"Tired and Wired" Program


Our Adaptisol is doctor-formulated to be complete, natural, bioavailable, and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.

The following articles and studies, arranged in order of recency, represent a sampling of the research on the constituents of Adaptisol.

Astragalus membranaceus

Gao, X., et al. 2011. Qi-Shao-Shuang-Gan, a combination of Astragalus membranaceus saponins with Paeonia lactiflora glycosides, ameliorates polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture in mice. Inflammation, 34 (1), 10–21. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20237952 (accessed 03.04. 2011).

Li, M., et al. 2011. Meta-analysis of the clinical value of Astragalus membranaceus in diabetic nephropathy. J. Ethnopharmacol., 133 (2), 412–419. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.gov/pubmed/20951192 (accessed 03.04.02011).

Sevimli–Gür, C., et al. 2011. In vitro growth stimulatory and in vivo wound healing studies on cycloartane-type saponins of Astragalus genus. J. Ethnopharmacol. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21291980 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Wang, Y., & Yu, Y. 2011. [Protective effects of Astragalus membranaceus on free fatty acid-induced vascular endothelial cell dysfunction]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban., 42 (1), 48–51. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21355300 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Hong, F., et al. 2010. The known immunologically active components of Astragalus account for only a small proportion of the immunological adjuvant activity when combined with conjugate vaccines. Planta Med. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21128203 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Jiang, J., et al. 2010. Therapeutic effects of astragalus polysaccharides on inflammation and synovial apoptosis in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. Int. J. Rheum. Dis., 13 (4), 396–405. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21199477 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Li, M., et al. 2010. [Astragalus membranaceus improves endothelial-dependent vasodilator function in obese rats]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao, 30 (1), 7–10. URL (PDF): http://www.j-smu.com/pdf2/201001/2010017.pdf (accessed 03.04.02011).

Liu, Q., et al. 2010. Astragalus polysaccharides regulate T cell-mediated immunity via CD11c(high)CD45RB(low) DCs in vitro. J. Ethnopharmacol. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20620204 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Lu, M., et al. 2010. Effect of Astragalus membranaceus in rats on peripheral nerve regeneration: In vitro and in vivo studies. J. Trauma, 68 (2), 434–440. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20154555 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Yang, Q., et al. 2010. [Effects of astragalus on cardiac function and serum tumor neorosis factor-alpha level in patients with chronic heart failure]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 30 (7), 699–701. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20929124 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Yin, X., et al. 2010. Enhancement of the innate immune response of bladder epithelial cells by Astragalus polysaccharides through upregulation of TLR4 expression. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 397 (2), 232–238. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20546703 (accessed 03.04. 2011).

Zhang, D., & Wang, D. 2010. [Progressive studies on biological activity of total flavonoids of Astragalus]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi., 35 (2), 253–256. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi/nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20394306 (accessed 03.04.02011).

Kuo, Y., et al. 2009. Astragalus membranaceus flavonoids (AMF) ameliorate chronic fatigue syndrome induced by food intake restriction plus forced swimming. J. Ethnopharmacol., 122 (1), 28–34. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19103273 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Mao, X., et al. 2009. Hypoglycemic effect of polysaccharide enriched extract of Astragalus membranaceus in diet induced insulin resistant C57BL/6J mice and its potential mechanism. Phytomedicine, 16 (5), 416–425. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19201177 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Wang, S., et al. 2009. Anti-hepatitis B virus activities of astragaloside IV isolated from radix Astragali. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 32 (1), 132–135. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/32/1/32_132/_article (accessed 03.10.2009).

Xu, A., et al. 2009. Selective elevation of adiponectin production by the natural compounds derived from a medicinal herb alleviates insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in obese mice. Endocrinology, 150 (2), 625–633. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18927219 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Cho, W., & Leung, K. 2007. In vitro and in vivo immunomodulating and immunorestorative effects of Astragalus membranaceus. J. Ethnopharmacol., 113 (1), 132–141. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17611061 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Ai, P., et al. 2008. Aqueous extract of Astragali Radix induces human naturiuresis through enhancement of renal response to atrial natriuretic peptide. J. Ethnopharmacol., 116 (3), 413–421. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18243612 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Du, Q., et al. 2008. Inhibitory effects of astragaloside IV on ovalbumin-induced chronic experimental asthma. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 86 (7), 449–457. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18641694 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Li, R., et al. 2008. [Immunomodulatory effects of Astragalus polysaccharide in diabetic mice.] Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao, 6 (2), 166–170. URL (PDF): http://www.jcimjournal.com/articles/publishArticles/pdf/20082261195.pdf (accessed 03.12.2009).

Jiang, B., et al. 2008. Astragaloside IV attenuates lipolysis and improves insulin resistance induced by TNFalpha in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Phytother. Res., 22 (11), 1434–1439. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18972582 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Peng, X., et al. 2008. [Regulatory effect of Astragalus membranaceus on the immune disorder in rats with IgA nephropathy.] Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi, 46 (1), 55–60. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18353241 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Ryu, M., et al. 2008. Astragali Radix elicits anti-inflammation via activation of MKP-1, concomitant with attenuation of p38 and Erk. J. Ethnopharmacol., 115 (2), 184–193. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17996413 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Shen, H., et al. 2008. Astragalus membranaceus prevents airway hyperreactivity in mice related to Th2 response inhibition. J. Ethnopharmacol., 116 (2), 363–369. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18226482 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Sun, W., et al. 2008. Protective effect of extract from Paeonia lactiflora and Astragalus membranaceus against liver injury induced by bacillus Calmette–Guérin and lipopolysaccharide in mice. Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 103 (2), 143–149. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18816297 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Yuan, W., et al. 2008. Astragaloside IV inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis in rat vascular smooth muscle cells under high glucose concentration in vitro. Planta Med., 74 (10), 1259–1264. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18622899 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Zhang, G., et al. 2008. [Effects of Astragalus on renal tubulointerstitial lesions and expression of NF-kappaB and MCP-1 in renal tissues in rat experimental IgA nephropathy.] Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi, 10 (2), 173–178. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18433541 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Zhu, S., et al. 2008. Astragaloside IV inhibits spontaneous synaptic transmission and synchronized Ca2+ oscillations on hippocampal neurons. Acta Pharmacol. Sin., 29 (1), 57–64. URL: http://www.chinaphar.com/1671-4083/29/57.htm (accessed 03.10.2009).

Cho, W., & Leung, K. 2007. In vitro and in vivo immunomodulating and immunorestorative effects of Astragalus membranaceus. J. Ethnopharmacol., 113 (1), 132–141. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17611061 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Hu, J., et al. 2007. [Protective effects of Astragaloside and Quercetin on rat myocardial cells after hypoxia.] Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi, 23 (3), 175–178. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18019054 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Li, R., et al. 2007. The immunotherapeutic effects of Astragaluspolysaccharide in type 1 diabetic mice. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 30 (3), 470–476. URL (PDF): http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/30/3/470/_pdf (accessed 03.12.2009).

Luo, G., et al. 2007. [Effect of Astragalus membranaceus injection on activity of intestinal mucosal mast cells and inflammatory response after hemorrahagic shock-reperfusion in rats.] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, 32 (14), 1436–1440. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17966360 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Ma, W., et al. 2007. Combined effects of fangchinoline from Stephania tetrandra Radix and formononetin and calycosin from Astragalus membranaceus Radix on hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia in streptozotocin-diabetic mice. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 30 (11), 2079–2083. URL (PDF): http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/30/11/2079/_pdf (accessed 03.12.2009).

Roxas, M., & Jurenka, J. 2007. Colds and influenza: A review of diagnosis and conventional, botanical, and nutritional considerations. Altern. Med. Rev., 12 (1), 25-48. Review. URL (PDF): http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/12/1/25.pdf (accessed 03.12.2009).

Xu, H., et al. 2007. Effects of Astragalus polysaccharides and astragalosides on the phagocytosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by macrophages. J. Int. Med. Res., 35 (1), 84–90. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17408058 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Zhang, Z., et al. 2007. [Effect of astragaloside on myocardial fibrosis in chronic myocarditis.] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 27 (8), 728–731. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17879539 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Zhang, Z., et al. 2007. Merit of Astragalus polysaccharide in the improvement of early diabetic nephropathy with an effect on mRNA expressions of NF-kappaB and IkappaB in renal cortex of streptozotoxin-induced diabetic rats. J. Ethnopharmacol., 114 (3), 387–392. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17900838 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Zwickey, H., et al. 2007. The effect of Echinacea purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus and Glycyrrhiza glabra on CD25 expression in humans: A pilot study. Phytother. Res., 21 (11), 1109–1112. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17661330 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Cai, X., et al. 2006. [Experimental treatment of chronic pelvic inflammatory disease in rats with acupoint injection of Astragalus parenteral solution.] Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban., 35 (4), 430–434, 439. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16924709 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Gao, Q., et al. 2006. A Chinese herbal decoction, Danggui Buxue Tang, prepared from Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae Sinensis stimulates the immune responses. Planta Med., 72 (13), 1227–1231. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16902872 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Yu, J., et al. 2006. Inhibitory effects of astragaloside IV on diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rats. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 84 (6), 579–587. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16900242 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Wu, J., et al. 2006. Effect of Astragalus injection on serious abdominal traumatic patients’ cellular immunity. Chin. J. Integr. Med., 12 (1), 29–31. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16571280 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Xu, M., et al. 2006. Effects of astragaloside IV on pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome in vitro. Acta Pharmacol. Sin., 27 (2), 229–236. URL: http://www.chinaphar.com/1671-4083/27/229.htm (accessed 03.10.2009).

Yang, Y., et al. 2006. [Effects of Astragalus membranaceus on TH cell subset function in children with recurrent tonsillitis.] Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi, 8 (5), 376–378. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17052394 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Zhang, Y., et al. 2006. Astragaloside IV exerts antiviral effects against coxsackievirus B3 by upregulating interferon-gamma. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol., 47 (2), 190–195. 2006. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16495755 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Ko, J., et al. 2005. Amelioration of experimental colitis by Astragalus membranaceus through anti-oxidation and inhibition of adhesion molecule synthesis. World J. Gastroenterol., 11 (37), 5787–5794. URL: http://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/11/5787.asp (accessed 03.12.2009).

Lee, H., & Lee, J. 2005. Effects of medicinal herb tea on the smoking cessation and reducing smoking withdrawal symptoms. Am. J. Chin. Med., 33 (1), 127–138. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15844840 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Mao, X., et al. 2005. Effects of beta-glucan obtained from the Chinese herb Astragalus membranaceus and lipopolysaccharide challenge on performance, immunological, adrenal, and somatotropic responses of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci., 83 (12), 2775–2782. URL: http://jas.fass.org/cgi/content/full/83/12/2775 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Ning, K., et al. 2005. [Effects of Huangqi on phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophage of mice.] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, 30 (21), 1670–1672. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16400945 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Mao, S. et al. 2004. [Modulatory effect of Astragalus membranaceus on Th1/Th2 cytokine in patients with herpes simplex keratitis.] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 24 (2), 121–123. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15015443 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Shao, B., et al. 2004. A study on the immune receptors for polysaccharides from the roots of Astragalus membranaceus, a Chinese medicinal herb. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 320 (4), 1103–1111. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15249203 (accessed 03.12.2009).

[No author listed.] 2003. Astragalus membranaceus. Monograph. Altern. Med. Rev., 8 (1), 72–77. URL (PDF): http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/8/1/72.pdf (accessed 03.12.2009).

Mills, S., & Bone, K. 2000. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy, 273–279. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

Huang, Z., et al. 1995. Effect of Astragalus membranaceus on T-lymphocyte subsets in patients with viral myocarditis. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 15 (6), 328–330. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7549379 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Chu, D., et al. 1994. The in vitro potentiation of LAK cell cytotoxicity in cancer and AIDS patients induced by F3 – a fractionated extract of Astragalus membranaceus. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi, 16 (3), 167–171. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7956691 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Zhao, X. 1992. Effects of Astragalus membranaceus and Tripterygium hypoglancum on natural killer cell activity of peripheral blood mononuclear in systemic lupus erythematosus. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 12 (11), 679–671, 645. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1301849 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Qian, Z., et al. 1990. Viral etiology of chronic cervicitis and its therapeutic response to a recombinant interferon. Chin. Med. J. (Engl.), 103 (8), 647–651. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2173655 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Yang, Y., et al. 1990. Effect of Astragalus membranaceus on natural killer cell activity and induction of alpha- and gamma-interferon in patients with Coxsackie B viral myocarditis. Chin. Med. J. (Engl.), 103, 304–307.

Yuan, W., et al. 1990. Effect of Astragalus membranaceus on electric activities of cultured rat beating heart cells infected with Coxsackie B-2 virus. Chin. Med. J. (Engl.), 103 (3), 177–182. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2164463 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Wang, D. 1989. Influence of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) polysaccharide FB on immunologic function of human periphery blood lymphocyte. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi, 11 (3), 180–183. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2612327 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Cordyceps sinensis

Sheng L., et al. 2011. An exopolysaccharide from cultivated Cordyceps sinensis and its effects on cytokine expressions of immunocytes. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 163 (5), 669–678. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20811959 (accessed 03.04.0211).

Chen, S., et al. 2010. Effect of Cs-4 (Cordyceps sinensis) on exercise performance in healthy older subjects: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 16 (5), 585–590. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20804368 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Chen, W., et al. 2010. Effects of the acid polysaccharide fraction isolated from a cultivated Cordyceps sinensis on macrophages in vitro. Cell Immunol., 262 (1), 69–74. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20138259 (accessed 03.04. 2011).

Xiao, G., et al. 2010. Activation of myeloid dendritic cells by deoxynucleic acids from Cordyceps sinensis via a Toll-like receptor 9-dependent pathway. Cell Immunol., 263 (2), 241–250. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20451901 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Cheung, J., et al. 2009. Cordysinocan, a polysaccharide isolated from cultured Cordyceps, activates immune responses in cultured T-lymphocytes and macrophages: Signaling cascade and induction of cytokines. J. Ethnopharmacol., 124 (1), 61–68. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19446414 (accessed 09.25.2009).

Guo, J., et al. 2009. A contemporary treatment approach to both diabetes and depression by Cordyceps sinensis, rich in vanadium. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19948751 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Ji, D., et al. 2009. Antiaging effect of Cordyceps sinensis extract. Phyther. Res., 23 (1), 116–122. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18803231 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Li, C., et al. 2009. Two-sided effect of Cordyceps sinensis on dendritic cells in different physiological stages. J. Leukoc. Biol., 85. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (PDF): http://www.jleukbio.org/cgi/rapidpdf/jlb.0908573v1 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Shi, B., et al. 2009. Immunoregulatory Cordyceps sinensis increases regulatory T cells to Th17 cell ratio and delays diabetes in NOD mice. Int. Immunopharmacol., 9 (5), 582–586. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19557879 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Zhou, X., et al. 2009. Cordyceps fungi: Natural products, pharmacological functions and developmental products. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 61 (3), 279–291. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19222900 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Park, D., et al. 2008. Immunoglobulin and cytokine production from mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes is regulated by extracts of Cordyceps sinensis in C57BI/6N mice. J. Med. Food, 11 (4), 784–787. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19053874 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Patterson, R. 2008. Cordyceps: A traditional Chinese medicine and another fungal therapeutic biofactory? Phytochemistry, 69 (7), 1469–1495. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18343466 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Wang, X., et al. 2008. Cordyceps mycelia extract decreases portal hypertension in rats with dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver cirrhosis: A study on its histological basis. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao, 6 (11), 1136–1144. URL: http://www.jcimjournal.com/en/FullText2.aspx?articleID=167219772008111136 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Wang, X., et al. 2008. [Intervening and therapeutic effect of Cordyceps mycelia extract on liver cirrhosis induced by dimethylnitrosamine in rats.] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 28 (7), 617–622. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18822912 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Yoon, T., et al. 2008. Innate immune stimulation of exo-polymers prepared from Cordyceps sinensis by submerged culture. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 80 (6), 1087–1093. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18690428 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Zhang, Z., et al. 2008. Chemical composition and bioactivity changes in stale rice after fermentation with Cordyceps sinensis. J. Biosci. Bioeng., 106 (2), 188–193. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jbb/106/2/106_188/_article (accessed 03.16.2009).

Zhou, X., et al. 2008. Cordycepin is an immunoregulatory active ingredient of Cordyceps sinensis. Am. J. Chin. Med., 36 (5), 967–980. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19051361 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Huang, H., et al. 2007. [Inhibitory effects of Cordyceps extract on growth of colon cancer cells.] Zhong Yao Cai, 30 (3), 310–313. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17634040 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Ko, K., & Leung, H. 2007. Enhancement of ATP generation capacity, antioxidant activity and immunomodulatory activities by Chinese Yang and Yin tonifying herbs. Chin. Med., 2 (1), 3. URL: http://www.cmjournal.org/content/2/1/3 (accessed 08.12.2009).

Kuo, C., et al. 2007. Abrogation of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B-mediated suppression of phagocytosis in U937 cells by Cordyceps sinensis mycelium via production of cytokines. Food Chem. Toxicol., 45 (2), 278–285. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17029726 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Kuo, M., et al. 2007. Immunomodulatory effect of exo-polysaccharides from submerged cultured Cordyceps sinensis: Enhancement of cytokine synthesis, CD11b expression, and phagocytosis. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 75 (4), 769–775. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17310399 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Nishizawa, K., et al. 2007. Antidepressant-like effect of Cordyceps sinensis in the mouse tail suspension test. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 30 (9), 1758–1762. URL (PDF): http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/30/9/1758/_pdf (accessed 03.16.2009).

Rao, Y., et al. 2007. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferation tumoral cells activities of Antrodia camphorata, Cordyceps sinensis, and Cinnamomum osmophloeum bark extracts. J. Ethnopharmacol., 114 (1), 78–85. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17822865 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Xiao, J., & Zhong, J. 2007. Secondary metabolites from Cordyceps species and their antitumor activity studies. Recent Pat. Biotechnol., 1 (2), 123–137. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19075836 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Yu, L., et al. 2007. Macrophage biospecific extraction and high performance liquid chromatography for hypothesis of immunological active components in Cordyceps sinensis. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 44 (2), 439–443. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17276646 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Zhang, Q., & Wu, J. 2007. Cordyceps sinensis mycelium extract induces human premyelocytic leukemia cell apoptosis through mitochondrion pathway. Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood), 232 (1), 52–57. URL: http://www.ebmonline.org/cgi/content/full/232/1/52 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Ka Wai Lee, S., et al. 2006. Immunomodulatory activities of HERBSnSENSES Cordyceps — in vitro and in vivo studies. Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol., 28 (2), 341–360. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16873101 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Li, F., et al. 2006. [Effects of Cordyceps sinensis alcohol extractive on serum interferon-gamma level and splenic T lymphocyte subset in mice with viral myocarditis.] Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi, 22 (3), 321–323.URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16643790 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Li, S., et al. 2006. Hypoglycemic activity of polysaccharide, with antioxidation, isolated from cultured Cordyceps mycelia. Phytomedicine, 13 (6), 428–433. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16716913 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Lo, H., et al. 2006. Anti-hyperglycemic activity of natural and fermented Cordyceps sinensis in rats with diabetes induced by nicotinamide and streptozotocin. Am. J. Chin Med., 34 (5), 819–832. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17080547 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Wu, Y., et al. 2006. Effect of various extracts and a polysaccharide from the edible mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on cellular and humoral immune response against ovalbumin in mice. Phytother. Res., 20 (8), 646–652. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16691546 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Zhang, G., et al. 2006. Hypoglycemic activity of the fungi Cordyceps militaris, Cordyceps sinensis, Tricholoma mongolicum, and Omphalia lapidescens in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 72 (6), 1152–1156. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16575562 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Buenz, E., et al. 2005. The traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps sinensis and its effects on apoptotic homeostasis. J. Ethnopharmacol., 96 (1–2), 19–29. Review. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15588646 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Colson, S., et al. 2005. Cordyceps sinensis- and Rhodiola rosea-based supplementation in male cyclists and its effect on muscle tissue oxygen saturation. J. Strength Cond. Res., 19 (2), 358–363. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.13.2009).

Kuo, C., et al. 2005. Cordyceps sinensis mycelium protects mice from group A streptococcal infection. J. Med. Microbiol., 54 (Pt. 8), 795–802. URL (accessed 03.16.2009).

Leu, S., et al. 2005. The in vivo effect of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium on plasma corticosterone level in male mouse. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 28 (9), 1722–1725. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/28/9/28_1722/_article (accessed 03.16.2009).

Ng, T., & Wang, H. 2005. Pharmacological actions of Cordyceps, a prized folk medicine. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 57 (12), 1509–1519. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16354395 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Wang, B., et al. 2005. Free radical scavenging and apoptotic effects of Cordyceps sinensis fractionated by supercritical carbon dioxide. Food Chem. Toxicol., 43 (4), 543–552. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15721201 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Zhang, W., et al. 2005. Immunomodulatory and antitumour effects of an exopolysaccharide fraction from cultivated Cordyceps sinensis (Chinese caterpillar fungus) on tumour-bearing mice. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem., 42 (Pt. 1), 9–15. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15574120 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Lo, H., et al. 2004. The anti-hyperglycemic activity of the fruiting body of Cordyceps in diabetic rats induced by nicotinamide and streptozotocin. Life Sci., 74 (23), 2897–2908. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15050427 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Siu, K., et al. 2004. Pharmacological basis of “yin-nourishing” and “yang-invigorating” actions of Cordyceps, a Chinese tonifying herb. Life Sci., 76 (4), 385–395. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15530501 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Wang, Y., et al. 2004. [An experimental study on anti-aging action of Cordyceps extract.] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, 29 (8), 773–776. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15506292 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Koh, J., et al. 2002. Activation of macrophages and the intestinal immune system by an orally administered decoction from cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 66 (2), 407–411. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bbb/66/2/66_407/_article/-char/en (accessed 09.25.2009).

Weng, S., et al. 2002. Immunomodulatory functions of extracts from the Chinese medicinal fungus Cordyceps cicadae. J. Ethnopharmacol., 83 (1–2), 79–85. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12413710 (accessed 09.25.2009).

Kuo, Y., et al. 2001. Regulation of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids cell function by the immunomodulatory agents from Cordyceps sinensis. Life Sci., 68 (9), 1067–1082. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11212870 (accessed 09.25.2009).

Sugar, A., & McCaffrey, R. 1998. Antifungal activity of 3'-deoxyadenosine (cordycepin). Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 42(6), 1424–1427. URL (full text): http://aac.asm.org/cgi/content/full/42/6/1424?view=long&pmid=9624488 accessed 11.09.2009).

Zhu, J., et al. 1998. The scientific rediscovery of an ancient Chinese herbal medicine: Cordyceps sinensis: part I. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 4 (3), 289–303. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9764768 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Zhu, J., et al. 1998. The scientific rediscovery of a precious ancient Chinese herbal regimen: Cordyceps sinensis: part II. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 4 (4), 429–457. URL: (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9884180 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Eleuthero (Eleutherococcus senticosus)

Bai, Y., et al. 2011. Active components from Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) for protection of amyloid ß(25-35)-induced neuritic atrophy in cultured rat cortical neurons. J. Nat. Med. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21301979 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Hwang, Y., et al. 2009. The effects of Acanthopanax senticosus extract on bone turnover and bone mineral density in Korean postmenopausal women. J. Bone Miner. Metab. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19452124 (accessed 05.26.2009).

Panossian, A., et al. 2009. Adaptogens exert a stress-protective effect by modulation of expression of molecular chaperones. Phytomedicine, 16 (6–7), 617–622. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19188053 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Schutgens, F., et al. 2009. The influence of adaptogens on ultraweak biophoton emission: A pilot experiment. Phytother. Res. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19170145 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Smalinskiene, A., et al. 2009. Estimation of the combined effect of Eleutherococcus senticosus extract and cadmium on liver cells. Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 1171, 314–320. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19723071 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Wiegant, F., et al. 2009. Plant adaptogens increase lifespan and stress resistance in C. elegans. Biogerontology, 10 (1), 27–42. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18536978 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Bleakney, T. 2008. Deconstructing an adaptogen: Eleutherococcus senticosus. Holist. Nurs. Pract., 22 (4), 220–224. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18607235 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Bocharov, E., et al. 2008. [Neuroprotective features of phytoadaptogens.] Vestn. Ross. Akad. Med. Nauk. (4), 47–50. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18488457 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Chen, T., et al. 2008. Antioxidant evaluation of three adaptogenic extracts. Am. J. Chin. Med., 36 (6), 1209–1217. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19051347 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Liu, K., et al. 2008. Release of acetylcholine by syringin, an active principle of Eleutherococcus senticosus, to raise insulin secretion in Wistar rats. Neurosci. Lett., 434 (2), 195–199. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18304730 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Niu, H., et al. 2008. Hypoglycemic effect of syringin from Eleutherococcus senticosus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Planta Med., 74 (2), 109–113. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18203055 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Soya, H., et al. 2008. Extract from Acanthopanax senticosus Harms (Siberian ginseng) activates NTS and SON/PVN in the rat brain. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 72 (9), 2476–2480. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bbb/72/9/72_2476/_article (accessed 03.12.2009).

Tohda, C., et al. 2008. Inhibitory effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus extracts on amyloid beta(25-35)-induced neuritic atrophy and synaptic loss. J. Pharmacol. Sci., 107 (3), 329–339. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jphs/107/3/107_329/_article (accessed 03.04.2011).

Jung, C., et al. 2007. Eleutherococcus senticosus extract attenuates LPS-induced iNOS expression through the inhibition of Akt and JNK pathways in murine macrophage. J. Ethnopharmacol., 113 (1), 183–187. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17644291 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Niu, H., et al. 2007. Increase of beta-endorphin secretion by syringin, an active principle of Eleutherococcus senticosus, to produce antihyperglycemic action in type 1-like diabetic rats. Horm. Metab. Res., 39 (12), 894–898. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18075969 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Roxas, M., & Jurenka, J. 2007. Colds and influenza: A review of diagnosis and conventional, botanical, and nutritional considerations. Altern. Med. Rev., 12 (1), 25–48. Review. URL (PDF): http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/12/1/25.pdf (accessed 03.12.2009).

[No author listed.] 2006. Monograph. Eleutherococcus senticosus. Altern. Med. Rev, 11 (2), 151–155. URL (PDF): http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/11/2/151.pdf (accessed 03.12.2009).

Narimanian, M., et al. 2005. Impact of Chisan (ADAPT-232) on the quality-of-life and its efficacy as an adjuvant in the treatment of acute non-specific pneumonia. Phytomedicine, 12 (10), 723–729. URL:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16323290 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Narimanian, M., et al. 2005. Randomized trial of a fixed combination (Kan Jang) of herbal extracts containing Adhatoda vasica, Echinacea purpurea and Eleutherococcus senticosus in patients with upper respiratory tract infections. Phytomedicine, 12 (8), 539–547. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16121513 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Panossian, A., & Wagner, H. 2005. Stimulating effect of adaptogens: An overview with particular reference to their efficacy following single-dose administration. Phytother. Res., 19 (10), 819–838. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16261511 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Hartz, A., et al. 2004. Randomized controlled trial of Siberian ginseng for chronic fatigue. Psychol. Med., 34 (1), 51–61. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14971626 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Kimura, Y., & Sumiyoshi, M. 2004. Effects of various Eleutherococcus senticosus cortex on swimming time, natural killer activity and corticosterone level in forced swimming stressed mice. J. Ethnopharmacol., 95 (2–3), 447–453. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15507373 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Arushanian, E., et al. 2003. [Effect of Eleutherococcus on short-term memory and visual perception in healthy humans.] Eskp. Klin. Farmakol., 66 (5), 10–13. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14650206 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Rogala, E., et al. 2003. The influence of Eleutherococcus senticosus on cellular and humoral immunological response of mice. Pol. J. Vet. Sci., 6 (Suppl.), 37–39. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14509359 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Drozd, J., et al. 2002. Estimation of humoral activity of Eleutherococcus senticosus. Acta Pol. Pharm., 59 (5), 395–401. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12602802 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Panossian, A., et al. 2002. Effect of andrographolide and Kan Jang — fixed combination of extract SHA-10 and extract SHE-3 — on proliferation of human lymphocytes, production of cytokines and immune activation markers in the whole blood cells culture. Phytomedicine, 9 (7), 598–605. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12487323 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Gaffney, B., et al. 2001. Panax ginseng and Eleutherococcus senticosus may exaggerate an already existing biphasic response to stress via inhibition of enzymes which limit the binding of stress hormones to their receptors. Med. Hypotheses, 56 (5), 567–572. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11388770 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Gaffney, B., et al. 2001. The effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus and Panax ginseng on steroidal hormone indices of stress and lymphocyte subset numbers in endurance athletes. Life Sci., 70 (4), 431–442. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11798012 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Schmolz, M., et al. 2001. The synthesis of Rantes, G-CSF, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-13 in human whole-blood cultures is modulated by an extract from Eleutherococcus senticosus L. roots. Phytother. Res., 15 (3), 268–270. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11351368 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Davydov, M., & Krikorian, A. 2000. Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae) as an adaptogen: A closer look. J.Ethnopharmacol., 72 (3), 345–393. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10996277 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Fujikawa, T., et al. 1996. Protective effects of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms from Hokkaido and its components on gastric ulcer in restrained cold-water-stressed rats. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 19 (9), 1227–1230. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8889047 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Nishibe, S., et al. 1990. Phenolic compounds from the stem bark of Acanthopanax senticosus and their pharmacological effect in chronic swimming stressed rats. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 38 (6), 1763–1765. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2208394 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Farnsworth. N., et al. 1985. “Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus): Current status as an adaptogen.” In Economic and Medicinal Plant Research. Vol. 1, eds. H. Wagner et al., 217–284. London: Academic Press.

Medon, P., et al. 1981. Hypoglycemic effect and toxicity of Eleutherococcus senticosus following acute and chronic administration in mice. Acta Pharmalogica Sinica, 2 (4), 281–285. URL (PDF): http://www.chinaphar.com/1671-4083/2/281.pdf (accessed 03.13.2009).

Brekhman, I., & Dardymov, J. 1969. Pharmacological investigation of glycosides from ginseng and Eleutherococcus. Lloydia, 32 (1), 46–51. URL (no abstract available): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5788767 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Rhodiola rosea

Hung, S., et al. 2011. The effectiveness and efficacy of Rhodiola rosea L.: A systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Phytomedicine, 18 (4), 235–244. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21036578 (accessed 02.21.2011).

Calcabrini, C., et al. 2010. Rhodiola rosea ability to enrich cellular antioxidant defenses of cultured human keratinocytes. Arch. Dermatol. Res., 302 (3), 191–200. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04.2011).

Cifani, C., et al. 2010. Effect of salidroside, active principle of Rhodiola rosea extract, on binge eating. Physiol. Behav., 101 (5), 555–562. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20837037 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Panossian, A., et al. 2010. Rosenroot (Rhodiola rosea): Traditional use, chemical composition, pharmacology and clinical efficacy. Phytomedicine, 17 (7), 481–493. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20378318 (accessed 02.21.2011).

Parisi, A., et al. 2010. Effects of chronic Rhodiola rosea supplementation on sport performance and antioxidant capacity in trained male: Preliminary results. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness, 50 (1), 57–63. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20308973 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Evdokimov,V. 2009. [Effect of cryopowder Rhodiola rosae L. on cardiorespiratory parameters and physical performance of humans]. Aviakosm. Ekolog. Med., 43 (6), 52–56. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20169741 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Huang, S., et al. 2009. Attenuation of long-term Rhodiola rosea supplementation on exhaustive swimming-evoked oxidative stress in the rat. Chin. J. Physiol., 52 (5), 316–324. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20034236 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Jeong, H., et al. 2009. Neuraminidase inhibitory activities of flavonols isolated from Rhodiola rosea roots and their in vitro anti-influenza viral activities. Bioorg. Med. Chem., 17 (19), 6816–6823. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19729316 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Lee, F., et al. 2009. Chronic Rhodiola rosea extract supplementation enforces exhaustive swimming tolerance. Am. J. Chin. Med., 37 (3), 557–572. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19606515 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Mattioli, L., et al. 2009. Effects of Rhodiola rosea L. extract on behavioural and physiological alterations induced by chronic mild stress in female rats. J. Psychopharmacol., 23 (2), 130–142. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18515456 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Olsson, E., et al. 2009. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the standardised extract shr-5 of the roots of Rhodiola rosea in the treatment of subjects with stress-related fatigue. Planta Med., 75 (2), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19016404 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Panossian, A., et al. 2009. Adaptogens exert a stress-protective effect by modulation of expression of molecular chaperones. Phytomedicine. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19188053 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Pooja, et al. 2009. Anti-inflammatory activity of Rhodiola rosea —“a second-generation adaptogen.” Phytother. Res., 23 (8), 1099–1102. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19152369 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Qu, Z., et al. 2009. Pretreatment with Rhodiola rosea extract reduces cognitive impairment induced by intracerebroventricular streptozotocin in rats: Implication of anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effects. Biomed. Environ. Sci., 22 (4), 318–326. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19950527 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Schutgens, F., et al. 2009. The influence of adaptogens on ultraweak biophoton emission: A pilot experiment. Phytother. Res. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19170145 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Skarpanska–Stejnborn, A., et al. 2009. The influence of supplementation with Rhodiola rosea L. extract on selected redox parameters in professional rowers. Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab., 19 (2), 186–199. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19478343 (accessed 03.04.2011).

van Dierman, D., et al. 2009. Monoamine oxidase inhibition by Rhodiola rosea L. roots. J. Ethnopharmacol., 122 (2), 397–401. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19168123 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Wang, H., et al. 2009. The in vitro and in vivo antiviral effects of salidroside from Rhodiola rosea L. against coxsackievirus B3. Phytomedicine, 16 (2-3), 146–155. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18818064 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Bocharov, E., et al. 2008. [Neuroprotective features of phytoadaptogens.] Vestn. Ross. Akad. Med. Nauk. (4), 47–50. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18488457 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Bystritsky, A., et al. 2008. A pilot study of Rhodiola rosea (Rhodax) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). J. Altern. Complement. Med., 14 (2), 175-180. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18307390 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Chen, Q., et al. 2008. [Effects of Rhodiola rosea on body weight and intake of sucrose and water in depressive rats induced by chronic mild stress.] Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao, 6 (9), 952–959. URL: http://www.jcimjournal.com/en/showAbstrPage.aspx?articleid=167219772008090952 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Chen, T., et al. 2008. Antioxidant evaluation of three adaptogenic extracts. Am. J. Chin. Med., 36 (6), 1209–1217. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19051347 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Kobayashi, K., et al. 2008. Constituents of Rhodiola rosea showing inhibitory effect on lipase activity in mouse plasma and alimentary canal. Planta Med., 74 (14), 1716-1719. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18982538 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Panossian, A., et al. 2008. Comparative study of Rhodiola preparations on behavioral despair of rats. Phytomedicine, 15 (1–2), 84-91. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18054474 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Qin, Y., et al. 2008. [Effects of Rhodiola rosea on level of 5-hydroxytryptamine, cell proliferation and differentiation, and number of neurons in cerebral hippocampus of rats with depression induced by chronic mild stress.] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, 33 (23), 2842–2846. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19260327 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Shen, W., et al. 2008. [Effects of Rhodiola on expression of vascular endothelial cell growth factor and angiogenesis in aortic atherosclerotic plaque of rabbits.] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 28 (11), 1022–1025. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19213348 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Darbinyan, V., et al. 2007. Clinical trial of Rhodiola rosea L. extract SHR-5 in the treatment of mild to moderate depression. Nord. J. Psychiatry, 61 (5), 343-348. Erratum in: Nord. J. Psychiatry, 2007; 61 (6):503. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17990195 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Fintelmann, V., & Gruenwald, J. 2007. Efficacy and tolerability of a Rhodiola rosea extract in adults with physical and cognitive deficiencies. Adv. Ther., 24 (4), 929-939. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17901042 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Mattioli, L., & Perfumi, M. 2007. Rhodiola rosea L. extract reduces stress- and CRF-induced anorexia in rats. J. Psychopharmacol., 21 (7), 742-750. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17259204 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Jafari, M., et al. 2007. Rhodiola: A promising anti-aging Chinese herb. Rejuvenation Res., 10 (4), 587-602. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17990971 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Perfumi, M., & Mattioli, L. 2007. Adaptogenic and central nervous system effects of single doses of 3% rosavin and 1% salidroside Rhodiola rosea L. extract in mice. Phytother. Res., 21 (1), 37-43. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17072830 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Walker, T., et al. 2007. Failure of Rhodiola rosea to alter skeletal muscle phosphate kinetics in trained men. Metabolism, 56 (8), 1111–1117. URL: (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17618958 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Kim, S., et al. 2006. Antioxidative effects of Cinnamomi cassiae and Rhodiola rosea extracts in liver of diabetic mice. Biofactors, 26 (3), 209–219. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16971752 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Kwon Y., et al. 2006. Evaluation of Rhodiola crenulata and Rhodiola rosea for management of type II diabetes and hypertension. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr., 15 (3), 425-432. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16837437 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Ming, D., et al. 2005. Bioactive compounds from Rhodiola rosea (Crassulaceae). Phytother. Res., 19 (9), 740–743. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16220564 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Narimanian, M., et al. 2005. Impact of Chisan (ADAPT-232) on the quality-of-life and its efficacy as an adjuvant in the treatment of acute non-specific pneumonia. Phytomedicine, 12 (10), 723–729. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16323290 (accessed 03.12.2009).

De Bock, K., et al. 2004. Acute Rhodiola rosea intake can improve endurance exercise performance. Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab., 14 (3), 298–307. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15256690 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Earnest, C., et al. 2004. Effects of a commercial herbal-based formula on exercise performance in cyclists. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 36 (3), 504-509. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15076794 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Hudson, T. 2004. Women’s health update: Rhodiola rosea. Townsend Lett. URL: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0ISW/is_246/ai_112728038 (accessed 03.16.2008).

Kucinskaite, A., et al. 2004. [Experimental analysis of therapeutic properties of Rhodiola rosea L. and its possible application in medicine.] Medicina (Kaunas), 40 (7), 614–619. URL (PDF): http://medicina.kmu.lt/0407/0407-02l.pdf (accessed 03.13.2009).

Abidov, M., et al. 2003. Effect of extracts from Rhodiola rosea and Rhodiola crenulata (Crassulaceae) roots on ATP content in mitochondria of skeletal muscles. Bull. Exp. Biol. Med., 136 (6), 585–587. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15500079 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Shevtsov, V., et al. 2003. A randomized trial of two different doses of a SHR-5 Rhodiola rosea extract versus placebo and control of capacity for mental work. Phytomedicine, 10 (2-3), 95–105. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12725561 (accessed 03.13.2009).

[No author listed.] 2002. Rhodiola rosea. Monograph. Altern. Med. Rev., 7 (5), 421–423. URL (PDF): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12410627 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Brown, R., et al. 2002. Rhodiola rosea: A phytomedicinal overview. HerbalGram, J. Am. Bot. Counc., 56, 40-52. URL: http://content.herbalgram.org/abc/herbalgram/articleview.asp?a=2333 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Darbinyan, V., et al. 2000. Rhodiola rosea in stress-induced fatigue — a double-blind cross-over study of a standardized extract SHR-5 with a repeated low-dose regimen on the mental performance of healthy physicians during night duty. Phytomedicine, 7 (5), 365–371. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11081987 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Spasov, A., et al. 2000. A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of the stimulating and adaptogenic effect of Rhodiola rosea SHR-% extract on the fatigue of students caused by stress during an examination period with a repeated low-dose regimen. Phytomedicine, 7 (2), 85–89. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10839209 (accessed 08.12.2009).

Wing, S., et al. 2003. Lack of effect of Rhodiola or oxygenated water supplementation on hypoxemia and oxidative stress. Wilderness Environ. Med., 14 (1), 9–16. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12659243 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Ha, Z., et al. 2002. [The effect of Rhodiola and acetazolamide on the sleep architecture and blood oxygen saturation in men living at high altitude.] Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi, 25 (9), 527–530. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12423559 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Germano, C., et al. 1999. Arctic Root (Rhodiola rosea): The Powerful New Ginseng Alternative. NY: Kensington.

Azizov, A., & Seifulla, R. 1998. The effect of elton, leveton, fitoton and adapton on the work capacity of experimental animals. Eksp. Klin. Farmakol., 61 (3), 61–63. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9690082 (accessed 03.16.2009).

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Essential Nutrients

Our Essential Nutrients is a comprehensive nutritional supplement that is doctor-formulated to be complete, bioavailable, and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.

The following articles and studies, arranged in order of recency, provide information about the clinical basis for using our Essential Nutrients.

Geohas, J., et al. 2007. Chromium picolinate and biotin combination reduces atherogenic index of plasma in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Am. J. Med. Sci., 333, 145–153.

Grobbee, D., & van der Graaf, Y. 2007. Vitamin K intake and calcifications in breast arteries. Maturitas, 56, 273–279.

Knight, J., et al. 2007. Vitamin D and reduced risk of breast cancer: A population-based case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 16, 422–429.

Lin, J., et al. 2007. Intakes of calcium and vitamin D and breast cancer risk in women. Arch. Intern. Med., 167, 1050–1059.

Pendas–Franco, N., et al. 2007. Vitamin D regulates the phenotype of human breast cancer cells. Differentiation, 75, 193–207.

Robien, K., et al. 2007. Vitamin D intake and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: The Iowa Women’s Health Study. Cancer Causes Control, 18, 775–782.

Schurgers, L., et al. 2007. Vitamin K-containing dietary supplements: Comparison of synthetic vitamin K1 and natto-derived menaquinone-7. Blood, 109, 3279-3283.

Ball, G. 2006. Chapter 11: Pantothenic Acid. In Vitamins in Foods: Analysis, Bioavailability, and Stability, 211–219. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Bischoff-Ferrari, H., et al. 2006. Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 84, 18–28.

Colli, E., et al. 2006. BXL628, a novel vitamin D3 analog arrests prostate growth in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: A randomized clinical trial. Eur. Urol., 49, 82–86.

Clarke, R. 2006. Vitamin B12, folic acid, and the prevention of dementia. NEJM, 354, 2817–2819.

Garland, C., et al. 2006. The role of vitamin D in cancer prevention. Am. J. Pub. Health, 96, 252–261.

Murray, M., & Pizzorno, J. 2006. Chapter 174: Herpes Simplex. In Textbook of Natural Medicine, vol. 2, 1723–1726. St. Louis, MO: Churchill Livingston.

Revilla–Monsalve, C., et al. 2006. Biotin supplementation reduces plasma triacylglycerol and VLDL in type 2 diabetic patients and in nondiabetic subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. Biomed. Pharmacother., 60, 182–185.

Adams, J., & Pepping, J. 2005. Vitamin K in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis and arterial calcification. Am. J. Health-Syst. Pharm, 62, 1574–1581.

Akbaraly, N., et al. 2005. Selenium and mortality in the elderly: Results from the EVA study. Clin. Chem., 51, 2117–2123.

Bischoff-Ferrari, H., et al. 2005. Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA, 293, 2257–2264.

Coppen, A., & Bolander-Gouaille, C. 2005. Treatment of depression: Time to consider folic acid and vitamin B12. J. Psychopharm., 19, 59–65.

DiSilvestro, R. 2005. Handbook of Minerals as Nutritional Supplements. NY: CRC Press.

Eussen, S., et al. 2005. Oral cyanocobalamin supplementation in older people with vitamin B12 deficiency: A dosefinding trial. Arch. Intern. Med., 165, 1167–1172.

Gropper, S., et al. 2005. Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

Mathieu, C., et al. 2005. Vitamin D and diabetes. Diabetologia, 48, 1247–1257.

Miller, E., et al. 2005. Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Ann. Intern. Med., 142, 37–46.

Simon, L. 2005. Osteoporosis. Clin. Geriatr. Med., 21, 603–629.

Srivastava, A., & Mehdi, M. 2005. Insulino-mimetic and anti-diabetic effects of vanadium compounds. Diab. Med., 22, 2–13.

Van Guelpen, B., et al. 2005. Folate, vitamin B12, and risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke: A prospective, nested case-referent study of plasma concentrations and dietary intake. Stroke, 36, 1426–1431.

Baez–Saldana, A., et al. 2004. Effects of biotin on pyruvate carboxylase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, propionyl-CoA carboxylase, and markers for glucose and lipid homeostasis in type 2 diabetic patients and nondiabetic subjects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 79, 238–243.

Bendich, A. 2004. From 1989 to 2001: What have we learned about the “biological actions of beta-carotene”? J. Nutr., 134, 225S–230S.

Bischoff-Ferrari, H., et al. 2004. Effect of Vitamin D on falls: A meta-analysis. JAMA, 291, 1999–2006.

Crescioli, C., et al. 2004. Inhibition of prostate cell growth by BXL-628, a calcitriol analogue selected for a phase II clinical trial in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia. Eur. J. Endocrinol., 150, 591–603.

Flynn, C. 2004. Calcium supplementation in postmenopausal women. Am. Fam. Phys., 69, 2822–2823.

Geleijnse, J., et al. 2004. Dietary intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: The Rotterdam Study. J. Nutr., 134, 3100–3105.

Holick, M. 2004. Vitamin D: Importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 79, 362–371.

Hyun, T., et al. 2004. Zinc intakes and plasma concentrations in men with osteoporosis: The Rancho Bernardo Study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 80, 715–721.

Lee, B., et al. 2004. Folic acid and vitamin B12 are more effective than vitamin B6 in lowering fasting plasma homocysteine concentration in patients with coronary artery disease. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 58, 481–487.

Levine, S., & Saltzman, A. 2004. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) neurotoxicity: Enhancement by protein-deficient diet. J. Appl. Toxicol., 24, 497–500.

Millen, A., et al. 2004. Diet and melanoma in a case-control study. Cancer Epidem., Biomark. & Prevent., 13, 1042–1051.

Miller, J. 2004. Folate, cognition, and depression in the era of folic acid fortification. J. Food Sci., 69, 61–64.

Nielsen, F., & Milne, D. 2004. A moderately high intake compared to a low intake of zinc depresses magnesium balance and alters indices of bone turnover in postmenopausal women. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 58, 703–710.

Pattison, D., et al. 2004. Vitamin C and the risk of developing inflammatory polyarthritis: Prospective nested case-control study. Ann. Rheum. Dis., 63, 843–847.

Shekelle, P., et al. 2004. Effect of supplemental vitamin E for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. J. Gen. Intern. Med., 19, 380–389.

Stabler, S., & Allen, R. 2004. Vitamin B12 deficiency as a worldwide problem. Annu. Rev. Nutr., 24, 299–326.

Vermeer, C., et al. 2004. Beyond deficiency: Potential benefits of increased intakes of vitamin K for bone and vascular health. Eur. J. Nutr., 43, 325–335.

VanAmerongen, B., et al. 2004. Multiple sclerosis and vitamin D: An update. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 58, 1095–1109.

Yasuda, S., et al. 2004. Suppressive effects of ascorbate derivatives on ultraviolet-B-induced injury in HaCaT human keratinocytes. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim., 40, 71–73.

Bodiwala, D., et al. 2003. Susceptibility to prostate cancer: Studies on interactions between UVR exposure and skin type. Carcinogenesis, 24, 711–717.

Borissova, A., et al. 2003. The effect of vitamin D3 on insulin secretion and peripheral insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients. Int. J. Clin. Pract., 57, 258–261.

Crescioli, C., et al. 2003. Inhibition of spontaneous and androgen-induced prostate growth by a nonhypercalcemic calcitriol analog. Endocrinol., 144, 3046–3057.

Devirian, T., & Volpe, S. 2003. The physiological effects of dietary boron. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 43, 219–231.

Grau, M., et al. 2003. Vitamin D, calcium supplementation, and colorectal adenomas: Results of a randomized trial. J. Nat. Canc. Inst., 95, 1765–1771.

Heinrich, U., et al. 2003. Supplementation with beta-carotene or a similar amount of mixed carotenoids protects humans from UV-induced erythema. J. Nutr., 133, 98–101.

Hintikka, J., et al. 2003. High vitamin B12 level and good treatment outcome may be associated in major depressive disorder. BMC Psych., 3, 17.

Kohlmeier, M., Ed. 2003. Nutrient Metabolism. Food International and Technology International Series. NY: Academic Press.

Lewerin, C., et al. 2003. Reduction of plasma homocysteine and serum methylmalonate concentrations in apparently healthy elderly subjects after treatment with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6: A randomised trial. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 57, 1426–1436.

Maggio, D., et al. 2003. Marked decrease in plasma antioxidants in aged osteoporotic women: Results of a cross-sectional study. J. Clin. Endocrin. Metab., 88, 1523–1527.

Rampersaud, G., et al. 2003. Folate: A key to optimizing health and reducing disease risk in the elderly. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 22, 1–8.

Stabler, T., & Kraus, V. 2003. Ascorbic acid accumulates in cartilage in vivo. Clin. Chim. Acta, 334, 157–62.

Trivedi, D., et al. 2003. Effect of four monthly oral vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation on fractures and mortality in men and women living in the community: Randomised double blind controlled trial. BMJ, 326, 469.

Watson, R., & Preedy, V. 2003. Nutrition and Alcohol. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Czap, K., Ed. 2002. Alternative Medicine Review: Monographs. Dover, ID: Thorne Research, Inc.

Duan, W., et al. 2002. Dietary folate deficiency and elevated homocysteine levels endanger dopaminergic neurons in models of Parkinson’s disease. J. Neurochem., 80, 101–110.

Knekt, P., et al. 2002. Flavonoid intake and risk of chronic diseases. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 76, 560–568.

Mock, D., et al. 2002. Marginal biotin deficiency during normal pregnancy. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 75, 295–299.

Morris, M. 2002. Folate, homocysteine, and neurological function. Nutr. Clin. Care, 5, 124–132.

Rico, H., et al. 2002. Influence of boron supplementation on vertebral and femoral bone mass in rats on strenuous treadmill exercise. A morphometric, densitometric, and histomorphometric study. J. Clin. Densitomet., 5, 187–192.

Shealy, C. 2002. Correction of low body temperature with iodine supplementation. Front. Perspect., 11, 6–8.

Sigmund, C. 2002. Regulation of renin expression and blood pressure by vitamin D(3). J. Clin. Invest., 110, 155–156.

Chang, N., et al. 2001. Study of the relation between proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy metabolites in the brain regions and the B vitamin status in alcoholics. Nutr. Res., 21, 811–820.

Chatterjee, M. 2001. Vitamin D and genomic stability. Mutat. Res., 475, 69–87.

Hartwig, A. 2001. Role of magnesium in genomic stability. Mutat. Res., 475, 113–121.

Helmy, M., et al. 2001. Antioxidants as adjuvant therapy in rheumatoid disease. A preliminary study. Arzneimittelforschung, 51, 293–298.

Hendler, S., & Rorvik, D. 2001. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company.

Klipstein-Grobusch, K., et al. 2001. Dietary antioxidants and peripheral arterial disease: The Rotterdam Study. Am. J. Epidemiol., 154, 145–149.

Pfeifer, M., et al. 2001. Effects of a short-term vitamin D(3) and calcium supplementation on blood pressure and parathyroid hormone levels in elderly women. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 86, 1633–1637.

Takahashi, M., et al. 2001. Effect of vitamin K and/or D on undercarboxylated and intact osteocalcin in osteoporotic patients with vertebral or hip fractures. Clin. Endocrin., 54, 219–224.

Berchtold, M., et al. 2000. Calcium ion in skeletal muscle: Its crucial role for muscle function, plasticity, and disease. Phys. Res., 80, 1215–1265.

Brubaker, R., et al. 2000. Ascorbic acid content of human corneal epithelium. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 41, 1681–1683.

Christen, W., et al. 2000. Design of Physicians’ Health Study II — a randomized trial of beta-carotene, vitamins E and C, and multivitamins, in prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and eye disease, and review of results of completed trials. Ann. Epidemiol., 10, 125–134.

Coppen, A., & Bailey, J. 2000. Enhancement of the antidepressant action of fluoxetine by folic acid: A randomised, placebo controlled trial. J. Affect. Disord., 60, 121–130.

De la Fuente, M., et al. 2000. Changes in macrophage and lymphocyte functions in guinea-pigs after different amounts of vitamin E ingestion. Br. J. Nutr., 84, 25–29.

Glerup, H., et al. 2000. Commonly recommended daily intake of vitamin D is not sufficient if sunlight exposure is limited. J. Int. Med., 247, 260–268.

Heaney, R. 2000. Calcium, dairy products and osteoporosis. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 19, 83S–99S.

Hetzel, B. 2000. Iodine and neuropsychological development. J. Nutr., 130, 493S–495S.

Ilich, J., & Kerstetter, J. 2000. Nutrition in bone health revisited: A story beyond calcium. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 19, 715–737.

Kugelmas, M. 2000. Preliminary observation: Oral zinc sulfate replacement is effective in treating muscle cramps in cirrhotic patients. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 19, 13–15.

Platz, E., et al. 2000. Plasma 1,25-dihydroxy- and 25-hydroxyvitamin D and adenomatous polyps of the distal colorectum. Cancer Epidem. Biomark. Prev., 9, 1059–1065.

Preuss, H., et al. 2000. Effects of niacin-bound chromium and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on the lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic subjects: A pilot study. J. Med., 31, 227–246.

Stahl, W., et al. 2000. Carotenoids and carotenoids plus vitamin E protect against ultraviolet light-induced erythema in humans. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 71, 795–798.

Youdim, K., & Deans, S. 2000. Effect of thyme oil and thymol dietary supplementation on the antioxidant status and fatty acid composition of the ageing rat brain. Br. J. Nutr., 83, 87–93.

Zempleni, J., & Mock, D. 2000. Marginal biotin deficiency is teratogenic. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 223, 14–21.

Anderson, J., et al. 1999. Breast-feeding and cognitive development: A meta-analysis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 70, 525–535.

Bailey, L.. & Gregory, J. 1999. Folate metabolism and requirements. J. Nutr., 129, 779–782.

Baker, A., et al. 1999. Effect of dietary copper intakes on biochemical markers of bone metabolism in healthy adult males. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 53, 408–412.

Bendich, A., et al. 1999. Supplemental calcium for the prevention of hip fracture: Potential health-economic benefits. Clin. Ther., 21, 1058–1072.

Bland, J., et al. 1999. Chapter 3: Proteins and Amino Acids. In Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach, 42-53. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine.

Bronner, F., & Pansu, D. 1999. Nutritional aspects of calcium absorption. J. Nutr., 129, 9–12.

Celotti, F., & Bignamini, A. 1999. Dietary calcium and mineral/vitamin supplementation: A controversial problem. J. Int. Med. Res., 27, 1–14.

Crawford, V., et al. 1999. Effects of niacin-bound chromium supplementation on body composition in overweight African-American women. Diab. Obes. Metabol., 1, 331–337.

Creedon, A., et al. 1999. The effect of moderately and severely restricted dietary magnesium intakes on bone composition and bone metabolism in the rat. Br. J. Nutr., 82, 63–71.

Feskanich, D., et al. 1999. Vitamin K intake and hip fractures in women: A prospective study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 69, 74–79.

Green, A., et al. 1999. Daily sunscreen application and betacarotene supplementation in prevention of basal-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas of the skin: A randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 354, 723–729.

Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell’Infarto miocardico. 1999. Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: Results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Lancet, 354: 447–455.

Hassing, L., et al. 1999. Further evidence on the effects of vitamin B12 and folate levels on episodic memory functioning: A population-based study of healthy very old adults. Biol. Psych., 45, 1472–1480.

Jacques, P. 1999. The potential preventive effects of vitamins for cataract and age-related macular degeneration. Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res., 69, 198–205.

John, E., et al. 1999. Vitamin D and breast cancer risk: The NHANES I Epidemiologic follow-up study, 1971-1975 to 1992. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 8, 399–406.

LeBoff, M., et al. 1999. Occult vitamin D deficiency in postmenopausal US women with acute hip fracture. JAMA, 281, 1505–1511.

Lee, K., et al. 1999. Too much versus too little: The implications of current iodine intake in the United States. Nutr. Rev., 57, 177–181.

Meunier, P., et al. 1999. Diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: Clinical guidelines. International Committee for Osteoporosis Clinical Guidelines. Clin. Ther., 21, 1025–1044.

Patrick, L. 1999. Comparative absorption of calcium sources and calcium citrate malate for the prevention of osteoporosis. Altern. Med. Rev., 4, 74–85.

Venkatraman, J., & Chu, W.-C. 1999. Effects of dietary ?3 and ?6 lipids and vitamin E on proliferative response, lymphoid cell subsets, production of cytokines by spleen cells, and splenic protein levels for cytokines and oncogenes in MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr mice. J. Nutr. Biochem., 10, 582-597.

Vieth, R. 1999. Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 69, 842–856.

Zempleni, J., & Mock, D. 1999. Bioavailability of biotin given orally to humans in pharmacologic doses. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 69, 504–508.

Berdanier, C. D. 1998. Advanced Nutrition Micronutrients. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc.

Castelo-Branco, C. 1998. Management of osteoporosis. An overview. Drugs Aging, 12, 25–32.

Chapin, R., et al. 1998. The effects of dietary boric acid on bone strength in rats. Biol. Trace Elem. Res., 66, 395–399.

Falch, J., et al. 1998. Low levels of serum ascorbic acid in elderly patients with hip fracture. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest., 58, 225–228.

Hall, S., & Greendale, G. 1998. The relation of dietary vitamin C intake to bone mineral density: Results from the PEPI study. Calc. Tiss. Int., 63, 183–189.

Lakshmi, A. 1998. Riboflavin metabolism — relevance to human nutrition. Indian J. Med. Res., 108, 182-190.

Lin, Y., et al. 1998. Estimating the concentration of beta-carotene required for maximal protection of low-density lipoproteins in women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 67, 837-845.

Lukkarinen, M., et al. 1998. Varicella and varicella immunity in patients with lysinuric protein intolerance. J. Inherit.Metab. Dis., 21, 103–111.

Maas, A., et al. 1998. Riboflavin and vitamin B-6 intakes and status and biochemical response to riboflavin supplementation in free-living elderly people. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 68, 389–395.

Masse, P., et al. 1998. A cartilage matrix deficiency experimentally induced by vitamin B6 deficiency. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 217, 97–103.

Mathai, K. 1998. Vitamin E continuing education module. Nutr. Sci. News, 3, 8 pp.

Moriguchi, S. 1998. The role of vitamin E in T-cell differentiation and the decrease of cellular immunity with aging. Biofactors, 7, 77–86.

Nielsen, F. 1998. The justification for providing dietary guidance for the nutritional intake of boron. Biol. Trace Elem. Res., 66, 319–330.

O’Brien, K. 1998. Combined calcium and vitamin D supplementation reduces bone loss and fracture incidence in older men and women. Nutr. Rev., 56, 148–150.

Reid, I. 1998. The roles of calcium and vitamin D in the prevention of osteoporosis. Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am., 27, 389–398.

Rose, R., et al. 1998. Ocular oxidants and antioxidant protection. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 217, 397-407.

Tessier, F., et al. 1998. Decrease in vitamin C concentration in human lenses during cataract progression. Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res., 68, 309–315.

Urano, et al. 1998. Aging and oxidative stress in neurodegeneration. Biofactors, 7, 103–112.

Balch, J., & Balch, P. 1997. Prescription for Nutritional Healing (4th Ed.): A Practical A-to-Z Reference to Drug-Free Remedies Using Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs & Food Supplements, 12–21. Garden City Park, NJ: Avery Publishing Group.

Chapin, R., et al. 1997. The effects of dietary boron on bone strength in rats. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol., 35, 205–215.

Edmonds, S., et al. 1997. Putative analgesic activity of repeated oral doses of vitamin E in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Results of a prospective placebo controlled double blind trial. Ann. Rheum. Dis., 56, 649–655.

Gaby, A. 1997. Panthothenic acid: All-purpose vitamin, a member of the B-complex vitamin group. Nutr. Healing, 3 (4), 11.

Grant, K. et al. 1997. Chromium and exercise training: Effect on obese women. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 29, 992–998.

Shivakumar, K., & Kumar, B. 1997. Magnesium deficiency enhances oxidative stress and collagen synthesis in vivo in the aorta of rats. Int. J. Biochem. Cell. Biol., 29, 1273–1278.

van Poppel, G., & van den Berg, H. 1997. Vitamins and cancer. Cancer Letters, 114, 195–202.

Zhang, H., et al. 1997. Biotin administration improves the impaired glucose tolerance of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (Tokyo), 43, 271-280.

Albanes, D., et al. 1996. Alpha-tocopherol and beta carotene supplements and lung cancer incidence in the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cancer prevention study: Effects of base-line characteristics and study compliance. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 88, 1560–1570.

Cravo, M., et al. 1996. Hyperhomocysteinemia in chronic alcoholism: Correlation with folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 status. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 63, 220–224.

McAlindon, T., et al. 1996. Do antioxidant micronutrients protect against the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis? Arthritis. Rheum., 39, 648–656.

Murray, M. 1996. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing.

Omenn, G., et al. 1996. Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. NEJM, 334, 1150–1155.

Riggs, K., et al. 1996. Relations of vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, folate, and homocysteine to cognitive performance in the Normative Aging Study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 63, 306–314.

Bendich, A., & Langseth, L. 1995. The health effects of vitamin C supplementation: A review. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 14, 124–136.

Boucher, B., et al. 1995. Glucose intolerance and impairment of insulin secretion in relation to vitamin D deficiency in east London Asians. Diabetologia, 38, 1239–1245.

Dreosti, I. 1995. Magnesium status and health. Nutr. Rev., 53, S23–S27.

Groff, J., et al. 1995. Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.

Jie, K., et al. 1995. Vitamin K intake and osteocalcin levels in women with and without aortic atherosclerosis: A population-based study. Atherosclerosis, 116, 117-123.

Meacham, S., et al. 1995. Effect of boron supplementation on blood and urinary calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus, and urinary boron in athletic and sedentary women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 61, 341–345.

Nachbar, F., & Korting, H. 1995. The role of vitamin E in normal and damaged skin. J. Mol. Med., 73, 7–17.

Sojka, J., & Weaver, C. 1995. Magnesium supplementation and osteoporosis. Nutr. Rev., 53, 71–74.

Wilson, B., & Gondy, A. 1995. Effects of chromium supplementation on fasting insulin levels and lipid parameters in healthy, non-obese young subjects. Diabet. Res. Clin. Pract., 28, 179–184.

Barger–Lux, M., & Heaney, R. 1994. The role of calcium intake in preventing bone fragility, hypertension, and certain cancers. J. Nutr., 124, 1406S–1411S.

Bronner, F. 1994. Calcium and osteoporosis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 60, 831–836.

De Caterina R., et al. 1994. n-3 fatty acids and renal diseases. Am. J. Kidney Dis., 24, 397–415.

Masse, P., et al. 1994. Vitamin B6 deficiency experimentally-induced bone and joint disorder: Microscopic, radiographic and biochemical evidence. Br. J. Nutr., 71: 919–932.

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Abbott, L., & Rude, R. 1993. Clinical manifestations of magnesium deficiency. Miner. Electrolyte Metab. 19, 314–322.

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Our Serinisol is doctor-formulated to be complete, natural, bioavailable, and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.

The following articles and studies, arranged in order of recency, represent a sampling of the research on the constituents of Serinisol.


L-theanine . Monograph. Altern Med Rev. 2005 Jun;10(2):136-8. PubMed PMID: 15989383.

Borzelleca JF, Peters D, Hall W. A 13-week dietary toxicity and toxicokinetic study with l-theanine in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2006 Jul;44(7):1158-66. Epub 2006 Apr 26. PubMed PMID: 16759779.

Bryan J. Psychological effects of dietary components of tea: caffeine and L-theanine. Nutr Rev. 2008 Feb;66(2):82-90. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2007.00011.x. Review. PubMed PMID: 18254874.

Cho HS, Kim S, Lee SY, Park JA, Kim SJ, Chun HS. Protective effect of the green tea component, L-theanine on environmental toxins-induced neuronal cell death. Neurotoxicology. 2008 Jul;29(4):656-62. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2008.03.004. Epub 2008 Mar 20. PubMed PMID: 18452993.

Desai MJ, Armstrong DW. Analysis of derivatized and underivatized theanine enantiomers by high-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure ionization-mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2004;18(3):251-6. PubMed PMID: 14755608.

Egashira N, Hayakawa K, Mishima K, Kimura H, Iwasaki K, Fujiwara M. Neuroprotective effect of gamma-glutamylethylamide (theanine) on cerebral infarction in mice. Neurosci Lett. 2004 Jun 3;363(1):58-61. PubMed PMID: 15157996.

Eschenauer G, Sweet BV. Pharmacology and therapeutic uses of theanine. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2006 Jan 1;63(1):26, 28-30. PubMed PMID: 16373462.

Gomez-Ramirez M, Kelly SP, Montesi JL, Foxe JJ. The effects of L-theanine on alpha-band oscillatory brain activity during a visuo-spatial attention task. Brain Topogr. 2009 Jun;22(1):44-51. doi: 10.1007/s10548-008-0068-z. Epub 2008 Oct 9. PubMed PMID: 18841456.

Gomez-Ramirez M, Higgins BA, Rycroft JA, Owen GN, Mahoney J, Shpaner M, Foxe JJ. The deployment of intersensory selective attention: a high-density electrical mapping study of the effects of theanine. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jan-Feb;30(1):25-38. PubMed PMID: 17272967.

Haskell CF, Kennedy DO, Milne AL, Wesnes KA, Scholey AB. The effects of L-theanine, caffeine and their combination on cognition and mood. Biol Psychol. 2008 Feb;77(2):113-22. Epub 2007 Sep 26. PubMed PMID: 18006208.

Jang HS, Jung JY, Jang IS, Jang KH, Kim SH, Ha JH, Suk K, Lee MG. L-theanine partially counteracts caffeine-induced sleep disturbances in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2012 Apr;101(2):217-21. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2012.01.011. Epub 2012 Jan 21. PubMed PMID: 22285321.

Kakuda T, Nozawa A, Unno T, Okamura N, Okai O. Inhibiting effects of theanine on caffeine stimulation evaluated by EEG in the rat. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2000 Feb;64(2):287-93. PubMed PMID: 10737183.

Kakuda T, Hinoi E, Abe A, Nozawa A, Ogura M, Yoneda Y. Theanine, an ingredient of green tea, inhibits [3H]glutamine transport in neurons and astroglia in rat brain. J Neurosci Res. 2008 Jun;86(8):1846-56. doi: 10.1002/jnr.21637. PubMed PMID: 18293419.

Kim TI, Lee YK, Park SG, Choi IS, Ban JO, Park HK, Nam SY, Yun YW, Han SB, Oh KW, Hong JT. l-Theanine, an amino acid in green tea, attenuates beta-amyloid-induced cognitive dysfunction and neurotoxicity: reduction in oxidative damage and inactivation of ERK/p38 kinase and NF-kappaB pathways. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009 Dec 1;47(11):1601-10. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2009.09.008. Epub 2009 Sep 16. PubMed PMID: 19766184.

Kimura K, Ozeki M, Juneja LR, Ohira H. L-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responses. Biol Psychol. 2007 Jan;74(1):39-45. Epub 2006 Aug 22. PubMed PMID: 16930802.

Lu K, Gray MA, Oliver C, Liley DT, Harrison BJ, Bartholomeusz CF, Phan KL, Nathan PJ. The acute effects of L-theanine in comparison with alprazolam on anticipatory anxiety in humans. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2004 Oct;19(7):457-65. PubMed PMID: 15378679.

Lyon MR, Kapoor MP, Juneja LR. The effects of L-theanine (Suntheanine®) on objective sleep quality in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Altern Med Rev. 2011 Dec;16(4):348-54. PubMed PMID: 22214254.

Matsumoto K, Yamada H, Takuma N, Niino H, Sagesaka YM. Effects of green tea catechins and theanine on preventing influenza infection among healthcare workers: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011 Feb 21;11:15. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-15. PubMed PMID: 21338496; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3049752.Free full text

Nagasawa K, Aoki H, Yasuda E, Nagai K, Shimohama S, Fujimoto S. Possible involvement of group I mGluRs in neuroprotective effect of theanine. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Jul 16;320(1):116-22. PubMed PMID: 15207710.

Nathan PJ, Lu K, Gray M, Oliver C. The neuropharmacology of L-theanine(N-ethyl-L-glutamine): a possible neuroprotective and cognitive enhancing agent. J Herb Pharmacother. 2006;6(2):21-30. Review. PubMed PMID: 17182482.

Nobre AC, Rao A, Owen GN. L-theanine, a natural constituent in tea, and its effect on mental state. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:167-8. PubMed PMID: 18296328.

Park SK, Jung IC, Lee WK, Lee YS, Park HK, Go HJ, Kim K, Lim NK, Hong JT, Ly SY, Rho SS. A combination of green tea extract and l-theanine improves memory and attention in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. J Med Food. 2011 Apr;14(4):334-43. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2009.1374. Epub 2011 Feb 8. PubMed PMID: 21303262.

Ritsner MS, Miodownik C, Ratner Y, Shleifer T, Mar M, Pintov L, Lerner V. L-theanine relieves positive, activation, and anxiety symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-center study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011 Jan;72(1):34-42. doi: 10.4088/JCP.09m05324gre. Epub 2010 Nov 30. PubMed PMID: 21208586.

Rogers PJ, Smith JE, Heatherley SV, Pleydell-Pearce CW. Time for tea: mood, blood pressure and cognitive performance effects of caffeine and theanine administered alone and together. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008 Jan;195(4):569-77. Epub 2007 Sep 23. PubMed PMID: 17891480.

Tian X, Sun L, Gou L, Ling X, Feng Y, Wang L, Yin X, Liu Y. Protective effect of l-theanine on chronic restraint stress-induced cognitive impairments in mice. Brain Res. 2013 Mar 29;1503:24-32. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2013.01.048. Epub 2013 Feb 5. PubMed PMID: 23395732.

Unno K, Tanida N, Ishii N, Yamamoto H, Iguchi K, Hoshino M, Takeda A, Ozawa H, Ohkubo T, Juneja LR, Yamada H. Anti-stress effect of theanine on students during pharmacy practice: positive correlation among salivary a-amylase activity, trait anxiety and subjective stress. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2013 Oct;111:128-35. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2013.09.004. Epub 2013 Sep 16. PubMed PMID: 24051231.

Wise LE, Premaratne ID, Gamage TF, Lichtman AH, Hughes LD, Harris LS, Aceto MD. l-theanine attenuates abstinence signs in morphine-dependent rhesus monkeys and elicits anxiolytic-like activity in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2012 Dec;103(2):245-52. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2012.08.008. Epub 2012 Aug 23. PubMed PMID: 22935630; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3754842.

Yin C, Gou L, Liu Y, Yin X, Zhang L, Jia G, Zhuang X. Antidepressant-like effects of L-theanine in the forced swim and tail suspension tests in mice. Phytother Res. 2011 Nov;25(11):1636-9. doi: 10.1002/ptr.3456. Epub 2011 Mar 21. PubMed PMID: 21425373.

Yokogoshi H, Kobayashi M, Mochizuki M, Terashima T. Effect of theanine, r-glutamylethylamide, on brain monoamines and striatal dopamine release in conscious rats. Neurochem Res. 1998 May;23(5):667-73. PubMed PMID: 9566605.

Yokogoshi H, Terashima T. Effect of theanine, r-glutamylethylamide, on brain monoamines, striatal dopamine release and some kinds of behavior in rats. Nutrition. 2000 Sep;16(9):776-7. PubMed PMID: 10978861.

Yoto A, Motoki M, Murao S, Yokogoshi H. Effects of L-theanine or caffeine intake on changes in blood pressure under physical and psychological stresses. J Physiol Anthropol. 2012 Oct 29;31:28. doi: 10.1186/1880-6805-31-28. PubMed PMID: 23107346; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3518171.Free full text

Zukhurova M, Prosvirnina M, Daineko A, Simanenkova A, Petrishchev N, Sonin D, Galagudza M, Shamtsyan M, Juneja LR, Vlasov T. L-theanine administration results in neuroprotection and prevents glutamate receptor agonist-mediated injury in the rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Phytother Res. 2013 Sep;27(9):1282-7. doi: 10.1002/ptr.4868. Epub 2012 Oct 24. PubMed PMID: 23097345.

EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to L-theanine from Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (tea) and improvement of cognitive function (ID 1104, 1222, 1600, 1601, 1707, 1935, 2004, 2005), alleviation of psychological stress (ID 1598, 1601), maintenance of normal sleep (ID 1222, 1737, 2004) and reduction of menstrual discomfort (ID 1599) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal 2011;9(6):2238. [23 pp.]. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2011.2238. Available online: www.efsa.europa.eu/efsajournal


Jung, K., et al. 2010. Associations of serum Ca and Mg levels with mental health in adult women without psychiatric disorders. Biol. Trace Elem. Res., 133 (2), 153–161. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19543697 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Heaney, R. 2008. Calcium supplementation and incident kidney stone risk: A systematic review. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 27 (5), 519–527. URL: http://www.jacn.org/cgi/content/full/27/5/519 (accessed 01.20.2011).

Carroll, D., et al. 2000. The effects of an oral multivitamin combination with calcium, magnesium, and zinc on psychological well-being in healthy young male volunteers: A double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Psychopharmacology (Berl.), 150 (2), 220–225. URL (abstract/intro): http://www.springerlink.com/content/6vg3yg6k93rakn17/ (accessed 01.28.2011).

Thys–Jacobs, S. 2000. Micronutrients and the premenstrual syndrome: The case for calcium. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 19 (2), 220–227. URL: http://www.jacn.org/cgi/content/full/19/2/220 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Celotti, F., & Bignamini, A. 1999. Dietary calcium and mineral/vitamin supplementation: A controversial problem. J. Int. Med. Res., 27 (1), 1–14. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10417956 (accessed 01.20.2011).

Nuglozeh, E., & Roberge, A. 1998. Dietary calcium supplementation and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Biochem. Pharmacol., 53 (12), 1867–1871. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9256161 (accessed 01.20.2011).

Whiting, S., et al. 1998. Calcium supplementation. J. Am. Acad. Nurse Pract., 9 (4), 187–192. URL (abstract):http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9274239 (accessed 01.20.2011).

Thys–Jacobs, S., et al. 1998. Calcium carbonate and the premenstrual syndrome: Effects on premenstrual and menstrual symptoms. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 179 (2), 444–452. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9731851 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Penland, J., & Johnson, P. 1993. Dietary calcium and manganese effects on menstrual cycle symptoms. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 168 (5), 1417–1423. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8498421 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Thys–Jacobs, S., et al. 1989. Calcium supplementation in premenstrual syndrome: a randomized crossover trial. J. Gen. Intern. Med., 4 (3), 183–189. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2656936 (accessed 02.09.2011).


Garalejic, E., et al. 2010. Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) in infertile women with endometriosis and its correlation with magnesium levels in peritoneal fluid. Psychiatr. Danub., 22 (1), 64–67. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20305593 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Jung, K., et al. 2010. Associations of serum Ca and Mg levels with mental health in adult women without psychiatric disorders. Biol. Trace Elem. Res., 133 (2), 153–161. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19543697 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Lakhan, S., & Vieira, K. 2010. Nutritional and herbal supplements for anxiety and anxiety-related disorders: Systematic review. Nutr. J., 9 (1), 42. URL: http://www.nutritionj.com/content/9/1/42 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Nielsen, F., et al. 2010. Magnesium supplementation improves indicators of low magnesium status and inflammatory stress in adults older than 51 years with poor quality sleep. Magnes. Res., 23 (4), 158–168. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21199787 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Jacka, F., et al. 2009. Association between magnesium intake and depression and anxiety in community-dwelling adults: The Hordaland Health Study. Aust. NZ J. Psychiatry, 43 (1), 45–52. URL (abstract):http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19085527 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Muroyama, A., et al. 2009. Enhanced susceptibility to MPTP neurotoxicity in magnesium-deficient C57BL/6N mice. Neurosci. Res., 63 (1), 72–75. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18977253 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Poleszak, E. 2008. Benzodiazepine/GABA(A) receptors are involved in magnesium-induced anxiolytic-like behavior in mice. Pharmacol. Rep., 60 (4), 483–489. URL (PDF): http://www.if-pan.krakow.pl/pjp/pdf/2008/4_483.pdf (accessed 02.09.2011).

Poleszak, E., et al. 2008. NMDA/glutamate mechanism of magnesium-induced anxiolytic-like behavior in mice. Pharmacol. Rep., 60 (5), 655–663. URL (PDF): http://www.if-pan.krakow.pl/pjp/pdf/2008/5_655.pdf (accessed 02.09.2011).

Spasov, A., et al. 2008. [Depression-like and anxiety-related behaviour of rats fed with magnesium-deficient diet]. Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deiat Im. IP Pavlova, 58 (4), 476–485. Russian. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18825946 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Eby, G., & Eby, K. 2006. Rapid recovery from major depression using magnesium treatment. Med. Hypotheses, 67 (2), 362–370. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16542786 (accessed 02.09.2011).

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Babenko, N., & Semenova, Y. 2011. Effects of exogenous phosphatidylserine on cognitive functions and phospholipid metabolism in the hippocampus of aged rats. Neurosci. Behav. Physiol., 41 (1), 97–101. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21153489 (accessed 02.15.2011).

Hoffman, J., et al. 2010. The effects of acute and prolonged CRAM supplementation on reaction time and subjective measures of focus and alertness in healthy college students. J. Int. Soc. Sports Nutr., 7 (1), 39. URL: http://www.jissn.com/content/7/1/39 (accessed 02.15.2011).

Kato–Kataoka, A., et al. 2010. Soybean-derived phosphatidylserine improves memory function of the elderly Japanese subjects with memory complaints. J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr., 47 (3), 246–255. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jcbn/47/3/47_246/_article (accessed 02.15.2010).

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Vakhapova, V., et al. 2010. Phosphatidylserine containing omega-3 fatty acids may improve memory abilities in non-demented elderly with memory complaints: A double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Dement. Geriatr. Cogn. Disord., 29 (5), 467–474. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20523044 (accessed 02.15.2011).

Araujo, J., et al. 2008. Improvement of short-term memory performance in aged beagles by a nutraceutical supplement containing phosphatidylserine, Ginkgo biloba, vitamin E, and pyridoxine. Can. Vet. J., 49 (4), 379–385. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2275342/?tool=pubmed (accessed 02.16.2011).

Baumeister, J., et al. 2008. Influence of phosphatidylserine on cognitive performance and cortical activity after induced stress. Nutr. Neurosci., 11 (3), 103–110. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18616866 (accessed 02.16.2011).

[No authors listed.] 2008. Phosphatidylserine. Monograph. Altern. Med. Rev., 13 (3), 245–247. URL (PDF): http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/13/3/245.pdf (accessed 02.15.2011).

Starks, M., et al. 2008. The effects of phosphatidylserine on endocrine response to moderate intensity exercise. J. Int. Soc. Sports Nutr., 5 (1), 11. URL: http://www.jissn.com/content/5/1/11 (accessed 01.20.2011).

Jäger, R., et al. 2007. The effect of phosphatidylserine on golf performance. J. Int. Soc. Sports Nutr., 4 (1), 23. URL: http://www.jissn.com/content/4/1/23 (accessed 02.16.2011).

Kingsley, M., et al. 2006. Effects of phosphatidylserine on exercise capacity during cycling in active males. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 38 (1), 64–71. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16394955 (accessed 02.16.2011).

Kingsley, M. 2006. Effects of phosphatidylserine supplementation on exercising humans. Sports Med., 36 (8), 657–69. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16869708 (accessed 02.16.2011).

Kataoka–Kato, A., et al. 2005. Enhanced learning of normal adult rodents by repeated oral administration of soybean transphosphatidylated phosphatidylserine. J. Pharmacol. Sci., 98, 307–314. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jphs/98/3/98_307/_article (accessed 02.16.2011).

Kingsley, M., et al. 2005. Effects of phosphatidylserine on oxidative stress following intermittent running. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 37 (8), 1300–1306. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16118575 (accessed 02.16.2011).

Hellhammer, J., et al. 2004. Effects of soy lecithin phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine complex (PAS) on the endocrine and psychological responses to mental stress. Stress, 7 (2), 119–126. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15512856 (accessed 01.31.2011).

McDaniel, M., et al. 2003. “Brain-specific” nutrients: A memory cure? Nutrition, 19 (11–12), 957–975. URL (PDF): http://www.psychologicalscience.org/journals/pspi/pdf/pspi312.pdf (accessed 01.31.2011).

Jorissen, B., et al. 2002. Safety of soy-derived phosphatidylserine in elderly people. Nutr. Neurosci., 5 (5), 337–343. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12385596 (accessed 01.20.2011).

Benton, D. et al. 2001. The influence of phosphatidylserine supplementation on mood and heart rate when faced with an acute stressor. Nutr. Neurosci., 4 (3), 169–178. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11842886 (accessed 01.20.2011).

Suzuki, S., et al. 2001. Oral administration of soybean lecithin transphophatidylate phosphatidylserine improves memory impairment in aged rats. J. Nutr., 131, 2951–2956. URL: http://jn.nutrition.org/content/131/11/2951.long (accessed 02.18.2011).

Blokland, A., et al. 1999. Cognition-enhancing properties of subchronic phosphatidylserine (PS) treatment in middle-aged rats: Comparison of bovine cortex PS with egg PS and soybean PS. Nutrition, 15 (10), 778–783. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10501292 (accessed 02.07.2011).

Kelly, G. 1999. Nutritional and botanical interventions to assist with the adaptation to stress. Altern. Med. Rev., 4 (4), 249–265. URL (PDF): http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/4/4/249.pdf (accessed 01.20.2011).

Fahey, T., & Pearl, M. 1998. The hormonal and perceptive effects of phosphatidylserine administration during two weeks of resistive exercise-induced overtraining. Biol. Sport, 15, 135–144.

Furushiro, M., et al. 1997. Effects of oral administration of soybean lecithin transphosphatidylated phosphatidylserine on impaired learning of passive avoidance in mice. Jpn. J. Pharmacol., 75, 447–450. URL: http://www.journalarchive.jst.go.jp/english/jnlabstract_en.php?cdjournal=jphs1951&cdvol=75&noissue=4&startpage=447 (accessed 02.18.2011).

Pepeu, G., et al. 1996. A review of phosphatidylserine pharmacological and clinical effects. Is phosphatidylserine a drug for the ageing brain? Pharmacol Res., 33 (2), 73–80. URL (no abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8870022 (accessed 02.18.2011).

Cenacchi, B., et al. 1993. Cognitive decline in the elderly: A double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study on efficacy of phosphatidylserine administration. Aging, 5 (2), 123–133. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8323999 (accessed 02.18.2011).

Cohen, S., & Muller, W. 1992. Age-related alterations of NMDA-receptor properties in the mouse forebrain: Partial restoration by chronic phosphatidylserine treatment. Brain Res., 584, 174–180. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1355390 (accessed 02.01.2011).

Crook, T., et al. 1992. Effects of phosphatidylserine in Alzheimer’s disease. Psychopharmacol. Bull, 28 (1), 61–66. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1609044 (accessed 02.18.2011).

Engel, R., et al. 1992. Double-blind cross-over study of phosphatidylserine vs. placebo in patients with early dementia of the Alzheimer type. Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol., 2 (2), 149–155. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1633433 (accessed 02.18.2011).

Monteleone, P., et al. 1992. Blunting by chronic phosphatidylserine administration of the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy men. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol., 42 (4), 385–388. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1325348 (accessed 01.31.2011).

Casamenti, F., et al. 1991. Phosphatidyl serine reverses the age-dependent decrease in cortical acetylcholine release: A microdialysis study. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 194 (1), 11–16. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2060587 (accessed 02.01.2011).

Crook, T., et al. 1991. Effects of Phosphatidylserine in age-associated memory impairment. Neurol., 41 (5), 644–649. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2027477 (accessed 02.18.2011).

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Klinkhammer, P., et al. 1990. Effect of phosphatidylserine on cerebral glucose metabolism in Alzheimer’s disease. Dementia, 1, 197–201. URL (abstract): http://content.karger.com/ProdukteDB/produkte.asp?Doi=107142 (accessed 02.08.2011).

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Passionflower (Passiflora incarnata)

Ngan, A., & Conduit, R. 2011. A double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the effects of Passiflora incarnata (passionflower) herbal tea on subjective sleep quality. Phytother. Res. [Epub ahead of print]. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21294203 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Natural Standard. 2011. Passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.). Professional monograph. URL (subscription required): http://naturalstandard.com/databases/herbssupplements/all/passionflower.asp (accessed 01.31.2011).

Appel, K., et al. 2010. Modulation of the ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system by Passiflora incarnata L. Phytother. Res. [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21089181 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Boeira, J., et al. 2010. Toxicity and genotoxicity evaluation of Passiflora alata Curtis (Passifloraceae). J. Ethnopharmacol., 128 (2), 526–532. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&cmd=prlinks&retmode=ref&id=19799991 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Cravotto, G., et al. 2010. Phytotherapeutics: An evaluation of the potential of 1000 plants. J. Clin. Pharm. Ther., 35 (1), 11–48. Review. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20175810 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Deng, J., et al. 2010. Anxiolytic and sedative activities of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa. J. Ethnopharmacol., 128, 148–153. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&cmd=prlinks&retmode=ref&id=20051259 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Elsas, S., et al. 2010. Passiflora incarnata L. (Passionflower) extracts elicit GABA currents in hippocampal neurons in vitro, and show anxiogenic and anticonvulsant effects in vivo, varying with extraction method. Phytomedicine, 17 (12), 940–949. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20382514 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Faustino, T., et al. 2010. [Medicinal plants for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: A review of controlled clinical studies.] Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr., 32 (4), 429–436. URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462010000400017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en (accessed 02.14.2011).

Fiebich, B., et al. 2010. Pharmacological studies in an herbal drug combination of St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) and passion flower (Passiflora incarnata): In vitro and in vivo evidence of synergy between Hypericum and Passiflora in antidepressant pharmacological models. Fitoterapia [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21185920 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Holbik, M., et al. 2010. Apparently no sedative benzoflavone moiety in passiflorae herba. Planta Med., 76 (7), 662–664. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20301055 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Lakhan, S., & Vieira, K. 2010. Nutritional and herbal supplements for anxiety and anxiety-related disorders: Systematic review. Nutr. J., 9 (1), 42. URL: http://www.nutritionj.com/content/9/1/42 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Sampath, C., et al. 2010. Anxiolytic effects of fractions obtained from Passiflora incarnata L. in the elevated plus maze in mice. Phytother. Res. [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21077264 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Wohlmuth, H., et al. 2010. Pharmacognosy and chemotypes of passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.). Biol. Pharm. Bull., 33 (6), 1015–1018. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/33/6/33_1015/_article (accessed 09.28.2010).

Carrasco, M., et al. 2009. Interactions of Valeriana officinalis L. and Passiflora incarnata L. in a patient treated with lorazepam. Phytother. Res., 23 (12), 1795–1796. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19441067 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Grundmann, O., et al. 2009. Anxiolytic effects of a passion flower (Passiflora incarnata L.) extract in the elevated plus maze in mice. Pharmazie, 64 (1), 63–64. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19216234 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Tabach, R., et al. 2009. Preclinical toxicological assessment of a phytotherapeutic product — CPV (based on dry extracts of Crataegus oxyacantha L., Passiflora incarnata L., and Valeriana officinalis L.). Phytother. Res., 23 (1), 33–40. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19048610 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Weeks, B. 2009. Formulations of dietary supplements and herbal extracts for relaxation and anxiolytic action: Relarian. Med. Sci. Monit., 15 (11), RA256–RA262. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19865069 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Barbosa, P., et al. 2008. The aqueous extracts of Passiflora alata and Passiflora edulis reduce anxiety-related behaviors without affecting memory process in rats. J. Med. Food, 11 (2), 282–288. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18598170 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Beaumont, D., et al. 2008. The effects of chrysin, a Passiflora incarnata extract, on natural killer cell activity in male Sprague–Dawley rats undergoing abdominal surgery. AANA J., 76 (2), 113–117. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18478816 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Grundmann, O., et al. 2008. Anxiolytic activity of a phytochemically characterized Passiflora incarnata extract is mediated via the GABAergic system. Planta Med., 74 (15), 1769–1773. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19006051 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Masteikova, R., et al. 2008. Antiradical activities of the extract of Passiflora incarnata. Acta Pol. Pharm., 65 (5), 577–583. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19051605 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Movafegh, A., et al. 2008. Preoperative oral Passiflora incarnata reduces anxiety in ambulatory surgery patients: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Anesth. Analg., 106 (6), 1728–1732. URL: http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/106/6/1728.long (accessed 01.28.2011).

Nassiri–Asl, M., et al. 2008. Possible role of GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor in anticonvulsant effects of Pasipay in rats. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao, 6 (11), 1170–1173. URL: http://www.jcimjournal.com/en/showAbstrPage.aspx?articleid=167219772008111170 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Rodriguez–Fragoso, L., et al. 2008. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in México. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 227 (1), 125–135. URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2322858/?tool=pubmed (accessed 02.14.2011).

Zhai, K., et al. 2008. Chrysin induces hyperalgesia via the GABAA receptor in mice. Planta Med., 74 (10), 1229–1234. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18612941 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Brown, E., et al. 2007. Evaluation of the anxiolytic effects of chrysin, a Passiflora incarnata extract, in the laboratory rat. AANA J., 75 (5), 333–337. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17966676 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Lolli, L., et al. 2007. Possible involvement of GABA A-benzodiazepine receptor in the anxiolytic-like effect induced by Passiflora actinia extracts in mice. J. Ethnopharmacol., 111 (2), 308–314. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17196350 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Miyasaka, L., et al. 2007. Passiflora for anxiety disorder. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. (1), CD004518. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17253512 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Nassiri-Asl, M., et al. 2007. Anticonvulsant effects of aerial parts of Passiflora incarnata extract in mice: Involvement of benzodiazepine and opioid receptors. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 7, 26. URL: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/7/26 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Sarris, J. 2007. Herbal medicines in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: A systematic review. Phytother. Res., 21 (8), 703–716. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17562566 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Capasso, A., & Sorrentino, L. 2005. Pharmacological studies on the sedative and hypnotic effect of kava kava and Passiflora extracts combination. Phytomedicine, 12 (1–2), 39–45. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15693706 (accessed 02.14.2011).

[No authors listed.] 2005. Management of insomnia: A place for traditional herbal remedies. Prescrire Int., 14 (77), 104–107. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15984105 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Santos, K., et al. 2005. Passiflora actinia Hooker extracts and fractions induce catalepsy in mice. J. Ethnopharmacol., 100 (3), 306–309. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15882936 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Ulbricht, C., & Basch, E., Eds. 2005. Natural Standard Herb & Supplement Reference: Evidence-based Clinical Reviews. Natural Standard Research Collaboration. NY: Elsevier Mosby.

Dhawan, K., et al. 2004. Passiflora: A review update. J. Ethnopharmacol., 94 (1), 1–23. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15261959 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Peeters, E., et al. 2004. Effect of supplemental tryptophan, vitamin E, and a herbal product on responses by pigs to vibration. J. Anim. Sci., 82 (8), 2410–2420. URL: http://jas.fass.org/cgi/content/full/82/8/2410 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Wheatley, D. 2005. Medicinal plants for insomnia: A review of their pharmacology, efficacy and tolerability. J. Psychopharmacol., 19 (4), 414–421. Review. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15982998 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Hidaka, M., et al. 2004. Potent inhibition by star fruit of human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity. Drug Metab. Dispos., 32 (6), 581–583. URL: http://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/32/6/581.long (accessed 01.28.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2003. Attenuation of benzodiazepine dependence in mice by a tri-substituted benzoflavone moiety of Passiflora incarnata Linnaeus: A non-habit forming anxiolytic. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci., 6 (2), 215–222. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12935433 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Dhawan, K. 2003. Drug/substance reversal effects of a novel tri-substituted benzoflavone moiety (BZF) isolated from Passiflora incarnata Linn. — a brief perspective. Addict. Biol., 8 (4), 379–386. Review. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14690874 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Dhawan, K., & Sharma, A. 2003. Restoration of chronic-Delta 9-THC-induced decline in sexuality in male rats by a novel benzoflavone moiety from Passiflora incarnata Linn. Br. J. Pharmacol., 138 (1), 117–120. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1573641/?tool=pubmed (accessed 02.09.2011).

Dhawan, K., & Sharma, A. 2002. Antitussive activity of the methanol extract of Passiflora incarnata leaves. Fitoterapia, 73 (5), 397–399. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12165335 (accessed 02.15.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2002. Beneficial effects of chrysin and benzoflavone on virility in 2-year-old male rats. J. Med. Food, 5 (1), 43–48. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12511112 (accessed 02.15.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2002. Comparative anxiolytic activity profile of various preparations of Passiflora incarnata Linneaus: A comment on medicinal plants’ standardization. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 8 (3), 283–291. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12165186 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2002. Nicotine reversal effects of the benzoflavone moiety from Passiflora incarnata Linneaus in mice. Addict. Biol., 7 (4), 435–441. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14690874 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2002. Reversal of cannabinoids (delta9-THC) by the benzoflavone moiety from methanol extract of Passiflora incarnata Linnaeus in mice: A possible therapy for cannabinoid addiction. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 54 (6), 875–881. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12244887 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2002. Suppression of alcohol-cessation-oriented hyper-anxiety by the benzoflavone moiety of Passiflora incarnata Linnaeus in mice. J. Ethnopharmacol., 81 (2), 239–244. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12065157 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Krenn, L. 2002. [Passion Flower (Passiflora incarnata L.) — a reliable herbal sedative.] Wien Med. Wochenschr., 152 (15–16), 404–406. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12244887 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Akhondzadeh, S., et al. 2001a. Passionflower in the treatment of opiates withdrawal: A double-blind randomized controlled trial. J. Clin. Pharm. Ther., 26 (5), 369–373. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11679027 (accessed 02.14.2011).

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