PMS Solution Program

Essential Nutrients

Our Essential Nutrients is a comprehensive nutritional supplement that is doctor-formulated to be complete, bioavailable, and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.

The following articles and studies, arranged in order of recency, provide information about the clinical basis for using our Essential Nutrients.

Geohas, J., et al. 2007. Chromium picolinate and biotin combination reduces atherogenic index of plasma in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Am. J. Med. Sci., 333, 145–153.

Grobbee, D., & van der Graaf, Y. 2007. Vitamin K intake and calcifications in breast arteries. Maturitas, 56, 273–279.

Knight, J., et al. 2007. Vitamin D and reduced risk of breast cancer: A population-based case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 16, 422–429.

Lin, J., et al. 2007. Intakes of calcium and vitamin D and breast cancer risk in women. Arch. Intern. Med., 167, 1050–1059.

Pendas–Franco, N., et al. 2007. Vitamin D regulates the phenotype of human breast cancer cells. Differentiation, 75, 193–207.

Robien, K., et al. 2007. Vitamin D intake and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: The Iowa Women’s Health Study. Cancer Causes Control, 18, 775–782.

Schurgers, L., et al. 2007. Vitamin K-containing dietary supplements: Comparison of synthetic vitamin K1 and natto-derived menaquinone-7. Blood, 109, 3279-3283.

Ball, G. 2006. Chapter 11: Pantothenic Acid. In Vitamins in Foods: Analysis, Bioavailability, and Stability, 211–219. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Bischoff-Ferrari, H., et al. 2006. Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 84, 18–28.

Colli, E., et al. 2006. BXL628, a novel vitamin D3 analog arrests prostate growth in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: A randomized clinical trial. Eur. Urol., 49, 82–86.

Clarke, R. 2006. Vitamin B12, folic acid, and the prevention of dementia. NEJM, 354, 2817–2819.

Garland, C., et al. 2006. The role of vitamin D in cancer prevention. Am. J. Pub. Health, 96, 252–261.

Murray, M., & Pizzorno, J. 2006. Chapter 174: Herpes Simplex. In Textbook of Natural Medicine, vol. 2, 1723–1726. St. Louis, MO: Churchill Livingston.

Revilla–Monsalve, C., et al. 2006. Biotin supplementation reduces plasma triacylglycerol and VLDL in type 2 diabetic patients and in nondiabetic subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. Biomed. Pharmacother., 60, 182–185.

Adams, J., & Pepping, J. 2005. Vitamin K in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis and arterial calcification. Am. J. Health-Syst. Pharm, 62, 1574–1581.

Akbaraly, N., et al. 2005. Selenium and mortality in the elderly: Results from the EVA study. Clin. Chem., 51, 2117–2123.

Bischoff-Ferrari, H., et al. 2005. Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA, 293, 2257–2264.

Coppen, A., & Bolander-Gouaille, C. 2005. Treatment of depression: Time to consider folic acid and vitamin B12. J. Psychopharm., 19, 59–65.

DiSilvestro, R. 2005. Handbook of Minerals as Nutritional Supplements. NY: CRC Press.

Eussen, S., et al. 2005. Oral cyanocobalamin supplementation in older people with vitamin B12 deficiency: A dosefinding trial. Arch. Intern. Med., 165, 1167–1172.

Gropper, S., et al. 2005. Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

Mathieu, C., et al. 2005. Vitamin D and diabetes. Diabetologia, 48, 1247–1257.

Miller, E., et al. 2005. Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Ann. Intern. Med., 142, 37–46.

Simon, L. 2005. Osteoporosis. Clin. Geriatr. Med., 21, 603–629.

Srivastava, A., & Mehdi, M. 2005. Insulino-mimetic and anti-diabetic effects of vanadium compounds. Diab. Med., 22, 2–13.

Van Guelpen, B., et al. 2005. Folate, vitamin B12, and risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke: A prospective, nested case-referent study of plasma concentrations and dietary intake. Stroke, 36, 1426–1431.

Baez–Saldana, A., et al. 2004. Effects of biotin on pyruvate carboxylase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, propionyl-CoA carboxylase, and markers for glucose and lipid homeostasis in type 2 diabetic patients and nondiabetic subjects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 79, 238–243.

Bendich, A. 2004. From 1989 to 2001: What have we learned about the “biological actions of beta-carotene”? J. Nutr., 134, 225S–230S.

Bischoff-Ferrari, H., et al. 2004. Effect of Vitamin D on falls: A meta-analysis. JAMA, 291, 1999–2006.

Crescioli, C., et al. 2004. Inhibition of prostate cell growth by BXL-628, a calcitriol analogue selected for a phase II clinical trial in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia. Eur. J. Endocrinol., 150, 591–603.

Flynn, C. 2004. Calcium supplementation in postmenopausal women. Am. Fam. Phys., 69, 2822–2823.

Geleijnse, J., et al. 2004. Dietary intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: The Rotterdam Study. J. Nutr., 134, 3100–3105.

Holick, M. 2004. Vitamin D: Importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 79, 362–371.

Hyun, T., et al. 2004. Zinc intakes and plasma concentrations in men with osteoporosis: The Rancho Bernardo Study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 80, 715–721.

Lee, B., et al. 2004. Folic acid and vitamin B12 are more effective than vitamin B6 in lowering fasting plasma homocysteine concentration in patients with coronary artery disease. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 58, 481–487.

Levine, S., & Saltzman, A. 2004. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) neurotoxicity: Enhancement by protein-deficient diet. J. Appl. Toxicol., 24, 497–500.

Millen, A., et al. 2004. Diet and melanoma in a case-control study. Cancer Epidem., Biomark. & Prevent., 13, 1042–1051.

Miller, J. 2004. Folate, cognition, and depression in the era of folic acid fortification. J. Food Sci., 69, 61–64.

Nielsen, F., & Milne, D. 2004. A moderately high intake compared to a low intake of zinc depresses magnesium balance and alters indices of bone turnover in postmenopausal women. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 58, 703–710.

Pattison, D., et al. 2004. Vitamin C and the risk of developing inflammatory polyarthritis: Prospective nested case-control study. Ann. Rheum. Dis., 63, 843–847.

Shekelle, P., et al. 2004. Effect of supplemental vitamin E for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. J. Gen. Intern. Med., 19, 380–389.

Stabler, S., & Allen, R. 2004. Vitamin B12 deficiency as a worldwide problem. Annu. Rev. Nutr., 24, 299–326.

Vermeer, C., et al. 2004. Beyond deficiency: Potential benefits of increased intakes of vitamin K for bone and vascular health. Eur. J. Nutr., 43, 325–335.

VanAmerongen, B., et al. 2004. Multiple sclerosis and vitamin D: An update. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 58, 1095–1109.

Yasuda, S., et al. 2004. Suppressive effects of ascorbate derivatives on ultraviolet-B-induced injury in HaCaT human keratinocytes. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim., 40, 71–73.

Bodiwala, D., et al. 2003. Susceptibility to prostate cancer: Studies on interactions between UVR exposure and skin type. Carcinogenesis, 24, 711–717.

Borissova, A., et al. 2003. The effect of vitamin D3 on insulin secretion and peripheral insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients. Int. J. Clin. Pract., 57, 258–261.

Crescioli, C., et al. 2003. Inhibition of spontaneous and androgen-induced prostate growth by a nonhypercalcemic calcitriol analog. Endocrinol., 144, 3046–3057.

Devirian, T., & Volpe, S. 2003. The physiological effects of dietary boron. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 43, 219–231.

Grau, M., et al. 2003. Vitamin D, calcium supplementation, and colorectal adenomas: Results of a randomized trial. J. Nat. Canc. Inst., 95, 1765–1771.

Heinrich, U., et al. 2003. Supplementation with beta-carotene or a similar amount of mixed carotenoids protects humans from UV-induced erythema. J. Nutr., 133, 98–101.

Hintikka, J., et al. 2003. High vitamin B12 level and good treatment outcome may be associated in major depressive disorder. BMC Psych., 3, 17.

Kohlmeier, M., Ed. 2003. Nutrient Metabolism. Food International and Technology International Series. NY: Academic Press.

Lewerin, C., et al. 2003. Reduction of plasma homocysteine and serum methylmalonate concentrations in apparently healthy elderly subjects after treatment with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6: A randomised trial. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 57, 1426–1436.

Maggio, D., et al. 2003. Marked decrease in plasma antioxidants in aged osteoporotic women: Results of a cross-sectional study. J. Clin. Endocrin. Metab., 88, 1523–1527.

Rampersaud, G., et al. 2003. Folate: A key to optimizing health and reducing disease risk in the elderly. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 22, 1–8.

Stabler, T., & Kraus, V. 2003. Ascorbic acid accumulates in cartilage in vivo. Clin. Chim. Acta, 334, 157–62.

Trivedi, D., et al. 2003. Effect of four monthly oral vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation on fractures and mortality in men and women living in the community: Randomised double blind controlled trial. BMJ, 326, 469.

Watson, R., & Preedy, V. 2003. Nutrition and Alcohol. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Czap, K., Ed. 2002. Alternative Medicine Review: Monographs. Dover, ID: Thorne Research, Inc.

Duan, W., et al. 2002. Dietary folate deficiency and elevated homocysteine levels endanger dopaminergic neurons in models of Parkinson’s disease. J. Neurochem., 80, 101–110.

Knekt, P., et al. 2002. Flavonoid intake and risk of chronic diseases. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 76, 560–568.

Mock, D., et al. 2002. Marginal biotin deficiency during normal pregnancy. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 75, 295–299.

Morris, M. 2002. Folate, homocysteine, and neurological function. Nutr. Clin. Care, 5, 124–132.

Rico, H., et al. 2002. Influence of boron supplementation on vertebral and femoral bone mass in rats on strenuous treadmill exercise. A morphometric, densitometric, and histomorphometric study. J. Clin. Densitomet., 5, 187–192.

Shealy, C. 2002. Correction of low body temperature with iodine supplementation. Front. Perspect., 11, 6–8.

Sigmund, C. 2002. Regulation of renin expression and blood pressure by vitamin D(3). J. Clin. Invest., 110, 155–156.

Chang, N., et al. 2001. Study of the relation between proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy metabolites in the brain regions and the B vitamin status in alcoholics. Nutr. Res., 21, 811–820.

Chatterjee, M. 2001. Vitamin D and genomic stability. Mutat. Res., 475, 69–87.

Hartwig, A. 2001. Role of magnesium in genomic stability. Mutat. Res., 475, 113–121.

Helmy, M., et al. 2001. Antioxidants as adjuvant therapy in rheumatoid disease. A preliminary study. Arzneimittelforschung, 51, 293–298.

Hendler, S., & Rorvik, D. 2001. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company.

Klipstein-Grobusch, K., et al. 2001. Dietary antioxidants and peripheral arterial disease: The Rotterdam Study. Am. J. Epidemiol., 154, 145–149.

Pfeifer, M., et al. 2001. Effects of a short-term vitamin D(3) and calcium supplementation on blood pressure and parathyroid hormone levels in elderly women. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 86, 1633–1637.

Takahashi, M., et al. 2001. Effect of vitamin K and/or D on undercarboxylated and intact osteocalcin in osteoporotic patients with vertebral or hip fractures. Clin. Endocrin., 54, 219–224.

Berchtold, M., et al. 2000. Calcium ion in skeletal muscle: Its crucial role for muscle function, plasticity, and disease. Phys. Res., 80, 1215–1265.

Brubaker, R., et al. 2000. Ascorbic acid content of human corneal epithelium. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 41, 1681–1683.

Christen, W., et al. 2000. Design of Physicians’ Health Study II — a randomized trial of beta-carotene, vitamins E and C, and multivitamins, in prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and eye disease, and review of results of completed trials. Ann. Epidemiol., 10, 125–134.

Coppen, A., & Bailey, J. 2000. Enhancement of the antidepressant action of fluoxetine by folic acid: A randomised, placebo controlled trial. J. Affect. Disord., 60, 121–130.

De la Fuente, M., et al. 2000. Changes in macrophage and lymphocyte functions in guinea-pigs after different amounts of vitamin E ingestion. Br. J. Nutr., 84, 25–29.

Glerup, H., et al. 2000. Commonly recommended daily intake of vitamin D is not sufficient if sunlight exposure is limited. J. Int. Med., 247, 260–268.

Heaney, R. 2000. Calcium, dairy products and osteoporosis. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 19, 83S–99S.

Hetzel, B. 2000. Iodine and neuropsychological development. J. Nutr., 130, 493S–495S.

Ilich, J., & Kerstetter, J. 2000. Nutrition in bone health revisited: A story beyond calcium. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 19, 715–737.

Kugelmas, M. 2000. Preliminary observation: Oral zinc sulfate replacement is effective in treating muscle cramps in cirrhotic patients. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 19, 13–15.

Platz, E., et al. 2000. Plasma 1,25-dihydroxy- and 25-hydroxyvitamin D and adenomatous polyps of the distal colorectum. Cancer Epidem. Biomark. Prev., 9, 1059–1065.

Preuss, H., et al. 2000. Effects of niacin-bound chromium and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on the lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic subjects: A pilot study. J. Med., 31, 227–246.

Stahl, W., et al. 2000. Carotenoids and carotenoids plus vitamin E protect against ultraviolet light-induced erythema in humans. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 71, 795–798.

Youdim, K., & Deans, S. 2000. Effect of thyme oil and thymol dietary supplementation on the antioxidant status and fatty acid composition of the ageing rat brain. Br. J. Nutr., 83, 87–93.

Zempleni, J., & Mock, D. 2000. Marginal biotin deficiency is teratogenic. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 223, 14–21.

Anderson, J., et al. 1999. Breast-feeding and cognitive development: A meta-analysis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 70, 525–535.

Bailey, L.. & Gregory, J. 1999. Folate metabolism and requirements. J. Nutr., 129, 779–782.

Baker, A., et al. 1999. Effect of dietary copper intakes on biochemical markers of bone metabolism in healthy adult males. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 53, 408–412.

Bendich, A., et al. 1999. Supplemental calcium for the prevention of hip fracture: Potential health-economic benefits. Clin. Ther., 21, 1058–1072.

Bland, J., et al. 1999. Chapter 3: Proteins and Amino Acids. In Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach, 42-53. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine.

Bronner, F., & Pansu, D. 1999. Nutritional aspects of calcium absorption. J. Nutr., 129, 9–12.

Celotti, F., & Bignamini, A. 1999. Dietary calcium and mineral/vitamin supplementation: A controversial problem. J. Int. Med. Res., 27, 1–14.

Crawford, V., et al. 1999. Effects of niacin-bound chromium supplementation on body composition in overweight African-American women. Diab. Obes. Metabol., 1, 331–337.

Creedon, A., et al. 1999. The effect of moderately and severely restricted dietary magnesium intakes on bone composition and bone metabolism in the rat. Br. J. Nutr., 82, 63–71.

Feskanich, D., et al. 1999. Vitamin K intake and hip fractures in women: A prospective study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 69, 74–79.

Green, A., et al. 1999. Daily sunscreen application and betacarotene supplementation in prevention of basal-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas of the skin: A randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 354, 723–729.

Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell’Infarto miocardico. 1999. Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: Results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Lancet, 354: 447–455.

Hassing, L., et al. 1999. Further evidence on the effects of vitamin B12 and folate levels on episodic memory functioning: A population-based study of healthy very old adults. Biol. Psych., 45, 1472–1480.

Jacques, P. 1999. The potential preventive effects of vitamins for cataract and age-related macular degeneration. Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res., 69, 198–205.

John, E., et al. 1999. Vitamin D and breast cancer risk: The NHANES I Epidemiologic follow-up study, 1971-1975 to 1992. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 8, 399–406.

LeBoff, M., et al. 1999. Occult vitamin D deficiency in postmenopausal US women with acute hip fracture. JAMA, 281, 1505–1511.

Lee, K., et al. 1999. Too much versus too little: The implications of current iodine intake in the United States. Nutr. Rev., 57, 177–181.

Meunier, P., et al. 1999. Diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: Clinical guidelines. International Committee for Osteoporosis Clinical Guidelines. Clin. Ther., 21, 1025–1044.

Patrick, L. 1999. Comparative absorption of calcium sources and calcium citrate malate for the prevention of osteoporosis. Altern. Med. Rev., 4, 74–85.

Venkatraman, J., & Chu, W.-C. 1999. Effects of dietary ?3 and ?6 lipids and vitamin E on proliferative response, lymphoid cell subsets, production of cytokines by spleen cells, and splenic protein levels for cytokines and oncogenes in MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr mice. J. Nutr. Biochem., 10, 582-597.

Vieth, R. 1999. Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 69, 842–856.

Zempleni, J., & Mock, D. 1999. Bioavailability of biotin given orally to humans in pharmacologic doses. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 69, 504–508.

Berdanier, C. D. 1998. Advanced Nutrition Micronutrients. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc.

Castelo-Branco, C. 1998. Management of osteoporosis. An overview. Drugs Aging, 12, 25–32.

Chapin, R., et al. 1998. The effects of dietary boric acid on bone strength in rats. Biol. Trace Elem. Res., 66, 395–399.

Falch, J., et al. 1998. Low levels of serum ascorbic acid in elderly patients with hip fracture. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest., 58, 225–228.

Hall, S., & Greendale, G. 1998. The relation of dietary vitamin C intake to bone mineral density: Results from the PEPI study. Calc. Tiss. Int., 63, 183–189.

Lakshmi, A. 1998. Riboflavin metabolism — relevance to human nutrition. Indian J. Med. Res., 108, 182-190.

Lin, Y., et al. 1998. Estimating the concentration of beta-carotene required for maximal protection of low-density lipoproteins in women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 67, 837-845.

Lukkarinen, M., et al. 1998. Varicella and varicella immunity in patients with lysinuric protein intolerance. J. Inherit.Metab. Dis., 21, 103–111.

Maas, A., et al. 1998. Riboflavin and vitamin B-6 intakes and status and biochemical response to riboflavin supplementation in free-living elderly people. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 68, 389–395.

Masse, P., et al. 1998. A cartilage matrix deficiency experimentally induced by vitamin B6 deficiency. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 217, 97–103.

Mathai, K. 1998. Vitamin E continuing education module. Nutr. Sci. News, 3, 8 pp.

Moriguchi, S. 1998. The role of vitamin E in T-cell differentiation and the decrease of cellular immunity with aging. Biofactors, 7, 77–86.

Nielsen, F. 1998. The justification for providing dietary guidance for the nutritional intake of boron. Biol. Trace Elem. Res., 66, 319–330.

O’Brien, K. 1998. Combined calcium and vitamin D supplementation reduces bone loss and fracture incidence in older men and women. Nutr. Rev., 56, 148–150.

Reid, I. 1998. The roles of calcium and vitamin D in the prevention of osteoporosis. Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am., 27, 389–398.

Rose, R., et al. 1998. Ocular oxidants and antioxidant protection. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 217, 397-407.

Tessier, F., et al. 1998. Decrease in vitamin C concentration in human lenses during cataract progression. Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res., 68, 309–315.

Urano, et al. 1998. Aging and oxidative stress in neurodegeneration. Biofactors, 7, 103–112.

Balch, J., & Balch, P. 1997. Prescription for Nutritional Healing (4th Ed.): A Practical A-to-Z Reference to Drug-Free Remedies Using Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs & Food Supplements, 12–21. Garden City Park, NJ: Avery Publishing Group.

Chapin, R., et al. 1997. The effects of dietary boron on bone strength in rats. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol., 35, 205–215.

Edmonds, S., et al. 1997. Putative analgesic activity of repeated oral doses of vitamin E in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Results of a prospective placebo controlled double blind trial. Ann. Rheum. Dis., 56, 649–655.

Gaby, A. 1997. Panthothenic acid: All-purpose vitamin, a member of the B-complex vitamin group. Nutr. Healing, 3 (4), 11.

Grant, K. et al. 1997. Chromium and exercise training: Effect on obese women. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 29, 992–998.

Shivakumar, K., & Kumar, B. 1997. Magnesium deficiency enhances oxidative stress and collagen synthesis in vivo in the aorta of rats. Int. J. Biochem. Cell. Biol., 29, 1273–1278.

van Poppel, G., & van den Berg, H. 1997. Vitamins and cancer. Cancer Letters, 114, 195–202.

Zhang, H., et al. 1997. Biotin administration improves the impaired glucose tolerance of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (Tokyo), 43, 271-280.

Albanes, D., et al. 1996. Alpha-tocopherol and beta carotene supplements and lung cancer incidence in the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cancer prevention study: Effects of base-line characteristics and study compliance. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 88, 1560–1570.

Cravo, M., et al. 1996. Hyperhomocysteinemia in chronic alcoholism: Correlation with folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 status. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 63, 220–224.

McAlindon, T., et al. 1996. Do antioxidant micronutrients protect against the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis? Arthritis. Rheum., 39, 648–656.

Murray, M. 1996. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing.

Omenn, G., et al. 1996. Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. NEJM, 334, 1150–1155.

Riggs, K., et al. 1996. Relations of vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, folate, and homocysteine to cognitive performance in the Normative Aging Study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 63, 306–314.

Bendich, A., & Langseth, L. 1995. The health effects of vitamin C supplementation: A review. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 14, 124–136.

Boucher, B., et al. 1995. Glucose intolerance and impairment of insulin secretion in relation to vitamin D deficiency in east London Asians. Diabetologia, 38, 1239–1245.

Dreosti, I. 1995. Magnesium status and health. Nutr. Rev., 53, S23–S27.

Groff, J., et al. 1995. Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.

Jie, K., et al. 1995. Vitamin K intake and osteocalcin levels in women with and without aortic atherosclerosis: A population-based study. Atherosclerosis, 116, 117-123.

Meacham, S., et al. 1995. Effect of boron supplementation on blood and urinary calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus, and urinary boron in athletic and sedentary women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 61, 341–345.

Nachbar, F., & Korting, H. 1995. The role of vitamin E in normal and damaged skin. J. Mol. Med., 73, 7–17.

Sojka, J., & Weaver, C. 1995. Magnesium supplementation and osteoporosis. Nutr. Rev., 53, 71–74.

Wilson, B., & Gondy, A. 1995. Effects of chromium supplementation on fasting insulin levels and lipid parameters in healthy, non-obese young subjects. Diabet. Res. Clin. Pract., 28, 179–184.

Barger–Lux, M., & Heaney, R. 1994. The role of calcium intake in preventing bone fragility, hypertension, and certain cancers. J. Nutr., 124, 1406S–1411S.

Bronner, F. 1994. Calcium and osteoporosis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 60, 831–836.

De Caterina R., et al. 1994. n-3 fatty acids and renal diseases. Am. J. Kidney Dis., 24, 397–415.

Masse, P., et al. 1994. Vitamin B6 deficiency experimentally-induced bone and joint disorder: Microscopic, radiographic and biochemical evidence. Br. J. Nutr., 71: 919–932.

Newnham, R. 1994. Essentiality of boron for healthy bones and joints. Environ. Health Perspect., 102 (Suppl. 7). 83-85.

Abbott, L., & Rude, R. 1993. Clinical manifestations of magnesium deficiency. Miner. Electrolyte Metab. 19, 314–322.

Beattie, J., & Peace, H. 1993. The influence of a low-boron diet and boron supplementation on bone, major mineral and sex steroid metabolism in postmenopausal women. Br. J. Nutr., 69, 871–884.

Hochman, L., et al. 1993. Brittle nails: Response to daily biotin supplementation. Cutis, 51, 303–305.

Hodges, S., et al. 1993. Circulating levels of vitamins K1 and K2 decreased in elderly women with hip fracture. J. Bone Miner. Res., 8, 1241–1245.

Saltman, P., & Strause, L. 1993. The role of trace minerals in osteoporosis. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 12, 384–389.

Volpe, S., et al. 1993. The relationship between boron and magnesium status and bone mineral density in the human: A review. Magnesium Res., 6, 291–296.

Chapuy, M., et al. 1992. Vitamin D3 and calcium to prevent hip fractures in the elderly women. NEJM, 327, 1637–1642.

Combs, G., 1992. Vitamin B6 (Chapter 13), and Vitamin B12 (Chapter 17). In The Vitamins: Fundamental Aspects in Nutrition and Health, 331–347; 403–419. San Diego: Academic Press.

Hankinson, S., et al. 1992. Nutrient intake and cataract extraction in women: A prospective study. BMJ, 305, 335–339.

Paunier, L. 1992. Effect of magnesium on phosphorus and calcium metabolism. Monatsschr. Kinderheilkd., 140, S17–S20.

Reynolds, T., et al. 1992. Hip fracture patients may be vitamin B6 deficient. Controlled study of serum pyridoxal-5’-phosphate. Acta Orthop. Scand., 63, 635–638.

Simon, J., et al. 1992. Calcium intake and blood pressure in elderly women. Am. J. Epidemiol., 136, 1241–1247.

Mock, D. 1991. Skin manifestations of biotin deficiency. Semin. Dermatol., 10, 296-302.

Tahiliani, A., & Beinlich, C. 1991. Pantothenic acid in health and disease. Vitam. Horm., 46, 165–228.

Anderson, J. 1990. Dietary calcium and bone mass through the lifecycle. Nutr. Today, 25 (2),9–14.

Colombo, V., et al. 1990. Treatment of brittle fingernails and onychoschizia with biotin: Scanning electron microscopy. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., 23, 1127–1132.

Davis, R., et al. 1990. Vitamin C influence on localized adjuvant arthritis. J. Am. Podiatr. Med. Assoc., 80, 414–418.

Koutsikos, D., et al. 1990. Biotin for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Biomed. Pharmacother., 44, 511–514.

Masse, P., et al. 1990. Morphological abnormalities in vitamin B6 deficient tarsometatarsal chick cartilage. Scanning Microsc., 4, 667–673; discussion 674.

Meydani, S., et al. 1990. Vitamin E supplementation enhances cell-mediated immunity in healthy elderly subjects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 52, 557-563.

Song, W. 1990. Pantothenic acid: How much do we know about this B-complex vitamin? Nutr. Today, 25 (2), 19–26.

Floersheim, G. 1989. [Treatment of brittle fingernails with biotin]. Z. Hautkr., 64, 41–48.

Frei, B., et al. 1989. Ascorbate is an outstanding antioxidant in human blood plasma. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 86, 6377–6381.

Mountokalakis, T. 1987. Effects of aging, chronic disease, and multiple supplements on magnesium requirements. Magnesium, 6, 5-11.

Nyhan, W. 1987. Inborn errors of biotin metabolism. Arch. Dermatol., 123, 1696–1698a.

Bendich, A., et al. 1986. Dietary vitamin E requirement for optimum immune responses in the rat. J. Nutr., 116, 675–681.

Misir, R., & Blair, R. 1986. Effect of biotin supplementation of a barley-wheat diet on restoration of healthy feet, legs and skin of biotin deficient sows. Res. Vet. Sci., 40, 212-218.

Kremer, J., et al. 1985. Effects of manipulation of dietary fatty acids on clinical manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet, 1, 184–187.

Cranton, E. & Frackleton, J. 1984. Free radical pathology in age-associated disease: Treatment with EDTA chelation, nutrition, and antioxidants. J. Holistic Med., 6, 1–36.

Wolf, G. 1984. Multiple functions of vitamin A. Physiol. Rev., 64, 873–937.

Atik, O. 1983. Zinc and senile osteoporosis. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc., 31, 790–791.

Ensminger, A., et al. 1983. Foods and Nutrition Encyclopedia: Vol. 2. Clovis, CA: Pegus Press.

Holmes, R., & Kummerow, F. 1983. The relationship of adequate and excessive intake of vitamin D to health and disease. Am. Coll. Nutr., 2, 172–199.

Davis, B., et al. 1982. Enhanced absorption of oral vitamin B12 from a resin ascorbate administered to normal subjects. Manip. Physiol. Ter., 5, 123–127.

Eisenstein, A. 1982. Nutritional and metabolic effects of alcohol. J. Am. Diet. Assoc., 81, 247–251.

Epstein, O., et al. 1982. Vitamin D, hydroxyapatite, and calcium gluconate in treatment of cortical bone thinning in postmenopausal women with primary biliary cirrhosis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 36, 426–430.

Bonjour, J. 1980. Vitamins and alcoholism. V. Riboflavin; VI. Niacin; VII. Pantothenic acid; VIII. Biotin. Int. J. Vit. Nutr. Res., 50, 425–440.

Wang, J. 1979. Vitamin C: Dr. Pauling was right. New York, 51–54.

Wilkins, E., & Wilkins, M. 1979. Effect of aspirin and vitamins C and E on synovial rheumatoid arthritic and other cells. Experientia, 35: 244–246.

Fry, P., et al. 1976. Metabolic response to a pantothenic acid deficient diet in humans. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (Tokyo), 22, 339–346.

Mullen, A., & Wilson, C. 1976. The metabolism of ascorbic acid in rheumatoid arthritis. Proc. Nutr. Soc., 35, 8A–9A.

Shalita, A. 1976. Acne vulgaris: Current concepts in pathogenesis and treatment. Int. J. Dermatol., 15, 182–187.

Baker, H., et al. 1975. Inability of chronic alcoholics with liver disease to use food as a source of folates, thiamin and vitamin B6. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 28, 1377–1380.

McCormick, D. 1975. Biotin. Nutr. Rev., 33, 97–102.

Schwartz, P. 1970. Ascorbic acid in wound healing — a review. J. Am. Diet. Assoc., 56, 497-503.

PMS Solution

Our PMS Solution is doctor-formulated to be complete, natural, bioavailable, and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.

The following articles and studies, arranged alphabetically, represent a sampling of the research on the constituents of PMS Solution.

Black Cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa)

[No authors listed.] 2003. Monograph. Cimicifuga racemosa. Altern. Med. Rev., 8 (2), 186-189. URL (PDF): (accessed 01.25.2011).

Bai, W., et al. 2007. Efficacy and tolerability of a medicinal product containing an isopropanolic black cohosh extract in Chinese women with menopausal symptoms: A randomized, double blind, parallel-controlled study versus tibolone. Maturitas. [Epub ahead of print.]

Bland, J. 2003. Position on black cohosh safety. Metagenics, Inc. URL: (accessed 01.25.2011).

Bodinet, C., & Freudenstein, J. 2002. Influence of Cimicifuga racemosa on the proliferation of estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res. Treat., 76 (1), 1-10. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.25.2011).

Borelli, F., & Ernst, E. 2008. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) for menopausal symptoms: A systematic review of its efficacy. Pharmacol. Res., 58 (1), 8-14. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.30.2009).

Carroll, D. 2006. Nonhormonal therapies for hot flashes in menopause. Am. Fam. Physician, 73 (3), 457–464. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2009).

Cheema, D., et al. 2007. Non-hormonal therapy of post-menopausal vasomotor symptoms: A structured evidence-based review. Arch. Gynecol. Obstet., 276 (5), 463–469. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.04.2010).

Cohen, S., et al. 2004. Autoimmune hepatitis associated with the use of black cohosh: A case study. Menopause, 11, 575–577. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.24.2011).

Duker, E., et al. 1991. Effects of extracts from Cimicifuga racemosa on gonadotropin release in menopausal women and ovariectomized rats. Planta Med., 57 (5), 420–424. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.27.2007).

Einbond, L., et al. 2009. Actein activates stress- and statin-associated responses and is bioavailable in Sprague–Dawley rats. Fundam. Clin. Pharmacol., 23 (3), 311–3212. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.02.2010).

Frei-Kleiner, S., et al. 2005. Cimicifuga racemosa dried ethanolic extract in menopausal disorders: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Maturitas, 51, 397–404. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Geller, S., et al. 2009. Safety and efficacy of black cohosh and red clover for the management of vasomotor symptoms: A randomized controlled trial. Menopause, 16 (6), 1156–1166. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2009).

Hernández Muñoz, G., & Pluchino, S. 2003. Cimicifuga racemosa for the treatment of hot flushes in women surviving breast cancer. Maturitas, 44 (Suppl. 1), S59–S65. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.13.2010).

Ingraffea, A., Donohue, K., Wilkel, C., Falanga, V. 2007. Cutaneous vasculitis in two patients taking an herbal supplement containing black cohosh. J Am Acad Dermatol, 56 (5), S124-S126.

Iwanaga, A., Kusano, G., Warashina, T., Miyase, T. 2010. Phenolic constituents of the aerial parts of Cimicifuga simplex and Cimicifuga japonica. J Nat Prod, 73(4), 609-12. URL (abstract): (accessed 4/5/2012).

Jacobson, J., et al. 2001. Randomized trial of black cohosh for the treatment of hot flashes among women with a history of breast cancer. J. Clin. Oncol., 19 (10), 2739–2745. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.27. 2007).

Ju, Y., et al. 2008. A dietary supplement for female sexual dysfunction, Avlimil, stimulates the growth of estrogen-dependcnt breast tumors (MCF-7) implanted in ovariectomized athymic nude mice. Food Chern. Toxicol., 46, 310-320. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.04.2010).

Kanadys, W., et al. 2008. [Efficacy and safety of black cohosh (Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa) in the treatment of vasomotor symptoms — review of clinical trials.] Ginekol. Pol., 79 (4), 287–296. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.30.2009).

Letters to the editor. 2007. Ann. Int. Med., 147 (5), 347. URL (PDF): (accessed 10.17.2007).

Li, J. X., Yu, Z. Y. 2008. Cimicifugae rhizoma: from origins, bioactive constituents to clinical outcomes. Curr Med Chem, 13(24), 2927-51. URL (abstract): (accessed 4/5/2012).

Liske, E., et al. 2002. Physiological investigation of a unique extract of black cohosh (Cimicifugae racemosae rhizoma): A 6-month clinical study demonstrates no systemic estrogenic effect. J. Women’s Health Gend. Based Med., 11, 163–174. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.24.2011).

Lontos, S., et al. 2003. Acute liver failure associated with the use of herbal preparations containing black cohosh. Med. J. Aust., 179, 390–391. URL: (accessed 02.24.2011).

Low Dog, T. 2005. Menopause: A review of botanical dietary supplements. Am. J. Med., 118 (Suppl. 12B), 98–108. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2009).

Low Dog, T., et al. 2003. Critical evaluation of the safety of Cimicifuga racemosa in menopause symptom relief. Menopause, 10 (4), 299-313. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.13.2010).

Mahady, G. 2005. Black cohosh (Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa): Review of the clinical data for safety and efficacy in menopausal symptoms. Treat. Endocrinol., 4 (3), 177–184. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Mahady, G., et al. 2008. United States Pharmacopeia review of the black cohosh case reports of hepatotoxicity. Menopause, 15 (4 Pt. 1), 628-638. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2009).

Mahady, G. et al. 2002. Black cohosh: an alternative therapy for menopause? Nutr. Clin. Care, 5 (6), 283-289. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.26. 2007).

Mahady, G. 2005. Black cohosh (Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa): Review of the clinical data for safety and efficacy in menopausal symptoms. Treat. Endocrinol., 4 (3), 177–184. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

McAllister, J., & Hornsby, P. 1987. TPA inhibits the synthesis of androgens and cortisol and enhances the synthesis non-17 alpha-hydroxylated steroids in cultured human adrenocortical cells. Endocrinology, 121 (5), 1908–1910.

Meyer, S. et al. 2007. Cutaneous pseudolymphoma induced by Cimicifuga racemosa. Dermatology, 214 (1), 94–96. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.18.2011).

Minciullo, P., et al. 2006. Muscle damage induced by black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa). Phytomedicine, 13, 115–118. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Nappi, R., et al. 2005. Efficacy of Cimicifuga racemosa on climacteric complaints: A randomized study versus low-dose transdermal estradiol. Gynecol. Endocrinol., 20, 30–35. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Newton, K., et al. 2006. Treatment of vasomotor symptoms of menopause with black cohosh, multibotanicals, soy, hormone therapy, or placebo: A randomized trial. Ann. Intern. Med., 145, 869–879. URL: (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Nisslein, T. & Freudenstein, J. 2007. Coadministration of the aromatase inhibitor formestane and an isopropanolic extract of black cohosh in a rat model of chemically induced mammary carcinoma. Planta Med., 73 (4), 318–322. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.27.2007).

Nisslein, T., & Freudenstein, J. 2004. Concomitant administration of an isopropanolic extract of black cohosh and tamoxifen in the in vivo tumor model of implanted RUCA-I rat endometrial adenocarcinoma cells. Toxicol. Lett., 150 (3), 271–275. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.26.2007).b

Palacio C., et al. 2009. Black cohosh for the management of menopausal symptoms: A systematic review of clinical trials. Drugs Aging, 26 (1), 23–36. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.30.2009).

Pockaj, B. et al. 2006. Phase III double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial of black cohosh in the management of hot flashes: NCCTG Trial N01CC1. J. Clin. Oncol., 24 (18), 2836–2841. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.27.2007).

Pockaj, B., et al. 2004. Pilot evaluation of black cohosh for the treatment of hot flashes in women. Cancer Invest., 22 (4), 515–521. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.24.2011).

Pockaj, B., et al. 2004. Pilot evaluation of black cohosh for the treatment of hot flashes in women. Cancer Invest., 22 (4), 515–521. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.24.2011).

Rachón, D., et al. 2008. Effects of black cohosh extract on body weight gain, intra-abdominal fat accumulation, plasma lipids and glucose tolerance in ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats. Maturitas, 60 (3–4), 209–215. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.04.2010).

Radowicki, S., et al. 2006. [Effectiveness and safety of the treatment of menopausal syndrome with Cimicifuga racemosa dry extract.] Ginekol. Pol., 77 (9), 678–683. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Raus, K., et al. 2006. First-time proof of endometrial safety of the special black cohosh extract (Actaea or Cimicifuga racemosa extract) CR BNO 1055. Menopause, 13 (4), 678–691. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Rebbeck, T. et al. 2007. A retrospective case-control study of the use of hormone-related supplements and association with breast cancer. Int. J. Cancer., 120 (7), 1523-1528. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.27.2007).

Reed, S., et al. 2008. Vaginal, endometrial, and reproductive hormone findings: Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of black cohosh, multibotanical herbs and dietary soy for vasomotor symptoms: The Herbal Alternatives for Menopause (HALT) study. Menopause, 15 (1), 51–58. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2009).

Ruhlen, R., et al. 2007. Black cohosh does not exert an estrogenic effect on the breast. Nutr. Cancer, 59 (2), 269–277. URL (abstract): (accessed 11.28.2007).

Schmid, D., Woehs, F., Svoboda, M., Thalhammer, T., Chiba, P., Moeslinger, T. 2009. Aqueous extracts of Cimicifuga racemosa and phenolcarboxylic constituents inhibit production of proinflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated human whole blood. Can J Physiol Pharmacol, 87(11), 963-72. URL(abstract): (accessed 4/5/2012).

Seidlová–Wuttke, D., et al. 2003. Evidence for selective estrogen receptor modulator activity in a black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) extract: Comparison with estradiol17b. Eur. J. Endocrinol., 149 (4), 351–362. URL (PDF): (accessed 02.24.2011).

Shams, T., et al. 2010. Efficacy of black cohosh-containing preparations on menopausal symptoms: A meta-analysis. Alt. Ther., 16 (1), 36–44. URL: (accessed 01.08.2010).

Spangler, L., et al. 2007. The effects of black cohosh therapies on lipids, fibrinogen, glucose and insulin. Maturitas, 57 (2), 195–204. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.04.2010).

Ulbricht, C., & Basch, E., Eds. 2005. Natural Standard Herb & Supplement Reference: Evidence-based Clinical Reviews. Natural Standard Research Collaboration. NY: Elsevier Mosby.

Vermes, G., et al. 2005. The effects of Remifemin on subjective symptoms of menopause. Adv. Ther., 22 (2), 148–154. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.24.2011).

Viereck, V., et al. 2005. Black cohosh: Just another phytoestrogen? Trends Endocrinol. Metab., 16 (5), 214-221. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.25.2011).

Walji, R., et al. 2007. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa [L.] Nutt.): Safety and efficacy for cancer patients. Support. Care Cancer, 15 (8), 913–921. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2009).

Whiting, P., et al. 2002. Black cohosh and other herbal remedies associated with acute hepatitis. Med. J. Aust., 177, 440–443. URL: (accessed 2.24.2011).

Winterhoff, H., et al. 2002. [Pharmacologic and clinical studies using Cimicifuga racemosa in climacteric complaints.] Wien Med. Wochenschr., 152 (15–16), 360–363. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.24.2011).

Wong, V., et al. 2009. Current alternative and complementary therapies used in menopause. Gynecol. Endocrinol., 25 (3), 166–174. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2009).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2008. Phytoestrogens: Endocrine disrupters or replacement for hormone replacement therapy? Maturitas, 61 (1–2), 159–170. URL (abstract): (accessed 12.11.2009).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2006. Effects of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) on bone turnover, vaginal mucosa, and various blood parameters in postmenopausal women: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, and conjugated estrogens-controlled study. Menopause, 13 (2), 185–196. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.23.2011).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2002. Phytoestrogens for hormone replacement therapy? J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 83 (1–5), 133–147. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.16.2010).

Yang, C. L., Chik, S. C., Li, J. C., Cheung, B. K., Lau, A. S. 2009. Identification of the bioactive constituent and its mechanisms of action in mediating the anti-inflammatory effects of black cohosh and related Cimicifuga species on human primary blood macrophages. J Med Chem, 52(21), 6707-15. URL (abstract): (accessed 4/5/2012).

Zierau, O. et al. 2002. Antiestrogenic activities of Cimicifuga racemosa extracts. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 80 (1), 125–130. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.26.2007). URL (abstract): (accessed 06.26.2007).

Zepelin, H. et al. 2007. Isopropanolic black cohosh extract and recurrence-free survival after breast cancer. Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 45 (3), 143–154. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.26.2007).

Burdock (Arctium lappa)

[No authors listed]. 2011. Burdock. University of Maryland Medical Center. (accessed 4/18/2012).

Chan, Y., et al. 2010. A review of the pharmacological effects of Arctium lappa (burdock). Inflammopharmacology. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): (accessed 06.30.2011).

Duvan C.I., et al. 2011. Oxidant/antioxidant status in premenstrual syndrome. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 283(2):299-304. Epub 2010 Jan 19. URL: (accessed 4/19/2012).

Erdemoglu, N. et al. 2009. Estimation of anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antioxidant activities of Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. ssp. minus. J Ethnopharmacol. 121(2):318-23. URL (abstract): (accessed 4/19/2012).

Ferracane, R., et al. 2010. Metabolic profile of the bioactive compounds of burdock (Arctium lappa) seeds, roots and leaves. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 51 (2), 399-404. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.30.2011).

Hayashi, K., et al. 2010. Therapeutic effect of arctiin and arctigenin in immunocompetent and immunocompromised mice infected with influenza A virus. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 33 (7), 1199-1205. URL: (accessed 06.30.2011).

Kardosová, A., et al. 2003. A biologically active fructan from the roots of Arctium lappa L., var. Herkules. Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 33 (1–3), 135–140. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.01.2011).

Kim, B., et al. 2008. Diarctigenin, a lignan constituent from Arctium lappa, down-regulated zymosan-induced transcription of inflammatory genes through suppression of DNA binding ability of nuclear factor-kappaB in macrophages. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 327 (2), 393-401. URL: (accessed 07.01.2011).

Kim, S., et al. 2003. Hepatoprotective dibenzylbutyrolactone lignans of Torreya nucifera against CCl4-induced toxicity in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 26 (8), 1202–1205. URL: (accessed 07.01.2011)

Knipping, K., et al. 2008. In vitro and in vivo anti-allergic effects of Arctium lappa L. Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood). 233 (11), 1469–1477. URL: (accessed 07.01.2011).

Lee, I., et al. 2011. Arctigenin isolated from the seeds of Arctium lappa ameliorates memory deficits in mice. Planta Med. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): (accessed 06.30.2011).

Leonar, S.S.,et al. 2006. Essiac tea: scavenging of reactive oxygen species and effects on DNA damage. J. Ethnopharmacol. 103(2): 288-96. URL: (accessed 8/18/2011).

Li, D. et al. 2008. Prebiotic effectiveness of inulin extracted from edible burdock. Anaerobe. , 14(1):29-34. URL (abstract): (accessed 4/18/2012).

Lin CC, Lu JM, Yang JJ, et al. Anti-inflammatory and radical scavenge effects of Arctium lappa. Am J Chin Med. 1996;24:127-137. URL: (accessed 4/19/2012).

Lin SC, Lin CH, Lin CC, et al. Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa Linne on liver injuries induced by chronic ethanol consumption and potentiated by carbon tetrachloride. J Biomed Sci. 2002 Sep-Oct;9(5):401-9. URL: (accessed 4/19/2012).

Marjoribanks, J. et al. 2010. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for dysmenorrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev., (1):CD001751. URL (abstract): (accessed 4/19/2012).

Pedersen, M. (1998), Nutritional Herbology: A Reference Guide to Herbs (pp. 57-59).Warsaw, IN: Whitman Publications.

Predes, F., et al. 2011. Antioxidative and in vitro antiproliferative activity of Arctium lappa root extracts. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 11, 25. URL: (accessed 06.30.2011).

Predes, F. et al. 2009. Investigation of liver tissue and biochemical parameters of adult wistar rats treated with Arctium lappa L. Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol., 52(2). URL: (accessed 4/18/2012).

Saric-Kundalic, B., et al. 2010. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal use of wild and cultivated plants in middle, south and west Bosnia and Herzegovina. J. Ethnopharmacol., 131 (1), 33-55. URL (abstract): (accessed 06.30.2011).

Sohn, E., et al. 2011. Anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of butanol extract from Arctium Lappa L. Clin. Mol. Allergy, 9 (1), 4. URL: (accessed 06.30.2011).

Susanti, S., et al. 2012. Tumor specific cytotoxicity of arctigenin isolated from herbal plabt Arctium lappa L. J Nat Med. Feb 16. [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): (accessed 4/19/2012).

Tsai, W., et al. 2011. Arctigenin from Arctium lappa inhibits interleukin-2 and interferon gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes. Chin. Med., 6 (1), 12. URL: (accessed 06.30.2011).

Williams, T. J. 1978. The role of prostaglandins in inflammation. Ann R Coll Sug Engl., 60(3):198-201. URL (abstract): (accessed 4/19/2012).

Ynag, Z. et al. 2005. [Effect of anti-influenza virus of Arctigenin in vivo]. (In Chinese). Zhong Yao Cai., 28(11):1012-4. URL (abstract): (accessed 4/19/2012).

Zhao F, Wang L, Liu K. 2009. In vitro anti-inflammatory effects of arctigenin, a lignan from Arctium lappa L., through inhibition on iNOS pathway. J. Ethnopharmacol., 122 (3), 457–462. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.01.2011).

Zick, S.M., et al. 2006. Trial of Essiac to ascertain its effect in women with breast cancer (TEA-BC). J Altern Complement Med. 12(10): 971-80. URL (abstract): (accessed 4/18/2012).

Chaste tree berry (Vitex agnus castus)

[No author.] 2009. Vitex agnus-castus. Monograph. Alt. Med. Rev., 14 (2), 67–70. URL (PDF): (accessed 01.26.2011).

Atmaca, M., et al. 2003. Fluoxetine versus Vitex agnus castus extract in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Hum. Psychopharmacol., 18 (3), 191–195. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.16.2007).

Berger, et al. 2000. Efficacy of Vitex agnus castus L. extract Ze 440 in patients with pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS). Arch. Gynecol. Obstet., 264, 150–153. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.24.2011).

Blumenthal, et al. 2003. The ABC clinical guide to herbs. Austin, TX: American Botanical Council.

Cahill, D., et al 1994. Multiple follicular development associated with herbal medicine. Human Reprod., 9, 1469–1470. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.24.2011).

Chopin, L. 2003. Vitex agnus castus essential oil and menopausal balance: A research update [Complementary Therapies in Nursing and Midwifery, 8 (2003), 148-154]. Complement. Ther. Nurs. Midwifery, 9 (3), 157-160. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.16.2007).

Daniele, et al., 2005. Vitex agnus castus: A systematic review of adverse events. Drug Saf., 28, 319–332.

Dharmasiri, M., et al. 2003. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of mature fresh leaves of Vitex negundo. J. Ethnopharmacol., 87 (2-3), 199-206. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.16.2007).

Girman, A., et al. 2003. An integrative medicine approach to premenstrual syndrome. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 188 (5 Suppl.), S56-S65. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.16.2007).

Greenspan, F.S., & Garner, D.G. (Eds.). (2004). Basic & Clinical Endocrinology (7th ed.) (125-6). New York, NY: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill.

Gupta, R.K., Tandon, V.R. 2005. Antinociceptive activity of Vitex-Negundo Linn leaf extract. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 49(2):163-70. URL (abstract): (accessed 7/16/2007).

Halaska, M., et al. 1999. Treatment of cyclical mastalgia with a solution containing a Vitex agnus castus extract: Results of a placebo-controlled double-blind study. Breast, 8 (4), 175-181. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.16.2007).

Horrobin, D.G. 1983. The role of essential fatty acids and prostaglandins in the premenstrual syndrome. J Reprod Med. 28(7): 465-8. URL (abstract): (accessed 4/23/2012).

Hu, Y., et al. 2007. Anti-nociceptive and anti-hyperprolactinemia activities of Fructus Viticis and its effective fractions and chemical constituents. Phytomedicine, 14 (10), 668-674. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.16.2007).

Huddleston, M., Jackson, E.A. 2001. Is an extract of the fruit of agnus castus (chaste tree or chasteberry) effective for the prevention of symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS)?. J Fam Pract., 50(4):298. URL: (accessed 7/16/2007).

Jarry, H., et al. 2003. Evidence for estrogen receptor beta-selective activity of Vitex agnus-castus and isolated flavones. Planta Med., 69, 945–947.

Jarry, H., et al. 1994. In vitro prolactin but not LH and FSH release is inhibited by compounds in extracts of Agnus castus: Direct evidence for a dopaminergic principle by the dopamine receptor assay. Exp. Clin. Endocrinol., 102, 448–454. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.24.2011).

Lauritzen, et al. 1997. Treatment of premenstrual tension syndrome with Vitex agnus castus: Controlled double-blind study versus pyridoxine. Phytomedicine, 4, 183–189.

Liu, et al. 2004. Isolation of linoleic acid as an estrogenic compound from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L. (chaste-berry). Phytomedicine, 11, 18–23. URL (abstract): (accessed 02.24.2011).

Liu, J., et al. 2001. Evaluation of estrogenic activity of plant extracts for the potential treatment of menopausal symptoms. J. Agric. Food Chem., 49 (5), 2472-2479. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.16.2007).

Lucks, B. 2003. Vitex agnus castus essential oil and menopausal balance: A research update [Complementary Therapies in Nursing and Midwifery, 8 (2003) 148-154]. Complement. Ther. Midwifery, 9 (3), 157-160. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.16.2007).

Lucks, B., et al. 2002. Vitex agnus-castus essential oil and menopausal balance: A self-care survey. Complement. Ther. Nurs. Midwifery, 8, 148–154. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.26.2011).

Milewicz, A., et al. 1993. [Vitex agnus castus extract in the treatment of luteal phase defects due to latent hyperprolactinemia. Results of a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study.] Arzneim.–Forsch./Drug Res., 43, 752–756. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.26.2011).

Ohyama, K., et al. 2003. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic inducibility of Vitex agnus-castus fruit extract in cultured human normal and cancer cells and effect on growth. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 26 (1), 10-18. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.16.2007).

Roemheld–Hamm, B. 2005. Chasteberry. Am. Fam. Phys., 72 (5), 821-824. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.16.2007).

Rotem, C., & Kaplan, B. 2007. Phyto-Female Complex for the relief of hot flushes, night sweats and quality of sleep: Randomized, controlled, double-blind pilot study. Gynecol. Endocrinol., 23 (2), 117-122. URL (abstract): (accessed 07.06.2007).

Schellenberg, 2001. Treatment for the premenstrual syndrome with agnus castus fruit extract: Prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study. BMJ, 322, 134–137. URL: (accessed 02.24.2011).

Sliutz, G., et al. 1993. Agnus castus extracts inhibit prolactin secretion of rat pituitary cells. Horm Metab Res., 25(5):253-5. URL (abstract): (accessed 7/16/2007).

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Chromium (Chromium Picolinate)

Albarracin, C., et al. 2008. Chromium picolinate and biotin combination improves glucose metabolism in treated, uncontrolled overweight to obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev., 24 (1), 41-51. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.25.2011).

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Cefalu, W., et al. 2002. Oral chromium picolinate improves carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and enhances skeletal muscle Glut-4 translocation in obese, hyperinsulinemic (JCR-LA corpulent) rats. J. Nutr., 132 (6), 1107–1114. URL: (accessed 10.25.2011).

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Vincent, J. 2003. The potential value and toxicity of chromium picolinate as a nutritional supplement, weight loss agent and muscle development agent. Sports Med., 33 (3), 213-230. URL (abstract): (accessed 10.25.2011).

Wang, Z., et al. 2006. Chromium picolinate enhances skeletal muscle cellular insulin signaling in vivo in obese, insulin-resistant JCR:LA-cp rats. J. Nutr., 136 (2), 415-420. URL: (accessed 10.25.2011).

Dong quai (Angelica sinensis)

Al-Bareeq, R.J., Ray, A.A., Nott, L., Pautler, S.E., Razvi, H. (2010). Dong Quai (angelica sinensis) in the treatment of hot flashes for men on androgen deprivation therapy: results of a randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial. Can Urol Assoc J, 4(1), 49-53. URL: (accessed: 8/10/2011).

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Chen, L. C., Chen, I. C., Wang, B. R., Shao, C. H. 2009. Drug-use pattern of Chinese herbal medicines in insomnia: a 4-year survey in Taiwan. J Clin Pharm Ther, 34(5), 555-60. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/27/2011).

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Hirata, J. D., Swiersz, L. M., Zell, B., Small, R., Ettinger, B. 1997. Does dong quai have estrogenic effects in postmenopausal women? A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Fertil Steril, 68(6), 981-6. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/27/2012).

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Shang, P., Qian, A. R., Yang, T. H., Jia, M., Meim Q. B., Cho, C. H., Zhao, W. M., Chen, Z. N. 2003. Experimental study of anti-tumor effects of polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis. World J Gastroenterol, 9(9), 1963-7. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/27/2012).

Shih C, Su Y, Liao C, and Lin J. Patterns of medical pluralism among adults: results from the 2001 National Health Interview Survey in Taiwan. BMC Health Serv Res. 2010; 10: 191. Published online 2010 July 6. URL: (accessed 8/10/2011).

Deng, S., Chen, S., Yao, P., Nikolic, D., van Breemen, R. B., Bolton, J. L., Fong, H.H.S., Farnsworth, N. R., Pauli, G. F 2006. Serotonergic Activity-Guided Phytochemical Investigation of the Roots of Angelica sinensis. (Author manuscript available in PMC 2007 May 10.) J Nat Prod, 69(4), 536-541. URL: (accessed 3/20/2012).

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Yuan, X., Sun, Y., Miao, N., Sun, S., Wang, Y., Hu, Z., Yuan, J., Xu, M., Liu, Z. 201). The synergistic anti-inflammatory effect of the combination of sodium ferulate and oxymatrine and its modulation on inflammation-associated mediators in RAW 264.7 cells. J Ethnopharmacol, 137(3), 1477-85. Epub 2011 Aug 22. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/27/2012).

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Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis L.)

Akhondzadeh, S., Noroozian, M., Mohammadi, M., Ohadinia, S., Jamshidi, A., Khani, M. 2003. Melissa officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 74(7), 863–866. URL (accessed (3/20/2012).

Awad, R., Levac, D., Cybulska, P., Merali, Z., Trudeau, V. L., Arnason, J. T. 2007. Effects of traditionally used anxiolytic botanicals on enzymes of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system. Can J Physiol Pharmacol, 85(9), 933-42. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/8/2012).

Bolkent, S., Yanardag, R., Karabulut-Bulan, O., Yesilyaprak, B. 2005. Protective role of Melissa officinalis L. extract on liver of hyperlipidemic rats: A morphological and biochemical study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 99(3), 391-398, ISSN 0378-8741. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Canadanovic-Brunet, J., Cetkovic, G., Djilas, S., Tumbas, V., Bogdanovic, G., Mandic, A., Markov, S., Cvetkovic, D., Canadanovic, V. 2008. Radical scavenging, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities of Melissa officinalis L. extracts. Med Food,11(1), 133-43. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/8/2012).

Cases, J., Ibarra, A., Feuillère, N., Roller, M., Sukkar, S. 2011. Pilot trial of Melissa officinalis L. leaf extract in the treatment of volunteers suffering from mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances. Med J Nutrition Meta, 4(3), 211–218. Published online 2010 December 17. URL: (accessed 3/8/2012).

Cassettari de Carvalho, N., Corrêa-Angeloni, M., Leffa, .D, Moreira, J., Nicolau, V., de Aguiar Amaral, P., Rossatto, A., Moraes de Andrade, V. 2011. Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of Melissa officinalis in mice. Genet Mol Biol, 34(2), 290–297. Published online 2011 April. URL: (accessed 3/8/2012).

Chlabicz, J., Galasinski, W. 1986. The components of Melissa officinalis L. that influence protein biosynthesis in-vitro. J Pharm Pharmaco, 38(11), 791-4. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Englberger W, Hadding U, Etschenberg E, Graf E, Leyck S, Winkelmann J, Parnham MJ. Rosmarinic acid: a new inhibitor of complement C3-convertase with anti-inflammatory activity. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1988; 10(6):729-37. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/8/2012).

Hohmann, J., Zupkó, I., Rédei, D., Csányi, M., Falkay, G., Máthé, I., Janicsák, G. 1999. Protective effects of the aerial parts of Salvia officinalis, Melissa Officinalis and Lavandula angustifolia and their constituents against enzyme-dependent and enzyme-independent lipid peroxidation. Planta Med, 65(6), 576-8. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/8/2012).

Kennedy, D. O., Little, W., Scholey, A. B. 2004. Attenuation of laboratory-induced stress in humans after acute administration of Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm). Psychosom Med, 66(4), 607-13. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/7/2012).

Kennedy, D. O., Scholey, A. B., Tildesley, N. T., et al. 2002. Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm). Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 72(4), 953-64. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/7/2012).

Kennedy, D. O., Wake, G., Savelev, S., et al. 2003. Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of single doses of Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) with human CNS nicotinic and muscarinic receptor-binding properties. Neuropsychopharmacology, 28(10), 1871-81. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/7/2012).

Khayyal, M. T., el-Ghazaly, M. A., Kenawy, S. A., Seif-el-Nasr, M., Mahran, L. G., Kafafi, Y. A., Okpanyi, S. N. 2001. Antiulcerogenic effect of some gastrointestinally acting plant extracts and their combination. Arzneimittelforschung, 51(7), 545-53. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/8/2012).

Natural Standard Lemon Balm (n.d.). Retrieved March 5, 2012 from Natural Standard

Peake, P. W., Pussell, B. A., Martyn, P., Timmermans, V., Charlesworth, J. A. 1991. The inhibitory effect of rosmarinic acid on complement involves the C5 convertase. Int J Immunopharmacol, 13(7), 853-7. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/8/2012).

Pereira, R. P., Fachinetto, R., de Souza Prestes, A., Puntel, R. L., Santos da Silva, G. N., Heinzmann, B. M., Boschetti, T. K., Athayde, M. L., Bürger, M. E., Morel, A. F., Morsch, V. M., Rocha, J. B. 2009. Antioxidant effects of different extracts from Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus. Neurochem Res, 34(5), 973-83. Epub 2008 Oct 14. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/8/2012).

Sadraei, H., Ghannadi, A., Malekshahi, K. 2003. Relaxant effect of essential oil of Melissa officinalis and citral on rat ileum contractions. Fitoterapia, 74(5), 445-52. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/8/2012).

Woodard, S. Ancient Remedies Modern Cures. 2009. Prevention, 62(2), 102-108, 7p. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/8/2012).

Maca (Lepidium meyenii)

Akhtar, N., Miller, M. J., Haqqi, T. M. 2011. Effect of a Herbal-Leucine mix on the IL-1ß-induced cartilage degradation and inflammatory gene expression in human chondrocytes. BMC Complement Altern Med, 11, 66. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-66. URL: (accessed 3/12/2012).

Brooks, N. A., Wilcox, G., Walker, K. Z., Ashton, J. F., Cox, M. B., Stojanovska, L. 2008. Beneficial effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on psychological symptoms and measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women are not related to estrogen or androgen content. Menopause, 15(6),1157-62. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Canales, M., Aguilar, J., Prada, A., Marcelo, A., Huamán, C., Carbajal, L. 2000. [Nutritional evaluation of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) in albino mice and their descendants]. Arch Latinoam Nutr, 50(2), 126-33. [Article in Spanish]. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/13/2012).

Chung, F., Rubio, J., Gonzales, C., Gasco, M., Gonzales, G. F. 2005. Dose-response effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) aqueous extract on testicular function and weight of different organs in adult rats. J Ethnopharmacol, 98(1-2), 143-7. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/13/2012).

Cicero, A. F., Bandieri, E., Arletti, R. 2001. Lepidium meyenii Walp. improves sexual behaviour in male rats independently from its action on spontaneous locomotor activity. J Ethnopharmacol, 75(2-3), 225-9. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/13/2012).

Clément, C., Kneubühler, J., Urwyler, A., Witschi, U., Kreuzer, M. 2010. Effect of maca supplementation on bovine sperm quantity and quality followed over two spermatogenic cycles. Theriogenology, 74(2), 173-83. Epub 2010 May 10. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Dording, C. M., Fisher, L., Papakostas, G., Farabaugh, A., Sonawalla, S., Fava, M., Mischoulon, D. 2008. A double-blind, randomized, pilot dose-finding study of maca root (L. meyenii) for the management of SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction. CNS Neurosci Ther, 14(3), 182-91. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Gasco, M., Aguilar, J., Gonzales, G. F. 2007. Effect of chronic treatment with three varieties of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on reproductive parameters and DNA quantification in adult male rats. Andrologia, 39(4), 151-8. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Gasco, M., Villegas, L., Yucra, S., Rubio, J., Gonzales, G. F. 2007. Dose-response effect of Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on benign prostatic hyperplasia induced by testosterone enanthate. Phytomedicine, 14(7-8), 460-4. Epub 2007 Feb 7. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Gonzales, C., Cárdenas-Valencia, I., Leiva-Revilla, J., Anza-Ramirez, C., Rubio, J., Gonzales, G. F. 2010. Effects of different varieties of Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on bone structure in ovariectomized rats. Forsch Komplementmed, 17(3), 137-43. Epub 2010 Jun 16. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Gonzales, G. F. 2012. Ethonobiology and Ethnopharmacology of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a Plant from the Peruvian Highlands. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2012:193496. Epub 2011 Oct 2. URL: (accessed 3/12/2012).

Gonzales, G. F., Cordova, A., Gonzales, C., Chung, A., Vega, K., Villena, A. 2001. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) improved semen parameters in adult men. Asian J Androl, 3(4), 301-3. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/13/2012).

Gonzales, G. F., Córdova, A., Vega, K., Chung , A., Villena, A., Góñez, C., Castillo, S. 2002. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on sexual desire and its absent relationship with serum testosterone levels in adult healthy men. Andrologia, 34(6), 367-72. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/13/2012).

Gonzales, G. F., Gasco, M., Malheiros-Pereira, A., Gonzales-Castañeda, C. 2008. Antagonistic effect of Lepidium meyenii (red maca) on prostatic hyperplasia in adult mice. Andrologia, 40(3), 179-85. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Gonzales, G. F., Gonzales-Castañeda, C. 2009. The Methyltetrahydro-{beta}-Carbolines in Maca (Lepidium meyenii). Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 6(3), 315-6. Epub 2008 Jun 19. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Gonzales, G. F., Gonzales, C., Gonzales-Castañeda, C. 2009. Lepidium meyenii (Maca): a plant from the highlands of Peru--from tradition to science. Forsch Komplementmed, 16(6), 373-80. Epub 2009 Dec 16. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Gonzales, C., Leiva-Revilla, J., Rubio, J., Gasco, M., Gonzales, G. F. 2011. Effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on prostate zinc levels in rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia. Andrologia. (2011 Jul 18). doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0272.2011.01190.x. [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Lee, M. S., Shin, B. C., Yang, E. J., Lim, H. J., Ernst, E. 2011. Maca (Lepidium meyenii) for treatment of menopausal symptoms: A systematic review. Maturitas, 70(3), 227-33. [Epub 2011 Aug 15]. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Lentz, A., Gravitt, K., Carson, C. C., Marson, L. 2007. Acute and chronic dosing of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on male rat sexual behavior. J Sex Med, 4(2), 332-9; discussion 339-40. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

López-Fando, A., Gómez-Serranillos, M. P., Iglesias, I., Lock, O., Upamayta, U. P., Carretero, M. E. 2004. Lepidium peruvianum chacon restores homeostasis impaired by restraint stress. Phytother Res, 18(6), 471-4. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/13/2012).

Miller, M. J., Ahmed, S., Bobrowski, P., Haqqi, T. M. 2006. The chrondoprotective actions of a natural product are associated with the activation of IGF-1 production by human chondrocytes despite the presence of IL-1beta. BMC Complement Altern Med, 6, 13. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Oshima, M., Gu, Y., Tsukada, S. 2003. Effects of Lepidium meyenii Walp and Jatropha macrantha on blood levels of estradiol-17 beta, progesterone, testosterone and the rate of embryo implantation in mice. J Vet Med Sci, 65(10), 1145-6. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/13/2012).

Piacente, S., Carbone, V., Plaza, A., Zampelli, A., Pizza, C. 2002. Investigation of the tuber constituents of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.). J Agric Food Chem, 50(20), 5621-5.URL (abstract): (accessed 3/13/2012).

Pino-Figueroa, A., Nguyen, D., Maher, T. J. 2010. Neuroprotective effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca). Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1199, 77-85. URL (abstract): (accessed3/12/2012).

Ranilla, L. G., Kwon, Y. I., Apostolidis, E., Shetty, K. 2010. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension of commonly used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America. Bioresour Technol, 101(12), 4676-89. [Epub 2010 Feb 25]. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Rubio, J., Caldas, M., Dávila, S., Gasco, M., Gonzales, G. F. 2006. Effect of three different cultivars of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on learning and depression in ovariectomized mice. BMC Complement Altern Med, 6, 23. URL (abstract): (accessed3/12/2012).

Rubio, J., Dang, H., Gong, M., Liu, X., Chen, S. L., Gonzales, G. F. 2007. Aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) improve scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. Food Chem Toxicol, 45(10), 1882-90. [Epub 2007 Apr 20]. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Rubio J, Qiong W, Liu X, Jiang Z, Dang H, Chen SL, Gonzales GF. Aqueous Extract of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on Memory Impairment Induced by Ovariectomy in Mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2008 Oct 9. [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Rubio, J., Riqueros, M. I., Gasco, M., Yucra, S., Miranda, S., Gonzales, G. F. 2008. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) reversed the lead acetate induced -- damage on reproductive function in male rats. Food Chem Toxicol, 44(7), 1114-22. [Epub 2006 Feb 28]. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Rubio, J., Yucra, S., Gasco, M., Gonzales, G. F. 2011. Dose-response effect of black maca (Lepidium meyenii) in mice with memory impairment induced by ethanol. Toxicol Mech Methods, 21(8), 628-34. [Epub 2011 Jul 22]. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Ruiz-Luna, A. C., Salazar, S., Aspajo, N. J., Rubio, J., Gasco, M., Gonzales, G. F. 2005. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) increases litter size in normal adult female mice. Reprod Biol Endocrinol, 3, 16. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/13/2012).

Stone, M., Ibarra, A., Roller, M., Zangara, A., Stevenson, E. 2009. A pilot investigation into the effect of maca supplementation on physical activity and sexual desire in sportsmen. J Ethnopharmacol, 126(3), 574-6. [Epub 2009 Sep 23]. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012)/

Valentová, K., Buckiová, D., Kren, V., Peknicová, J., Ulrichová, J., Simánek, V. 2006. The in vitro biological activity of Lepidium meyenii extracts. Cell Biol Toxicol, 22(2), 91-9. [Epub 2006 Mar 9].URl (abstract): (accessed 3/12/2012).

Valentová, K., Ulrichová, J. 2003. Smallanthus sonchifolius and Lepidium meyenii - prospective Andean crops for the prevention of chronic diseases. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repu 147(2), 119-30. URL (abstract): (accessed 3/13/2012).

Valerio Jr, L. G., Gonzales, G. F. 2005. Toxicological aspects of the South American herbs cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) and Maca (Lepidium meyenii) : a critical synopsis. Toxicol Rev, 24(1), 11-35. URl (abstract): (accessed3/13/2012).

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Wild Yam (Dioscorea villosa)

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[No authors listed.] 2004. Final report of the amended safety assessment of Dioscorea villosa (wild yam) root extract. Int. J. Toxicol., 23 (Suppl. 2), 49–54.