Lactobacillus GG on acute diarrheal illness in the pediatric emergency department Pediatr Emerg Care 2012;28(10):1048-51

Nobaek S, Johansson ML, Molin G, et al Alteration of intestinal microflora is associated with reduction in abdominal bloating and pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95:1231-8

Oberhelman RA, Gilman RH, Sheen P, et al A placebo-controlled trial of Lactobacillus GG to prevent diarrhea in undernourished Peruvian children J Pediatr 1999;134:15-20

Ojetti V, Ianiro G, Tortora A, et al The effect of Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation in adults with chronic functional constipation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial J Gastrointestin Liver Dis 2014;23(4):387-91

Oksanen PJ, Salminen S, Saxelin M, et al Prevention of travellers' diarrhoea by Lactobacillus GG Ann Med 1990;22:53-6

Olek A, Woynarowski M, Ahrén IL, et al Efficacy and safety of Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 9843 (LP299V) in the prevention of antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal symptoms in children-randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study J Pediatr 2017;186:82-6

O'Mahony L, McCarthy J, Kelly P, et al Lactobacillus and bifidobacterium in irritable bowel syndrome: symptom responses and relationship to cytokine profiles Gastroenterology 2005;128:541-51

Oncel MY, Sari FN, Arayici S, Guzoglu N, Erdeve O, Uras N, Oguz SS, Dilmen U Lactobacillus Reuteri for the prevention of necrotising enterocolitis in very low birthweight infants: a randomised controlled trial Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2014;99(2):F110-5

Osterlund P, Ruotsalainen T, Korpela R, et al Lactobacillus supplementation for diarrhoea related to chemotherapy of colorectal cancer: a randomised study Br J Cancer 2007;97:1028-34

O'Sullivan MA, O'Morain CA Bacterial supplementation in the irritable bowel syndrome A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study Dig Liver Dis 2000;32:294-301

Palmfeldt J, Hahn-Hagerdal B Influence of culture pH on survival of Lactobacillus reuteri subjected to freeze-drying Int J Food Microbiol 2000;55:235-8

Parent D, Bossens M, Bayot D, et al Therapy of bacterial vaginosis using exogenously-applied Lactobacilli acidophili and a low dose of estriol: a placebo-controlled multicentric clinical trial Arzneimittelforschung 1996;46:68-73

Park MS, Kwon B, Ku S, Ji GE4 The Efficacy of Bifidobacterium longum BORI and Lactobacillus acidophilus AD031 Probiotic Treatment in Infants with Rotavirus Infection Nutrients 2017;9(8) pii: E887

Parma M, Dindelli M, Caputo L, Redaelli A, Quaranta L, Candiani M The role of vaginal Lactobacillus Rhamnosus (Normogin®) in preventing Bacterial Vaginosis in women with history of recurrences, undergoing surgical menopause: a prospective pilot study Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2013;17(10):1399-403

Pedone CA, Arnaud CC, Postaire ER, et al Multicentric study of the effect of milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei on the incidence of diarrhoea Int J Clin Pract 2000;54:589-71

Pedone CA, Bernabeu AO, Postaire ER, et al The effect of supplementation with milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei (strain DN-114 001) on acute diarrhoea in children attending day care centres Int J Clin Pract 1999;53:179-84

Pelto L, Ioslauri E, Lilius EM, et al Probiotic bacteria down-regulate the milk-induced inflammatory response in milk-hypersensitive subjects but have an immunostimulatory effect in healthy subjects Clin Exp Allergy 1998;28:1474-9

Pierce A The American Pharmaceutical Association Practical Guide to Natural Medicines New York: The Stonesong Press, 1999:19

Pirotta M, Gunn J, Chondros P, et al Effect of lactobacillus in preventing post-antibiotic vulvovaginal candidiasis: a randomized, controlled trial BMJ 2004;329:548

Pochapin M The effect of probiotics on Clostridium difficile diarrhea Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95:S11-3

Prantera C, Scribano ML, Falasco G, et al Ineffectiveness of probiotics in preventing recurrence after curative resection for Crohn's disease: a randomised controlled trial with Lactobacillus GG Gut 2002;51:405-9

Rautava S, Kainonen E, Salminen S, Isolauri E Maternal probiotic supplementation during pregnancy and breast-feeding reduces the risk of eczema in the infant J Allergy Clin Immunol 2012;130(6):1355-60

Rautava S, Kalliomaki M, Isolauri E Probiotics during pregnancy and breast-feeding might confer immunomodulatory protection against atopic disease in the infant J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;109:119-21

Rautio M, Jousimies-Somer H, Kauma H, et al Liver abscess due to Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain indistinguishable from L rhamnosus strain GG Clin Infect Dis 1999;28:1159-60

Reid G, Bruce AW, Cook RL, et al Effect on urogenital flora of antibiotic therapy for urinary tract infection Scand J Infect Dis 1990;22:43-7

Reid G, Bruce AW, Taylor M Influence of three-day antimicrobial therapy and lactobacillus vaginal suppositories on recurrence of urinary tract infections Clin Ther 1992;14:11-6

Reid G, Cook RL, Bruce AW Examination of strains of lactobacilli for properties that may influence bacterial interference in the urinary tract J Urol 1987;138:330-5

Reid G Probiotic agents to protect the urogenital tract against infection Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:437S-443S

Rerksuppaphol S, Rerksuppaphol L Randomized controlled trial of probiotics to reduce common cold in schoolchildren Pediatr Int 2012;54(5):682-7

Riezzo G, Orlando A, D'Attoma B, Linsalata M, Martulli M, Russo F Randomised double blind placebo controlled trial on Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938: improvement in symptoms and bowel habit in functional constipation Benef Microbes 2017:1-10

Ringel-Kulka T, Goldsmith JR, Carroll IM, Barros SP, Palsson O, Jobin C, Ringel Y Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM affects colonic mucosal opioid receptor expression in patients with functional abdominal pain - a randomised clinical study Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2014;40(2):200-7

Roberfroid MB Prebiotics and probiotics: are they functional foods? Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1682S-7S

Romano C, Ferrau' V, Cavataio F, et al Lactobacillus reuteri in children with functional abdominal pain (FAP) J Paediatr Child Health 2010 Jul 8 [Epub ahead of print]

Rosenfeldt V, Benfeldt E, Nielsen SD, et al Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains in children with atopic dermatitis J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;111:389-95

Rosenfeldt V, Michaelsen KF, Jakobsen M, et al Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains on acute diarrhea in a cohort of nonhospitalized children attending day-care centers Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002;21:417-9

Rosenfeldt V, Michaelsen KF, Jakobsen M, et al Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains in young children hospitalized with acute diarrhea Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002;21:411-6

Safdar N, Barigala R, Said A, McKinley L Feasibility and tolerability of probiotics for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in hospitalized US military veterans J Clin Pharm Ther 2008;33:663-8

Sakamoto I, Igarashi M, Kimura K, et al Suppressive effect of Lactobacillus gasseri OLL 2716 (LG21) on Helicobacter pylori infection in humans J Antimicrob Chemother 2001;47:709-10

Sampalis J, Psaradellis E, Rampakakis E Efficacy of Bio K+ CL1285 in the reduction of antibiotic-associated diarrhea - a placebo controlled double-blind randomized, multi-center study Arch Med Sci 2010;6:56-64

Sanchez M, Darimont C, Drapeau V, Emady-Azar S, Lepage M, Rezzonico E, Ngom-Bru C, Berger B, Philippe L, Ammon-Zuffrey C, Leone P, Chevrier G, St-Amand E, Marette A, Doré J, Tremblay A Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1 3724supplementation on weight loss and maintenance in obese men and women Br J Nutr 2014 28;111(8):1507-19

Savino F, Cordisco L, Tarasco V, et al Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 in infantile colic: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial Pediatrics 2010;126:e526-33

Savino F, Pelle E, Palumeri E, et al Lactobacillus reuteri (American Type Culture Collection Strain 55730) versus simethicone in the treatment of infantile colic: a prospective randomized study Pediatrics 2007;119:e124-30

Saxelin M, Chuang NH, Chassy B, et al Lactobacilli and bacteremia in southern Finland 1989-1992 Clin Infect Dis 1996;22:564-6

Schnadower D, Tarr PI, Casper TC, et al Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG versus Placebo for Acute Gastroenteritis in Children N Engl J Med 2018 Nov 22;379(21):2002-2014

Schultz M, Sartor RB Probiotics and inflammatory bowel diseases Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95:S19-21

Sen S, Mullan MM, Parker TJ, et al Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v on colonic fermentation and symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome Dig Dis Sci 2002;47:2615-20

Shalev E, Battino S, Weiner E, et al Ingestion of yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus compared with pasteurized yogurt as prophylaxis for recurrent candidal vaginitis and bacterial vaginosis Arch Fam Med 1996;5:593-6

Shane AL, Mody RK, Crump JA, et al 2017 Infectious Diseases Society of America Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Infectious Diarrhea Clin Infect Dis 2017 Oct 19 [Epub ahead of print]

Sharma A, Rath GK, Chaudhary SP, Thakar A, Mohanti BK, Bahadur S Lactobacillus brevis CD2 lozenges reduce radiation- and chemotherapy-induced mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study Eur J Cancer 2012;48(6):875-81

Shavakhi A, Tabesh E, Yaghoutkar A, Hashemi H, Tabesh F, Khodadoostan M,Minakari M, Shavakhi S, Gholamrezaei A The effects of multistrain probiotic compound on bismuth-containing quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection: a randomized placebo-controlled triple-blind study Helicobacter 2013;18(4):280-4

Sheih YH, Chiang BL, Wang LH, et al Systemic immunity-enhancing effects in healthy subjects following dietary consumption of the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 J Am Coll Nutr 2001;20:149-56

Shen J, Zuo ZX, Mao AP Effect of probiotics on inducing remission and maintaining therapy in ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and pouchitis: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials Inflamm Bowel Dis 2014;20(1):21-35

Shen NT, Maw A, Tmanova LL, et al Timely Use of Probiotics in Hospitalized Adults Prevents Clostridium difficile Infection: A Systematic Review With Meta-Regression Analysis Gastroenterology 2017;152(8):1889-1900

Shida K, Sato T, Iizuka R, et al Daily intake of fermented milk with Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota reduces the incidence and duration of upper respiratory tract infections in healthy middle-aged office workers Eur J Nutr 2017 Feb;56(1):45-53 doi: 10 1007/s00394-015-1056-1 Epub 2015 Sep 29

Shimizu M, Hashiguchi M, Shiga T, Tamura HO, Mochizuki M Meta-analysis: effects of probiotic supplementation on lipid profiles in normal to mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals PLoS One 2015;10(10):e0139795

Shornikova AV, Casas IA, Isolauri E, et al Lactobacillus reuteri as a therapeutic agent in acute diarrhea in young children J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1997;24:399-404

Shornikova AV, Casas IA, Mykkanen H, et al Bacteriotherapy with Lactobacillus reuteri in rotavirus gastroenteritis Pediatr Infect Dis J 1997;16:1103-7

Simpson MR, Dotterud CK, Storrø O, Johnsen R, Øien T Perinatal probiotic supplementation in the prevention of allergy related disease: 6 year follow up of a randomised controlled trial BMC Dermatol 2015;15:13

Simrén M, Ohman L, Olsson J, et al Clinical trial: the effects of a fermented milk containing three probiotic bacteria in patients with irritable bowel syndrome - a randomized, double-blind, controlled study Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010;31(2):218-27

Sinclair A, Xie X, Saab L, Dendukuri N Lactobacillus probiotics in the prevention of diarrhea associated with Clostridium difficile: a systematic review and Bayesian hierarchical meta-analysis CMAJ Open 2016;4(4):E706-E718

Søndergaard B, Olsson J, Ohlson K, Svensson U, Bytzer P, Ekesbo R Effects of probiotic fermented milk on symptoms and intestinal flora in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial Scand J Gastroenterol 2011;46(6):663-72

Stensson M, Koch G, Coric S, Abrahamsson TR, Jenmalm MC, Birkhed D, Wendt LK Oral administration of Lactobacillus reuteri during the first year of life reduces caries prevalence in the primary dentition at 9 years of age Caries Res 2014;48(2):111-7

St-Onge MP, Farnworth ER, Jones PJ Consumption of fermented and nonfermented dairy products: effects on cholesterol concentrations and metabolism Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:674-81

Stotzer PO, Blomberg L, Conway PL, Henriksson A, Abrahamsson H Probiotic treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth by Lactobacillus fermentum KLD Scand J Infect Dis 1996;28(6):615-9

Sullivan A, Barkholt L, Nord CE Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium lactis and Lactobacillus F19 prevent antibiotic-associated ecological disturbances of Bacteroides fragilis in the intestine J Antimicrob Chemother 2003;52:308-11

Sun J, Buys N Effects of probiotics consumption on lowering lipids and CVD risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials Ann Med 2015;47(6):430-40

Sung V, Hiscock H, Tang ML, Mensah FK, Nation ML, Satzke C, Heine RG, Stock A,Barr RG, Wake M Treating infant colic with the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri: double blind, placebo controlled randomised trial BMJ 2014 1;348:g2107

Sutas Y, Hurme M, Isolauri E Down-regulations of anti-CD3 antibody-induced IL-4 production by bovine caseins hydrolyzed with Lactobacillus GG-derived enzymes Scand J Immunol 1996;43:687-9

Szajewska H, Canani RB, Guarino A, et al ; ESPGHAN working group for ProbioticsPrebiotics Probiotics for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2016;62(3):495-506

Szajewska H, Gyrczuk E, Horvath A Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for the management of infantile colic in breastfed infants: a randomized, double-blind,placebo-controlled trial J Pediatr 2013;162(2):257-62

Szajewska H, Kolodziej M Systematic review with meta-analysis: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children and adults Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2015;42(10):1149-57

Szajewska H, Kotowska M, Mrukowicz JZ, et al Efficacy of Lactobacillus GG in prevention of nosocomial diarrhea in infants J Pediatr 2001;138:361-5

Szajewska H, Ruszczynski M, Kolacek S Meta-analysis shows limited evidence for using Lactobacillus acidophilus LB to treat acute gastroenteritis in children Acta Paediatr 2014;103(3):249-55

Tankanow RM, Ross MB, Ertel IJ, et al A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of Lactinex in the prophylaxis of amoxicillin-induced diarrhea DICP 1990;24:382-4

Thomas MR, Litin SC, Osmon DR, et al Lack of effect of Lactobacillus GG on antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial Mayo Clin Proc 2001;76:883-9

Tomasz B, Zoran S, Jaroslaw W, Ryszard M, Marcin G, Robert B, Piotr K, Lukasz K, Jacek P, Piotr G, Przemyslaw P, Michal D Long-term use of probiotics Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium has a prophylactic effect on the occurrence and severity of pouchitis: a randomized prospective study Biomed Res Int 2014;2014:208064

Topcuoglu S, Gursoy T, Ovali F, Serce O, Karatekin G A new risk factor for neonatal vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus colonisation: bacterial probiotics J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2015;28(12):1491-4

Tursi A, Brandimarte G, Giorgetti GM, et al Low-dose balsalazide plus a high-potency probiotic preparation is more effective than balsalazide alone or mesalazine in the treatment of acute mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis Med Sci Monit 2004;10:PI126-31

Tynkkynen S, Singh KV, Varmanen P Vancomycin resistance factor of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in relation to enterococcal vancomycin resistance (van) genes Int J Food Microbiol 1998;41:195-204

Urbanska M, Gieruszczak-Bialek D, Szajewska H Systematic review with meta-analysis: Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for diarrhoeal diseases in children Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2016;43(10):1025-34

Vaghef-Mehrabany E, Alipour B, Homayouni-Rad A, Sharif SK, Asghari-Jafarabadi M, Zavvari S Probiotic supplementation improves inflammatory status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis Nutrition 2014;30(4):430-5

Vahabnezhad E, Mochon AB, Wozniak LJ, Ziring DA Lactobacillus bacteremia associated with probiotic use in a pediatric patient with ulcerative colitis J Clin Gastroenterol 2013;47(5):437-9

Van Niel CW, Feudtner C, Garrison MM, Christakis DA Lactobacillus therapy for acute infectious diarrhea in children: a meta-analysis Pediatrics 2002;109:678-84

Vanderhoof JA, Whitney DB, Antonson DL, et al Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children J Pediatr 1999;135:564-8

Vanderhoof JA, Young RJ Current and potential uses of probiotics Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2004;93:S33-7

Velraeds MM, van der Mei HC, Reid G, Busscher HJ Inhibition of initial adhesion of uropathogenic Enterococcus faecalis by biosurfactants from Lactobacillus isolates Appl Environ Microbiol 1996;62:1958-63

Venturi A, Gionchetti P, Rizzello F, et al Impact on the composition of the faecal flora by a new probiotic preparation: preliminary data on maintenance treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1999;13:1103-8

Videlock EJ, Cremonini F Meta-analysis: probiotics in antibiotic-associated diarrhoea Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2012;35(12):1355-69

Wagner RD, Pierson C, Warner T, et al Biotherapeutic effects of probiotic bacteria on candidiasis in immunodeficient mice Infect Immun 1997;65:4165-4172

Waki N, Matsumoto M, Fukui Y, Suganuma H Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus brevis KB290 on incidence of influenza infection among schoolchildren: an open-label pilot study Lett Appl Microbiol 2014;59(6):565-71

Wang IJ, Wang JY Children with atopic dermatitis show clinical improvement after Lactobacillus exposure Clin Exp Allergy 2015 Apr;45(4):779-87

Wang YH, Huang Y Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum supplementation to standard triple therapy on Helicobacter pylori eradication and dynamic changes in intestinal flora World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2014;30(3):847-53

Wei H, Loimaranta V, Tenovuo J, et al Stability and activity of specific antibodies against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus in bovine milk fermented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG or treated at ultra-high temperature Oral Microbiol Immunol 2002;17:9-15

Weizman Z, Abu-Abed J, Binsztok M Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for the management of functional abdominal pain in childhood: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial J Pediatr 2016;174:160-164 e1

Wendakoon CN, Thomson AB, Ozimek L Lack of therapeutic effect of a specially designed yogurt for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection Digestion 2002;65:16-20

Wickens K, Barthow C, Mitchell EA, et al Maternal supplementation alone with Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 during pregnancy and breastfeeding does not reduce infant eczema Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2018 May;29(3):296-302

Wickens K, Black P, Stanley TV, Mitchell E, Barthow C, Fitzharris P, Purdie G, Crane J A protective effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 against eczema in the first 2 years of life persists to age 4 years Clin Exp Allergy 2012;42(7):1071-9

Wickens KL, Barthow CA, Murphy R, et al Early pregnancy probiotic supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 may reduce the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus: a randomised controlled trial Br J Nutr 2017;117(6):804-813

Wildt S, Nordgaard I, Hansen U, Brockmann E, Rumessen JJ A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial with Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis BB-12 for maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis J Crohns Colitis 2011;5(2):115-21

Wojtyniak K, Horvath A, Dziechciarz P, Szajewska H Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus Lcr35 in the Management of Functional Constipation in Children: A Randomized Trial J Pediatr 2017;184:101-105

Wolf BW, Wheeler KB, Ataya DG, Garleb KA Safety and tolerance of Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation to a population infected with the human immunodeficiency virus Food Chem Toxicol 1998;36:1085-94

Woo SI, Kim JY, Lee YJ, et al Effect of Lactobacillus sakei supplementation in children with atopic eczema-dermatitis syndrome Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2010;104:343-8

World Gastroenterology Organisation WGO Practice Guideline - Probiotics and Prebiotics http://www worldgastroenterology org/guidelines/global-guidelines/probiotics-and-prebiotics (Accessed on January 2, 2019)

Wu Y, Zhang Q, Ren Y, Ruan Z Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus on lipid profile: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials PLoS One 2017;12(6):e0178868

Wullt M, Hagslatt ML, Odenholt I Lactobacillus plantarum 299v for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial Scand J Infect Dis 2003;35:365-7

Xu M, Wang J, Wang N, Sun F, Wang L, Liu XH The Efficacy and Safety of the Probiotic Bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for Infantile Colic: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials PLoS One 2015 Oct 28;10(10):e0141445

Yli-Knuuttila H, Snall J, Kari K, Meurman JH Colonization of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in the oral cavity Oral Microbiol Immunol 2006;21:129-31

Zhao M, Shen C, Ma L Treatment efficacy of probiotics on atopic dermatitis, zooming in on infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis Int J Dermatol 2018 Jun;57(6):635-641

Zheng X, Lyu L, Mei Z Lactobacillus-containing probiotic supplementation increases Helicobacter pylori eradication rate: evidence from a meta-analysis Rev Esp Enferm Dig 2013;105(8):445-53 Review