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Hormonal Stress Combo

Hormonal Stress Combo

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Hormonal Stress Combo

Menopause is challenging by itself but when you’re also dealing with stress symptoms and adrenal imbalance, your symptoms can increase exponentially and their severity and frequency can be magnified. Fluctuating hormones in menopause and their aftereffects can cause severe symptoms like hot flashes, fatigue, irritability and insomnia. Adrenal hormonal balance can also become impaired due to stress, leading to anxiety, fuzzy thinking, weight gain and moodiness. All this on top of your menopause symptoms! Our Hormonal Stress Combo includes both Herbal Equilibrium (menopause symptoms) and Adaptisol (adrenal stress issues) to help resolve both imbalances simultaneously for better, longer-lasting relief.

What you get with the Combo:

Herbal Equilibrium — our landmark supplement is formulated with a diverse array of herbal extracts to help relieve menopause symptoms caused by fluctuations in estrogen, testosterone and progesterone.

Herbal Equilibrium contains:

  • Black cohosh, red clover and kudzu — for hormonal balance, and hot flashes and night sweats.
  • Passionflower, chasteberry and wild yam — for irritability, anxiety and insomnia.
  • Ashwagandha — for hormonal balance and low libido.

Adaptisol — this natural adrenal support formula addresses the most common stress symptoms and helps restore healthy, balanced cortisol levels.

Adaptisol contains adaptogenic herbs including:

  • Astragalus root — for immune system support and protection against physical, mental or emotional stress.
  • Siberian Ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) — for energy and enhanced mental clarity.
  • Rhodiola — for reduced fatigue and enhanced immune function.
  • Cordyceps — for overall good health and protection from free-radical damage.

How to use:

For Herbal Equilibrium: we recommend taking two tablets per day — one with breakfast and one with dinner. This herbal supplement is formulated to reduce and relieve a broad spectrum of menopause symptoms within 30 days.

For Adaptisol: we recommend taking four tablets a day — two with breakfast or lunch and two with dinner.

We recommend using both formulas until you have been symptom-free for at least 30 days. Within 60 days, you should notice a significant reduction in the frequency and severity of your symptoms. For best results, it’s essential to use both products together regularly every day as directed, especially if your symptoms are severe.

This Hormonal Stress Combo is intended to last a full 30 days.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
Hormonal Stress Combo Ingredients

Product References

Herbal Equilibrium

Our Herbal Equilibrium is doctor-formulated to be complete, natural, bioavailable, and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.

The following articles, reviews and studies, arranged in order of ingredient and recency, provide information concerning the clinical basis for using Herbal Equilibrium. Click on the ingredients listed below to review pertinent studies and articles.


Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera / W. ashwagandha)

Alam, N., et al. 2011. High catechin concentrations detected in Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 11, 65. URL: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/11/65 (accessed 09.23.2011).

Kumar, A., et al. 2011. Utility of a multidisciplinary approach for genome diagnostics of cultivated and wild germplasm resources of medicinal Withania somnifera, and the status of new species, W. ashwagandha, in the cultivated taxon URL: http://www.springerlink.com/content/g12001h123tk2876/ (accessed 09.06.2011).

Sinha, S., et al. 2011. In vivo anti-tussive activity and structural features of a polysaccharide fraction from water extracted Withania somnifera. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Mar 24;134 (2), 510-513. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21182915 (accessed 09.23.2011).

“CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a scientific basis for the past and present ethnomedical uses of this plant.”

Dog, T. 2010. Smart Talk on supplements and botanicals: Ginseng and other adaptogenic herbs. Alt. Complement. Ther., 16 (1), 1–4. URL (paid access): http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/act.2010.16101 (accessed 01.17.2011).

Ven Murthy, M., et al. 2010. Scientific basis for the use of Indian ayurvedic medicinal plants in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders: Ashwagandha. Cent. Nerv. Syst. Agents Med. Chem., 10 (3), 238-246. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20528765 (accessed 09.23.2011).

Yadav, B., et al. 2010. In vitro anticancer activity of the root, stem and leaves of Withania somnifera against various human cancer cell lines. Indian J. Pharm. Sci., 72 (5), 659-663. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3116319/?tool=pubmed (accessed 09.23.2011).

Widido, N., et al. 2007. Selective killing of cancer cells by leaf extract of Ashwagandha: Identification of a tumor-inhibitory factor and the first molecular insights to its effect. Clin. Cancer Res., 13 (7), 2298–2306. URL: http://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/13/7/2298.long (accessed 02.23.2011).

Naidu, P., et al. 2006. Effect of Withania somnifera root extract on reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia and cognitive dysfunction. Phytother. Res., 20 (2), 140–146. URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1038/sj.bjp.0706122/full (accessed 02.23.2011).

Winters, M. 2006. Ancient medicine, modern use: Withania somnifera and its potential role in integrative oncology. Altern. Med. Rev., 11 (4), 269-277. URL (PDF): http://www.altmedrev.com/publications/11/4/269.pdf (accessed 09.23.2011).

“…As modern medicine continues to expand, so do the uses of botanical medicines. Withania somnifera shows great potential as a safe and effective antineoplastic agent.”

Kuboyama, T., et al. 2005. Neuritic regeneration and synaptic reconstruction induced by withanolide A. Br. J. Pharmacol., 144 (7), 961–971. URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1038/sj.bjp.0706122/full (accessed 02.23.2011).

Misra, L., et al. 2005. Unusually sulfated and oxygenated steroids from Withania somnifera. Phytochemistry, 66, 2702–2707. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16293277 (accessed 02.23.2011).

[No authors listed.] 2004. Monograph. Withania somnifera. Altern. Med. Rev., 9 (2), 211–214. URL: http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/9/2/211.pdf (accessed 02.23.2011).

Sreerekha, M., et al. 2004. Distribution of total withanolides in various plant parts of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) accessions as influenced by light and dark reaction cycle. J. Med. Aromatic Plant Sci., 26, 681–683. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.06.2011).

Bhattacharya, S., & Muruganandam, A. 2003. Adaptogenic activity of Withania somnifera: An experimental study using a rat model of chronic stress. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 75, 547–555. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12895672 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Iuvone, T., et al. 2003. Induction of nitric oxide synthase expression by Withania somnifera macrophages. Life Sci., 72 (14), 1617-1625. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12551750 (accessed 01.25.2011).

Ilayperuma, I., et al. 2002. Effect of Withania somnifera root extract on the sexual behaviour of male rats. Asian J. Androl., 4, 295–298. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12508132 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Rajpal, V. 2002. Standardization of botanicals. New Delhi: Eastern Publishers.

Abdel–Magied, E., et al. 2001. The effect of aqueous extracts of Cynomorium coccineum and Withania somnifera on testicular development in immature Wistar rats. J. Ethnopharmacol., 75 (1), 1–4. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11282435 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Dhuley, J. 2001. Nootropic-like effect of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L.) in mice. Phytother Res., 15 (6), 524–528. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11536383 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Jain, S., et al. 2001. Neuroprotective effects of Withania somnifera Dunn. in hippocampal sub-regions of female albino rat. Phytother. Res., 15 (6), 544–548. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11536389 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Singh, B., et al. 2001. Adaptogenic activity of a glyco-peptido-lipid fraction from the alcoholic extract of Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn. Phytomedicine, 8, 283–291. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11515718 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Singh, G., et al. 2001. Adaptogenic activity of a novel, withanolide-free aqueous fraction from the roots of Withania somnifera Dunn. Phytother. Res., 15 (4), 311–318. URL (PDF): http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.prxy3.ursus.maine.edu/doi/10.1002/ptr.858/pdf (accessed 02.24.2011).

Battacharya, S., et al. 2000. Anxiolytic-antidepressant activity of Withania somnifera glycowithanolides: An experimental study. Phytomedicine, 7 (6), 463–469. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11194174 (accessed 01.25.2011).

Dhuley, J. 2000. Adaptogenic and cardioprotective action of ashwagandha in rats and frogs. J. Ethnopharmacol., 70 (1), 57–63. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10720789 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Mishra, L-C., et al. 2000. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Withania somnifera (ashwagandha): A review. Altern. Med. Rev., 5 (4), 334–346. URL (PDF): http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/5/4/334.pdf (accessed 02.23.2011).

Archana, R., & Namasivayam, A. 1999. Antistressor effect of Withania somnifera. J. Ethnopharmcol., 64 (1), 91–93. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10075127 (accessed 01.26.2011).

Rege, N.-N., et al. 1999. Adaptogenic properties of six rasayana herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine. Phytother Res., 13 (4), 275–291. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10404532 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Schauss, A., et al. 1998. Therapeutic applications of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) — popular ayurvedic botanical medicine. Nat. Med. J., 1, 16–19.

Schliebs, R., et al. 1997. Systemic administration of defined extracts from Withania somnifera (Indian Ginseng) and Shilajit differentially affects cholinergic but not glutamatergic and GABAnergic markers in rat brain. Neurochem. Int., 30 (2), 181–190. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9017665 (accessed 02.23.2011).

al-Hindawi, M., et al. 1992. Anti-granuloma activity of Iraqi Withania somnifera. J. Ethnopharmacol., 37 (2), 113–116. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/143685 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Mehta, A., et al. 1991. Pharmacologic effects of Withania somnifera root extract on GABAA receptor complex. Indian J. Med. Res., 94, 312–315. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1660034 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Singh, N., et al. 1982. Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), a rejuvenating herbal drug which enhances survival during stress (an adaptogen). Int. J. Crude Drug Res., 20, 29–35.


Black cohosh (Cimicifuga / Actaea racemosa)

Jiang, B., et al. 2011. Phytochemical fingerprinting to thwart black cohosh adulteration: A 16 Actaea species analysis. Phytochem. Anal. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pca.1285/abstract (accessed 03.14.2011).

Shams, T., et al. 2010. Efficacy of black cohosh-containing preparations on menopausal symptoms: A meta-analysis. Alt. Ther., 16 (1), 36–44. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20085176 (accessed 01.08.2010).

Einbond, L., et al. 2009. Actein activates stress- and statin-associated responses and is bioavailable in Sprague–Dawley rats. Fundam. Clin. Pharmacol., 23 (3), 311–3212. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19527300 (accessed 02.02.2010).

Geller, S., et al. 2009. Safety and efficacy of black cohosh and red clover for the management of vasomotor symptoms: A randomized controlled trial. Menopause, 16 (6), 1156–1166. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19609225 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Palacio C., et al. 2009. Black cohosh for the management of menopausal symptoms: A systematic review of clinical trials. Drugs Aging, 26 (1), 23–36. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19102512 (accessed 01.30.2009).

Wong, V., et al. 2009. Current alternative and complementary therapies used in menopause. Gynecol. Endocrinol., 25 (3), 166–174. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19347706 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Borelli, F., & Ernst, E. 2008. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) for menopausal symptoms: A systematic review of its efficacy. Pharmacol. Res., 58 (1), 8-14. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18585461 (accessed 01.30.2009).

Ju, Y., et al. 2008. A dietary supplement for female sexual dysfunction, Avlimil, stimulates the growth of estrogen-dependcnt breast tumors (MCF-7) implanted in ovariectomized athymic nude mice. Food Chern. Toxicol., 46, 310-320. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17919800 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Mahady, G., et al. 2008. United States Pharmacopeia review of the black cohosh case reports of hepatotoxicity. Menopause, 15 (4 Pt. 1), 628-638. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18340277 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Rachón, D., et al. 2008. Effects of black cohosh extract on body weight gain, intra-abdominal fat accumulation, plasma lipids and glucose tolerance in ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats. Maturitas, 60 (3–4), 209–215. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18691839 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Reed, S., et al. 2008. Vaginal, endometrial, and reproductive hormone findings: Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of black cohosh, multibotanical herbs and dietary soy for vasomotor symptoms: The Herbal Alternatives for Menopause (HALT) study. Menopause, 15 (1), 51–58. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18257142 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Kanadys, W., et al. 2008. [Efficacy and safety of black cohosh (Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa) in the treatment of vasomotor symptoms — review of clinical trials.] Ginekol. Pol., 79 (4), 287–296. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18592868 (accessed 01.30.2009).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2008. Phytoestrogens: Endocrine disrupters or replacement for hormone replacement therapy? Maturitas, 61 (1–2), 159–170. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19434888 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Bai, W., et al. 2007. Efficacy and tolerability of a medicinal product containing an isopropanolic black cohosh extract in Chinese women with menopausal symptoms: A randomized, double blind, parallel-controlled study versus tibolone. Maturitas. [Epub ahead of print.]

Cheema, D., et al. 2007. Non-hormonal therapy of post-menopausal vasomotor symptoms: A structured evidence-based review. Arch. Gynecol. Obstet., 276 (5), 463–469. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17593379 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Chu, W. et al. 2007. Association between CYP3A4 genotype and risk of endometrial cancer following tamoxifen use. Carcinogenesis, 28 (10), 2139–2142. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17434921 (accessed 06.26.2007).

Meyer, S. et al. 2007. Cutaneous pseudolymphoma induced by Cimicifuga racemosa. Dermatology, 214 (1), 94–96. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17191056 (accessed 01.18.2011).

Nisslein, T. & Freudenstein, J. 2007. Coadministration of the aromatase inhibitor formestane and an isopropanolic extract of black cohosh in a rat model of chemically induced mammary carcinoma. Planta Med., 73 (4), 318–322. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17354167 (accessed 06.27.2007).

Rebbeck, T. et al. 2007. A retrospective case-control study of the use of hormone-related supplements and association with breast cancer. Int. J. Cancer., 120 (7), 1523-1528. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17205521 (accessed 06.27.2007).

Ruhlen, R., et al. 2007. Black cohosh does not exert an estrogenic effect on the breast. Nutr. Cancer, 59 (2), 269–277. URL (abstract): http://www.leaonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01635580701506968 (accessed 11.28.2007).

Spangler, L., et al. 2007. The effects of black cohosh therapies on lipids, fibrinogen, glucose and insulin. Maturitas, 57 (2), 195–204. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17275226 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Walji, R., et al. 2007. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa [L.] Nutt.): Safety and efficacy for cancer patients. Support. Care Cancer, 15 (8), 913–921. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17602247 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Zepelin, H. et al. 2007. Isopropanolic black cohosh extract and recurrence-free survival after breast cancer. Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 45 (3), 143–154. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17416109 (accessed 06.26.2007).

Carroll, D. 2006. Nonhormonal therapies for hot flashes in menopause. Am. Fam. Physician, 73 (3), 457–464. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16477892 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Li, J., & Yu, Z. 2006. Cimicifugae rhizoma: From origins, bioactive constituents to clinical outcomes. Curr. Med. Chem., 13 (24), 2927–2951. URL: (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17073639 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Minciullo, P., et al. 2006. Muscle damage induced by black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa). Phytomedicine, 13, 115–118. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16360941 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Newton, K., et al. 2006. Treatment of vasomotor symptoms of menopause with black cohosh, multibotanicals, soy, hormone therapy, or placebo: A randomized trial. Ann. Intern. Med., 145, 869–879. URL: (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17179056 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Letters to the editor. 2007. Ann. Int. Med., 147 (5), 347. URL (PDF): http://www.annals.org/content/147/5/347.1.full.pdf+html (accessed 10.17.2007).

Pockaj, B. et al. 2006. Phase III double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial of black cohosh in the management of hot flashes: NCCTG Trial N01CC1. J. Clin. Oncol., 24 (18), 2836–2841. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16782922 (accessed 06.27.2007).

Radowicki, S., et al. 2006. [Effectiveness and safety of the treatment of menopausal syndrome with Cimicifuga racemosa dry extract.] Ginekol. Pol., 77 (9), 678–683. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17219796 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Raus, K., et al. 2006. First-time proof of endometrial safety of the special black cohosh extract (Actaea or Cimicifuga racemosa extract) CR BNO 1055. Menopause, 13 (4), 678–691. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16837890 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2006. Effects of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) on bone turnover, vaginal mucosa, and various blood parameters in postmenopausal women: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, and conjugated estrogens-controlled study. Menopause, 13 (2), 185–196. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16645532 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Frei-Kleiner, S., et al. 2005. Cimicifuga racemosa dried ethanolic extract in menopausal disorders: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Maturitas, 51, 397–404. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16039414 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Low Dog, T. 2005. Menopause: A review of botanical dietary supplements. Am. J. Med., 118 (Suppl. 12B), 98–108. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16414334 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Mahady, G. 2005. Black cohosh (Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa): Review of the clinical data for safety and efficacy in menopausal symptoms. Treat. Endocrinol., 4 (3), 177–184. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15898823 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Nappi, R., et al. 2005. Efficacy of Cimicifuga racemosa on climacteric complaints: A randomized study versus low-dose transdermal estradiol. Gynecol. Endocrinol., 20, 30–35. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15969244 (accessed 02.23.2011).

Ulbricht, C., & Basch, E., Eds. 2005. Natural Standard Herb & Supplement Reference: Evidence-based Clinical Reviews. Natural Standard Research Collaboration. NY: Elsevier Mosby.

Vermes, G., et al. 2005. The effects of Remifemin on subjective symptoms of menopause. Adv. Ther., 22 (2), 148–154. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16020404 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Viereck, V., et al. 2005. Black cohosh: Just another phytoestrogen? Trends Endocrinol. Metab., 16 (5), 214-221. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15927480 (accessed 01.25.2011).

Pockaj, B., et al. 2004. Pilot evaluation of black cohosh for the treatment of hot flashes in women. Cancer Invest., 22 (4), 515–521. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15565808 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Cohen, S., et al. 2004. Autoimmune hepatitis associated with the use of black cohosh: A case study. Menopause, 11, 575–577. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15356412 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Nisslein, T., & Freudenstein, J. 2004. Concomitant administration of an isopropanolic extract of black cohosh and tamoxifen in the in vivo tumor model of implanted RUCA-I rat endometrial adenocarcinoma cells. Toxicol. Lett., 150 (3), 271–275. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15110078 (accessed 06.26.2007).

Lontos, S., et al. 2003. Acute liver failure associated with the use of herbal preparations containing black cohosh. Med. J. Aust., 179, 390–391. URL: http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/179_07_061003/letters_061003_fm-2.html (accessed 02.24.2011).

Bland, J. 2003. Position on black cohosh safety. Metagenics, Inc. URL: http://www.metaproteomicslabs.com/position_papers/black%20cohosh%20position%20paper.pdf (accessed 01.25.2011).

Hernández Muñoz, G., & Pluchino, S. 2003. Cimicifuga racemosa for the treatment of hot flushes in women surviving breast cancer. Maturitas, 44 (Suppl. 1), S59–S65. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12609560 (accessed 09.13.2010).

Low Dog, T., et al. 2003. Critical evaluation of the safety of Cimicifuga racemosa in menopause symptom relief. Menopause, 10 (4), 299-313. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12851513 (accessed 09.13.2010).

Seidlová–Wuttke, D., et al. 2003. Evidence for selective estrogen receptor modulator activity in a black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) extract: Comparison with estradiol17b. Eur. J. Endocrinol., 149 (4), 351–362. URL (PDF): http://eje-online.org/cgi/reprint/149/4/351 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2003. Phytoestrogens: Endocrine disrupters or replacement for hormone replacement therapy? Maturitas, 44 (Suppl. 1), S9–S20. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12609555 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2003. The Cimicifuga preparation BNO 1055 vs. conjugated estrogens in a double-blind placebo-controlled study: Effects on menopause symptoms and bone markers. Maturitas, 44 (Suppl. 1), S67–S77. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12609561 (accessed 02.24.2011)

[No authors listed.] 2003. Monograph. Cimicifuga racemosa. Altern. Med. Rev., 8 (2), 186-189. URL (PDF): http://www.altmedrev.com/sobi2.html?sobi2Task=dd_download&fid=193 (accessed 01.25.2011).

Bodinet, C., & Freudenstein, J. 2002. Influence of Cimicifuga racemosa on the proliferation of estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res. Treat., 76 (1), 1-10. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12408370 (accessed 01.25.2011).

Liske, E., et al. 2002. Physiological investigation of a unique extract of black cohosh (Cimicifugae racemosae rhizoma): A 6-month clinical study demonstrates no systemic estrogenic effect. J. Women’s Health Gend. Based Med., 11, 163–174. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11975864 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Mahady, G. et al. 2002. Black cohosh: an alternative therapy for menopause? Nutr. Clin. Care, 5 (6), 283-289. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12557811 (accessed 06.26. 2007).

Winterhoff, H., et al. 2002. [Pharmacologic and clinical studies using Cimicifuga racemosa in climacteric complaints.] Wien Med. Wochenschr., 152 (15–16), 360–363. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12244879 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Whiting, P., et al. 2002. Black cohosh and other herbal remedies associated with acute hepatitis. Med. J. Aust., 177, 440–443. URL: http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/177_08_211002/whi10119_fm.html (accessed 2.24.2011).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2002. Phytoestrogens for hormone replacement therapy? J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 83 (1–5), 133–147. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12650710 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Zierau, O. et al. 2002. Antiestrogenic activities of Cimicifuga racemosa extracts. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 80 (1), 125–130. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11867271 (accessed 06.26.2007). URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11867271 (accessed 06.26.2007).

Jacobson, J., et al. 2001. Randomized trial of black cohosh for the treatment of hot flashes among women with a history of breast cancer. J. Clin. Oncol., 19 (10), 2739–2745. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11352967 (accessed 06.27. 2007).

Duker, E., et al. 1991. Effects of extracts from Cimicifuga racemosa on gonadotropin release in menopausal women and ovariectomized rats. Planta Med., 57 (5), 420–424. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1798794 (accessed 06.27.2007).

McAllister, J., & Hornsby, P. 1987. TPA inhibits the synthesis of androgens and cortisol and enhances the synthesis non-17 alpha-hydroxylated steroids in cultured human adrenocortical cells. Endocrinology, 121 (5), 1908–1910.


Chastetree berry (Vitex agnus–castus)

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Hu, Y., et al. 2007. Anti-nociceptive and anti-hyperprolactinemia activities of Fructus Viticis and its effective fractions and chemical constituents. Phytomedicine, 14 (10), 668-674. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17350238 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Rotem, C., & Kaplan, B. 2007. Phyto-Female Complex for the relief of hot flushes, night sweats and quality of sleep: Randomized, controlled, double-blind pilot study. Gynecol. Endocrinol., 23 (2), 117-122. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17454163 (accessed 07.06.2007).

Webster, D., et al. 2006. Activation of the mu-opiate receptor by Vitex agnus-castus methanol extracts: Implication for its use in PMS. J. Ethnopharmacol., 106 (2), 216-221. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16439081 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Tandon, V., et al. 2006. Vitex negundo Linn. (VN) leaf extract as an adjuvant therapy to standard anti-inflammatory drugs. Indian J. Med. Res., 124 (4), 447-450. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17159267 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Villasenor, I., & Lamadrid, M. 2006. Comparative anti-hyperglycemic potentials of medicinal plants. J. Ethnopharmacol., 104 (1-2), 128-131. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16253452 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Daniele, et al., 2005. Vitex agnus castus: A systematic review of adverse events. Drug Saf., 28, 319–332.

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Roemheld–Hamm, B. 2005. Chasteberry. Am. Fam. Phys., 72 (5), 821-824. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16156340 (accessed 07.16.2007).

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Liu, et al. 2004. Isolation of linoleic acid as an estrogenic compound from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L. (chaste-berry). Phytomedicine, 11, 18–23. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14974442 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Aron, D., et al. 2004. Hypothalamus and pituitary gland, 125–1260. In F. Greenspan & D. Gardner (Eds.), Basic & clinical endocrinology. Columbus, OH: McGraw–Hill.

Atmaca, M., et al. 2003. Fluoxetine versus Vitex agnus castus extract in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Hum. Psychopharmacol., 18 (3), 191–195. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12672170 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Blumenthal, et al. 2003. The ABC clinical guide to herbs. Austin, TX: American Botanical Council.

Chopin, L. 2003. Vitex agnus castus essential oil and menopausal balance: A research update [Complementary Therapies in Nursing and Midwifery, 8 (2003), 148-154]. Complement. Ther. Nurs. Midwifery, 9 (3), 157-160. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12852933 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Dharmasiri, M., et al. 2003. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of mature fresh leaves of Vitex negundo. J. Ethnopharmacol., 87 (2-3), 199-206. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12860308 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Girman, A., et al. 2003. An integrative medicine approach to premenstrual syndrome. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 188 (5 Suppl.), S56-S65. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12748452 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Jarry, H., et al. 2003. Evidence for estrogen receptor beta-selective activity of Vitex agnus-castus and isolated flavones. Planta Med., 69, 945–947.

Lucks, B. 2003. Vitex agnus castus essential oil and menopausal balance: A research update [Complementary Therapies in Nursing and Midwifery, 8 (2003) 148-154]. Complement. Ther. Midwifery, 9 (3), 157-160. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12852933 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Ohyama, K., et al. 2003. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic inducibility of Vitex agnus-castus fruit extract in cultured human normal and cancer cells and effect on growth. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 26 (1), 10-18. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12520164 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2003. Chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus) — pharmacology and clinical indications. Phytomedicine, 10 (4), 248-357. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12809367 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Lucks, B., et al. 2002. Vitex agnus-castus essential oil and menopausal balance: A self-care survey. Complement. Ther. Nurs. Midwifery, 8, 148–154. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12353616 (accessed 01.26.2011).

Liu, J., et al. 2001. Evaluation of estrogenic activity of plant extracts for the potential treatment of menopausal symptoms. J. Agric. Food Chem., 49 (5), 2472-2479. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11368622 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Schellenberg, 2001. Treatment for the premenstrual syndrome with agnus castus fruit extract: Prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study. BMJ, 322, 134–137. URL: http://www.bmj.com/content/322/7279/134.long (accessed 02.24.2011).

Berger, et al. 2000. Efficacy of Vitex agnus castus L. extract Ze 440 in patients with pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS). Arch. Gynecol. Obstet., 264, 150–153. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11129515 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Halaska, M., et al. 1999. Treatment of cyclical mastalgia with a solution containing a Vitex agnus castus extract: Results of a placebo-controlled double-blind study. Breast, 8 (4), 175-181. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14731436 (accessed 07.16.2007).

Lauritzen, et al. 1997. Treatment of premenstrual tension syndrome with Vitex agnus castus: Controlled double-blind study versus pyridoxine. Phytomedicine, 4, 183–189.

Cahill, D., et al 1994. Multiple follicular development associated with herbal medicine. Human Reprod., 9, 1469–1470. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7989506 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Jarry, H., et al. 1994. In vitro prolactin but not LH and FSH release is inhibited by compounds in extracts of Agnus castus: Direct evidence for a dopaminergic principle by the dopamine receptor assay. Exp. Clin. Endocrinol., 102, 448–454. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7890021 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Milewicz, A., et al. 1993. [Vitex agnus castus extract in the treatment of luteal phase defects due to latent hyperprolactinemia. Results of a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study.] Arzneim.–Forsch./Drug Res., 43, 752–756. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8369008 (accessed 10.26.2011).


Kudzu (Pueraria mirifica)

Rountree, R. 2010. Roundoc Rx: Phytoestrogens. Altern. Complement. Ther., 16 (1), 5–10. URL: http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/act.2010.16110 (accessed 09.21.2010).

Boonchird, C., et al. 2009. Differential binding with ERalpha and ERbeta of the phytoestrogen-rich plant Pueraria mirifica. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res.,43 (2), 195–200. URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2009007500026&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en (accessed 01.05.2010).

Cherdshewasart, W., et al. 2009. The mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of the traditional phytoestrogen-rich herbs, Pueraria mirifica and Pueraria lobata. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res., 42 (9), 816–823. URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2009000900008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en (accessed 01.05.2010).

Manonai, J., et al. 2009. The effect of Pueraria mirifica on cytologic and urodynamic findings in ovariectomized rats. Menopause, 16 (2), 350–356. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19098688 (accessed 01.05.2010).

Cherdshewasart, W., & Sutjit, W. 2008. Correlation of antioxidant activity and major isoflavonoid contents of the phytoestrogen-rich Pueraria mirifica and Pueraria lobata tubers. Phytomedicine, 15 (1–2), 38–43. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17890070 (accessed 01.05.2010).

Cherdshewasart, W., et al. 2008. Variance of estrogenic activity of the phytoestrogen-rich plant. Maturitas, 61 (4), 350–357. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18980816 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Chindewa, R., et al. 2008. Pueraria mirifica, phytoestrogen-induced change in synaptophysin expression via estrogen receptor in rat hippocampal neuron. J. Med. Assoc. Thai., 91 (2), 208–214. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18389986 (accessed 01.05.2010).

Ju, Y., et al. 2008. A dietary supplement for female sexual dysfunction, Avlimil, stimulates the growth of estrogen-dependent breast tumors (MCF-7) implanted in ovariectomized athymic nude mice. Food Chern. Toxicol., 46, 310–320. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17919800 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Manonai, J., et al. 2008. Effects and safety of Pueraria mirifica on lipid profiles and biochemical markers of bone turnover rates in healthy postmenopausal women. Menopause, 15 (3), 530–535. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18202589 (accessed 01.30.2009).

Okamura, S., et al. 2008. Pueraria mirifica phytoestrogens improve dyslipidemia in postmenopausal women probably by activating estrogen receptor subtypes. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 216 (4), 341–351. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/tjem/216/4/216_341/_article (accessed 01.05.2010).

Sookvanichsilip, N., et al. 2008. Estrogenic activity of the dichloromethane extract of Pueraria mirifica. Fitoterapia, 79 (7–8), 509–514. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18621111 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Urosopan, N., et al. 2008. Preventative effects of Pueraria mirifica on bone loss in ovariectomized rats. Maturitas, 59 (2), 137–148. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18313241 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Chandeying, V., et al. 2007. Challenges in the conduct of Thai herbal scientific study: Efficacy and safety of phytoestrogen, Pueraria mirifica (Kwao Keur Kao), phase I, in the alleviation of climacteric symptoms in perimenopausal women. J. Med. Assoc. Thai., 90 (7), 1274–1280. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17710964 (accessed 01.30.2009).

Chandeying, V., et al. 2007. Efficacy comparison of Pueraria mirifica (PM) against conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) with/without medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in the treatment of climacteric symptoms in perimenopausal women: Phase III study. J. Med. Assoc. Thai., 90 (9), 1720–1726. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17957910 (accessed 01.30.2009).

Cherdshewasart, W., et al. 2007. Evaluation of the estrogenic activity of the wild Pueraria mirifica by vaginal cornification assay. J. Reprod. Dev., 53 (2), 385–393. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jrd/53/2/53_385/_article (accessed 01.05.2010).

Cherdshewasart, W., et al. 2007. Major isoflavonoid contents of the phytoestrogen rich-herb Pueraria mirifica in comparison with Pueraria lobata. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 43 (2), 428–434.

Cherdshewasart, W., et al. 2007. Pretreatment with phytoestrogen-rich plant decreases breast tumor incidence and exhibits lower profile of mammary ERalpha and ERbeta. Maturitas, 58 (2), 174-181. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17870258 (accessed 01.05.2010).

Cherdshewasart, W., & Sriwatcharuakul, S., 2007. Major isoflavonoid contents of the 1-year-cultivated phytoestrogen rich-herb Pueraria mirifica. Biosci. Biotechnol Biochem., 71 (10), 2527–2533. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bbb/71/10/71_2527/_article (accessed 01.05.2010).

Jaroenporn, S., et al. 2007. Assessment of fertility and reproductive toxicity in adult female mice after long-term exposure to Pueraria mirifica herb. J. Reprod. Dev., 53 (5), 995-1005. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jrd/53/5/53_995/_article (accessed 01.04.2010).

Manonai, J., et al. 2007. Effect of Pueraria mirifica on vaginal health. Menopause, 14 (5), 919–924. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17415017 (accessed 01.30.2009).

Trisomboon, H., et al. 2007. Assessment of urinary gonadotropin and steroid hormone profiles of female cynomolgus monkeys after treatment with Pueraria mirifica. J. Reprod. Dev., 53 (2), 395-403. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jrd/53/2/53_395/_article (accessed 01.05.2010).

Wong, R., & Rabie, B. 2007. Effect of puerarin on bone formation. Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 15 (8), 894–899. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17379543 (accessed 01.05.2010).

Li, W.-Z., et al. 2006. [Studies on the effect of extracts of several Chinese herbal medicines and other medicines on alcohol dehydrogenase activity.] Zhong Yao Cai., 29 (8), 816–818. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17076243 (accessed 01.05.2010).

Malaivijitnond, S., et al. 2006. Using vaginal cytology to assess the estrogenic activity of phytoestrogen-rich herb. J. Ethnopharmacol., 107 (3), 354-360. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16730147 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Pawlyk, A., et al. 2006. Effects of the 5–HT2A antagonist mirtazapine in rat models of thermoregulation. Brain Res., 1123 (1), 135–144.

Penetar, D., et al. 2006. Pharmacokinetic profile of the isoflavone puerarin after acute and repeated administration of a novel kudzu extract to human volunteers. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 12, 543–548.

Zhang, S., et al. 2006. Reversal of chemical-induced liver fibrosis in Wistar rats by puerarin. J. Nutr. Biochem., 17 (7), 485–491.

Chiang, H.–M., et al. 2005. Life-threatening interaction between the root extract of Pueraria lobata and methotrexate in rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 209 (3), 263–268.

Kang, K.-A., et al. 2005. Protective effect of Puerariae radix on oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide and streptozotocin. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 28 (7), 1154–1160.

Kwon, H-J., et al. 2005. Amelioration effects of traditional Chinese medicine on alcohol-induced fatty liver. World J. Gastroenterol., 11 (35), 5512–5516. URL (abstract): http://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/11/5512.pdf (accessed 01.19.2011).

Lukaczer, D., et al. 2005. Clinical effects of a proprietary combination isoflavone nutritional supplement in menopausal women: A pilot trial. Altern. Ther. Health Med., 11 (5), 60–65.

Zhang, C., et al. 2005. In vitro estrogenic activities of Chinese medicinal plants traditionally used for the management of menopausal symptoms. J. Ethnopharmacol., 98, 295–300.

Zhang, Y., et al. 2005. Analysis of the estrogenic components in kudzu root by bioassay and high performance liquid chromatography. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 94, 375–381.

Benlhabib, E., et al. 2004. Kudzu root extract suppresses voluntary alcohol intake and alcohol withdrawal symptoms in P rats receiving free access to water and alcohol. J. Med. Food, 7 (2), 168–179.

Chen, W., et al. 2004. Mediation of beta-endorphin by the isoflavone puerarin to lower plasma glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Planta Med., 70 (2), 113–116.

Chueh, F., et al. 2004. Peurarin acts through brain seratonergic mechanisms to induce thermal effects. J. Pharmacol. Sci., 96 (4), 420–427.

Kim, O., et al. 2004. Establishment of in vitro test system for the evaluation of the estrogenic activities of natural products. Arch. Pharm. Res., 27, 906–911.

Lamlertkittikul, S., & Chandeying, V. 2004. Efficacy and safety of Pueraria mirifica (Kwao Kruea Khao) for the treatment of vasomotor symptoms in perimenopausal women: Phase II Study. J. Med. Assoc. Thai., 87 (1), 33–40.

Malaivijitnond, S., et al. 2004. Different effects of Pueraria mirifica, an herb containing phytoestrogens, on LH and FSH secretion in gonadectomized female and male rats. J. Pharmacol. Sci., 96 (4), 428–435. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jphs/96/4/96_428/_article (accessed 01.04.2010).

Wang, J., et al. 2004. Effects of Radix Puerariae flavones on liver lipid metabolism in ovariectomized rats. World J. Gastroenterol., 10 (13), 1967–1970. URL: http://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/10/1967.asp (accessed 01.04.2010).

Xu, X., et al. 2004. Effects of puerarin on learning-memory and amino acid transmitters of brain in ovariectomized mice. Planta Med., 70 (7), 627–631.

Boué, et al. 2003. Evaluation of the estrogenic effects of legume extracts containing phytoestrogens. J. Agric. Food Chem., 51 (8), 2193–2199. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12670155 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Hsu, F., et al. 2003. Antihyperglycemic effect of puerarin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J. Nat. Prod., 66 (6), 788–792.

Wang, X., et al. 2003. Puerariae radix prevents bone loss in ovariectomized mice. J. Bone Miner. Metab., 21, 268–275.

Woo, J., et al. 2003. Comparison of Pueraria lobata with hormone replacement therapy in treating the adverse health consequences of menopause. Menopause, 10 (4), 352–361.

Zheng, G., et al. 2002. [Estrogen-like effects of puerarin and total isoflavones from Pueraria lobata]. Zhong Yao Cai, 15 (8), 566–568.



Ngan, A., & Conduit, R. 2011. A double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the effects of Passiflora incarnata (passionflower) herbal tea on subjective sleep quality. Phytother. Res. [Epub ahead of print]. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21294203 (accessed 02.24.2011).

Natural Standard. 2011. Passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.). Professional monograph. URL (subscription required): http://naturalstandard.com/databases/herbssupplements/all/passionflower.asp (accessed 01.31.2011).

Appel, K., et al. 2010. Modulation of the ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system by Passiflora incarnata L. Phytother. Res. [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21089181 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Boeira, J., et al. 2010. Toxicity and genotoxicity evaluation of Passiflora alata Curtis (Passifloraceae). J. Ethnopharmacol., 128 (2), 526-532. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&cmd=prlinks&retmode=ref&id=19799991 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Cravotto, G., et al. 2010. Phytotherapeutics: An evaluation of the potential of 1000 plants. J. Clin. Pharm. Ther., 35 (1), 11-48. Review. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20175810 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Deng, J., et al. 2010. Anxiolytic and sedative activities of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa. J. Ethnopharmacol., 128, 148-153. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&cmd=prlinks&retmode=ref&id=20051259 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Elsas, S., et al. 2010. Passiflora incarnata L. (Passionflower) extracts elicit GABA currents in hippocampal neurons in vitro, and show anxiogenic and anticonvulsant effects in vivo, varying with extraction method. Phytomedicine, 17 (12), 940–949. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20382514 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Faustino, T., et al. 2010. [Medicinal plants for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: A review of controlled clinical studies.] Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr., 32 (4), 429–436. URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462010000400017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en (accessed 02.14.2011).

Fiebich, B., et al. 2010. Pharmacological studies in an herbal drug combination of St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) and passion flower (Passiflora incarnata): In vitro and in vivo evidence of synergy between Hypericum and Passiflora in antidepressant pharmacological models. Fitoterapia [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21185920 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Holbik, M., et al. 2010. Apparently no sedative benzoflavone moiety in passiflorae herba. Planta Med., 76 (7), 662–664. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20301055 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Lakhan, S., & Vieira, K. 2010. Nutritional and herbal supplements for anxiety and anxiety-related disorders: Systematic review. Nutr. J., 9 (1), 42. URL: http://www.nutritionj.com/content/9/1/42 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Sampath, C., et al. 2010. Anxiolytic effects of fractions obtained from Passiflora incarnata L. in the elevated plus maze in mice. Phytother. Res. [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21077264 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Wohlmuth, H., et al. 2010. Pharmacognosy and chemotypes of passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.). Biol. Pharm. Bull., 33 (6), 1015–1018. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/33/6/33_1015/_article (accessed 09.28.2010).

Carrasco, M., et al. 2009. Interactions of Valeriana officinalis L. and Passiflora incarnata L. in a patient treated with lorazepam. Phytother. Res., 23 (12), 1795–1796. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19441067 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Grundmann, O., et al. 2009. Anxiolytic effects of a passion flower (Passiflora incarnata L.) extract in the elevated plus maze in mice. Pharmazie, 64 (1), 63–64. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19216234 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Tabach, R., et al. 2009. Preclinical toxicological assessment of a phytotherapeutic product — CPV (based on dry extracts of Crataegus oxyacantha L., Passiflora incarnata L., and Valeriana officinalis L.). Phytother. Res., 23 (1), 33-40. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19048610 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Weeks, B. 2009. Formulations of dietary supplements and herbal extracts for relaxation and anxiolytic action: Relarian. Med. Sci. Monit., 15 (11), RA256-RA262. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19865069 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Barbosa, P., et al. 2008. The aqueous extracts of Passiflora alata and Passiflora edulis reduce anxiety-related behaviors without affecting memory process in rats. J. Med. Food, 11 (2), 282–288. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18598170 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Beaumont, D., et al. 2008. The effects of chrysin, a Passiflora incarnata extract, on natural killer cell activity in male Sprague–Dawley rats undergoing abdominal surgery. AANA J., 76 (2), 113–117. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18478816 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Grundmann, O., et al. 2008. Anxiolytic activity of a phytochemically characterized Passiflora incarnata extract is mediated via the GABAergic system. Planta Med., 74 (15), 1769-1773. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19006051 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Masteikova, R., et al. 2008. Antiradical activities of the extract of Passiflora incarnata. Acta Pol. Pharm., 65 (5), 577-583. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19051605 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Movafegh, A., et al. 2008. Preoperative oral Passiflora incarnata reduces anxiety in ambulatory surgery patients: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Anesth. Analg., 106 (6), 1728-1732. URL: http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/106/6/1728.long (accessed 01.28.2011).

Nassiri-Asl, M., et al. 2008. Possible role of GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor in anticonvulsant effects of Pasipay in rats. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao, 6 (11), 1170–1173. URL: http://www.jcimjournal.com/en/showAbstrPage.aspx?articleid=167219772008111170 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Rodriguez–Fragoso, L., et al. 2008. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in México. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 227 (1), 125–135. URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2322858/?tool=pubmed (accessed 02.14.2011).

Zhai, K., et al. 2008. Chrysin induces hyperalgesia via the GABAA receptor in mice. Planta Med., 74 (10), 1229–1234. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18612941 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Brown, E., et al. 2007. Evaluation of the anxiolytic effects of chrysin, a Passiflora incarnata extract, in the laboratory rat. AANA J., 75 (5), 333–337. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17966676 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Lolli, L., et al. 2007. Possible involvement of GABA A-benzodiazepine receptor in the anxiolytic-like effect induced by Passiflora actinia extracts in mice. J. Ethnopharmacol., 111 (2), 308-314. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17196350 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Miyasaka, L., et al. 2007. Passiflora for anxiety disorder. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. (1), CD004518. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17253512 (accessed 02.09.2011).

Nassiri-Asl, M., et al. 2007. Anticonvulsant effects of aerial parts of Passiflora incarnata extract in mice: Involvement of benzodiazepine and opioid receptors. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 7, 26. URL: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/7/26 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Sarris, J. 2007. Herbal medicines in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: A systematic review. Phytother. Res., 21 (8), 703-716. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17562566 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Capasso, A., & Sorrentino, L. 2005. Pharmacological studies on the sedative and hypnotic effect of kava kava and Passiflora extracts combination. Phytomedicine, 12 (1-2), 39-45. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15693706 (accessed 02.14.2011).

[No authors listed.] 2005. Management of insomnia: A place for traditional herbal remedies. Prescrire Int., 14 (77), 104–107. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15984105 > (accessed 02.14.2011).

Santos, K., et al. 2005. Passiflora actinia Hooker extracts and fractions induce catalepsy in mice. J. Ethnopharmacol., 100 (3), 306–309. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15882936 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Ulbricht, C., & Basch, E., Eds. 2005. Natural Standard Herb & Supplement Reference: Evidence-based Clinical Reviews. Natural Standard Research Collaboration. NY: Elsevier Mosby.

Dhawan, K., et al. 2004. Passiflora: A review update. J. Ethnopharmacol., 94 (1), 1-23. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15261959 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Peeters, E., et al. 2004. Effect of supplemental tryptophan, vitamin E, and a herbal product on responses by pigs to vibration. J. Anim. Sci., 82 (8), 2410-2420. URL: http://jas.fass.org/cgi/content/full/82/8/2410 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Wheatley, D. 2005. Medicinal plants for insomnia: A review of their pharmacology, efficacy and tolerability. J. Psychopharmacol., 19 (4), 414–421. Review. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15982998> (accessed 02.14.2011).

Hidaka, M., et al. 2004. Potent inhibition by star fruit of human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity. Drug Metab. Dispos., 32 (6), 581-583. URL: http://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/32/6/581.long (accessed 01.28.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2003. Attenuation of benzodiazepine dependence in mice by a tri-substituted benzoflavone moiety of Passiflora incarnata Linnaeus: A non-habit forming anxiolytic. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci., 6 (2), 215–222. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12935433> (accessed 02.14.2011).

Dhawan, K. 2003. Drug/substance reversal effects of a novel tri-substituted benzoflavone moiety (BZF) isolated from Passiflora incarnata Linn. — a brief perspective. Addict. Biol., 8 (4), 379–386. Review. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14690874 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Dhawan, K., & Sharma, A. 2003. Restoration of chronic-Delta 9-THC-induced decline in sexuality in male rats by a novel benzoflavone moiety from Passiflora incarnata Linn. Br. J. Pharmacol., 138 (1), 117–120. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1573641/?tool=pubmed (accessed 02.09.2011).

Dhawan, K., & Sharma, A. 2002. Antitussive activity of the methanol extract of Passiflora incarnata leaves. Fitoterapia, 73 (5), 397–399. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12165335 (accessed 02.15.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2002. Beneficial effects of chrysin and benzoflavone on virility in 2-year-old male rats. J. Med. Food, 5 (1), 43–48. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12511112 (accessed 02.15.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2002. Comparative anxiolytic activity profile of various preparations of Passiflora incarnata Linneaus: A comment on medicinal plants’ standardization. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 8 (3), 283-291. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12165186 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2002. Nicotine reversal effects of the benzoflavone moiety from Passiflora incarnata Linneaus in mice. Addict. Biol., 7 (4), 435-441. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14690874 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2002. Reversal of cannabinoids (delta9-THC) by the benzoflavone moiety from methanol extract of Passiflora incarnata Linnaeus in mice: A possible therapy for cannabinoid addiction. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 54 (6), 875–881. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12244887 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2002. Suppression of alcohol-cessation-oriented hyper-anxiety by the benzoflavone moiety of Passiflora incarnata Linnaeus in mice. J. Ethnopharmacol., 81 (2), 239–244. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12065157 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Krenn, L. 2002. [Passion Flower (Passiflora incarnata L.) — a reliable herbal sedative.] Wien Med. Wochenschr., 152 (15–16), 404–406. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12244887 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Akhondzadeh, S., et al. 2001a. Passionflower in the treatment of opiates withdrawal: A double-blind randomized controlled trial. J. Clin. Pharm. Ther., 26 (5), 369–373. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11679027 (accessed 02.14.2011).

Akhondzadeh, S., et al. 2001b. Passionflower in the treatment of generalized anxiety: A pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial with oxazepam. J. Clin. Pharm. Ther., 26 (5), 363–367. URL (abstract): http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2710.2001.00367.x/abstract (accessed 01.28.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2001. Anti-anxiety studies on extracts of Passiflora incarnata Linnaeus. J. Ethnopharmacol., 78 (2–3), 165–170. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11694362 (accessed 01.26.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2001. Anti-anxiety studies on extracts of Passiflora incarnata Linnaeus. J. Ethnopharmacol., 78 (2–3), 165–170. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11694362 (accessed 01.26.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2001. Comparative biological activity study on Passiflora incarnata and P. edulis. Fitoterapia, 72 (6), 698-702. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11543974 (accessed 02.15.2011).

Dhawan, K., et al. 2001. Correct identification of Passiflora incarnata Linn., a promising herbal anxiolytic and sedative. J. Med. Food, 4 (3), 137-144. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12639407 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Fisher, A., et al. 2000. Toxicity of Passiflora incarnata L. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol., 38 (1), 63–66. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10696928 (accessed 02.15.2011).

Bourin, M., et al. 1997. A combination of plant extracts in the treatment of outpatients with adjustment disorder with anxious mood: Controlled study versus placebo. Fundamental. Clin. Pharmacol., 11 (2), 127-132. URL (abstract): http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1472-8206.1997.tb00179.x/abstract (accessed 01.27.2011).

Salgueiro, J., et al. 1997. Anxiolytic natural and synthetic flavonoid ligands of the central benzodiazepine receptor have no effect on memory tasks in rats. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 58 (4), 887-891. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9408191> (accessed 01.28.2011).

Soulimani, R., et al. 1997. Behavioral effects of Passiflora incarnata L. and its indole alkaloid and flavonoid derivatives and maltol in the mouse. J. Ethnopharmacol., 57 (1), 11–20. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9234160 (accessed 02.15.2011).

Rommelspacher, H., et al. 1994. Harman (1-methyl-beta-carboline) is a natural inhibitor of monoamine oxidase type A in rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 252 (1), 51-59. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8149995 (accessed 01.27.2011).

Wolfman, C., et al. 1994. Possible anxiolytic effects of chrysin, a central benzodiazepine receptor ligand isolated from Passiflora coerulea. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 47 (1), 1-4. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7906886 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Medina, J., et al. 1990. Chrysin (5,7-di-OH-flavone), a naturally-occurring ligand for benzodiazepine receptors, with anticonvulsant properties. Biochem. Pharmacol., 40 (10), 2227-2231. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2173925 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Speroni, E., & Minghetti, A. 1988. Neuropharmacological activity of extracts from Passiflora incarnata. Planta Med., 54 (6), 588–491. URL (abstract): https://www.thieme-connect.com/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-2006-962525 (accessed 01.28.2011).

Aoyagi, N., et al. 1974. Studies on Passiflora incarnata dry extract. I. Isolation of maltol and pharmacological action of maltol and ethyl maltol. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo), 22 (5), 1008–1013). URL (no abstract available): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4421168 (accessed 01.28.2011).


Red clover (Trifolium pratense)

Lipovac, M., et al. 2011. The effect of red clover isoflavone supplementation over vasomotor and menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women. Gynecol. Endocrinol. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21870906 (accessed 08.31.2011).

Chen, Y, et al. 2010. Biochanin A induction of sulfotransferases in rats. J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol., 24 (2), 102–114. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20391625 (accessed 09.17.2010).

El Touny, L., et al. 2010. Biochanin A reduces drug-induced p75NTR expression and enhances cell survival: A new in vitro assay for screening inhibitors of p75NTR expression. Rejuvenation Res. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20818983 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Lipovac, M., et al. 2010. Improvement of postmenopausal depressive and anxiety symptoms after treatment with isoflavones derived from red clover extracts. Maturitas, 65 (3), 258–261. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19948385 (accessed 03.04.2010).

Rountree, R. 2010. RoundocRx. Phytoestrogens. Altern. Complement. Ther., 16 (1), 5–10. URL (abstract): ://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/act.2010.16110 (accessed 03.10.2010).

Shams, T., et al. 2010. Efficacy of black cohosh-containing preparations on menopausal symptoms: A meta-analysis. Alt. Ther., 16 (1), 36–44. URL (PDF): http://www.isohh.org/ebooks/0110-athm11.pdf (accessed 01.08.2010).

Sklenickova, O., etal. 2010. Selective growth inhibitory effect of biochanin A against intestinal tract colonizing bacteria. Molecules, 15 (3), 1270–1279. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20335979 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Thors, L., et al. 2010. Biochanin A, a naturally occurring inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase. Br. J. Pharmacol., 160 (3), 549–560. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20590565 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Geller, S., et al. 2009. Safety and efficacy of black cohosh and red clover for the management of vasomotor symptoms: A randomized controlled trial. Menopause, 16 (6), 1156–1166. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19609225 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Kawakita, S., et al. 2009. Effect of an isoflavones-containing red clover preparation and alkaline supplementation on bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. Clin. Interv. Aging, 4, 91–100. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2685230/?tool=pubmed (accessed 01.04.2010).

Mu, H., et al. 2009. Research on antioxidant effects and estrogenic effect of formononetin from Trifolium pratense (red clover). Phytomedicine, 16 (4), 314–319. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18757188(accessed 01.04.2009).

Pakalapati, G., et al. 2009. Influence of red clover (Trifolium pratense) isoflavones on gene and protein expression profiles in liver of ovariectomized rats. Phytomedicine, 16 (9), 845–855. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19409770 (accessed 09.14.2010).

Sehdev, V., et al. 2009. Biochanin A modulates cell viability, invasion, and growth promoting signaling pathways in HER-2-positive breast cancer cells. J. Oncol., 121458. URL: http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jo/2009/121458.html (accessed 09.17.2010).

Terzic, M., et al. 2009. Influence of red clover-derived isoflavones on serum lipid profile in postmenopausal women. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res., 35 (6), 1091–1095. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20144173 (accessed 09.14.2010).

Adaikan, P., et al. 2008. Efficacy of red clover isoflavones in the menopausal rabbit model. Fertil. Steril., 92 (6), 2008–2013. URL: (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18973881 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Ju, Y., et al. 2008. A dietary supplement for female sexual dysfunction, Avlimil, stimulates the growth of estrogen-dependcnt breast tumors (MCF-7) implanted in ovariectomized athymic nude mice. Food Chern ToxicoI., 46, 310-320. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17919800 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Medjakovic, S., & Jungbauer, A. 2008. Red clover isoflavones biochanin A and formononetin are potent ligands of the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 108 (1–2), 171–177. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18060767 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Mense, S., et al. 2008. Phytoestrogens and breast cancer prevention: Possible mechanisms of action. Environ. Health Perspect., 116 (4), 426–433. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2291001/?tool=pubmed (accessed 09.16.2010).

Mishra, P., et al. 2008. Chemoprevention of mammary tumorigenesis and chemomodulation of the antioxidative enzymes and peroxidative damage in prepubertal Sprague Dawley rats by Biochanin A. Mol. Cell. Biochem., 312 (1–2), 1–9. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18273562 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Moon, Y., et al. 2008. Biochanin A inhibits breast cancer tumor growth in a murine xenograft model. Pharmaceutical Res., 25 (9), 2158–2163. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18454305 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Oseni, T., et al. 2008. Selective estrogen receptor modulators and phytoestrogens. Planta Med., 74 (13), 1656-1665. URL: http://www.thieme-connect.com/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-0028-1088304 (accessed 01.05.2010).

Overk, C., et al. 2008. In vivo estrogenic comparisons of Trifolium pratense (red clover), Humulus lupulus (hops), and the pure compounds isoxanthohumol and 8-prenylnaringenin. Chern. Biol. Interact., 176, 30-39. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2574795/?tool=pubmed> (accessed 01.04.2010.

Powles, T., et al. 2008. Red clover isoflavones are safe and well tolerated in women with a family history of breast cancer. Menopause Int., 14 (1), 6–12. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18380954 (accessed 01.04.2010).

Wang, S., et al. 2008. Variable isoflavone content of red clover products affects intestinal disposition of biochanin A, formononetin, genistein, and daidzein. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 14 (3), 287–297. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2771774/?tool=pubmed (accessed 09.17.2010).

Wang, Y., et al. 2008. The red clover (Trifolium pratense) isoflavone biochanin A inhibits aromatase activity and expression. Br. J. Nutr., 99 (2), 303–310. URL (abstract): >http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17761019 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2008. Phytoestrogens: Endocrine disrupters or replacement for hormone replacement therapy? Maturitas, 61 (1–2), 159–170. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19434888 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Chan M., et al. 2007. Oestrogen receptor alpha is required for biochanin A-induced apolipoprotein A-1 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells. Br. J. Nutr., 98 (3), 534–539. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17532863 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Coon, J., et al. 2007. Trifolium pratense isoflavones in the treatment of menopausal hot flushes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Phytomedicine, 14 (2–3), 153–159.URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17239573 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Friedman, J., et al. 2007. Multifocal and recurrent subarachnoid hemorrhage due to an herbal supplement containing natural coumarins. Neurocrit. Care, 7 (1), 76–80. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17634840 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Kaminska, B., et al. 2007. Phytoestrogens alter cortisol and androstenedione secretion by porcine adrenocortical cells. Acta Vet. Hung., 55 (3), 359–367. URL (abstract): http://www.akademiai.com/content/m9402351057v1077/ (accessed 09.21.2010).

Lethaby, A., et al. 2007. Phytoestrogens for vasomotor menopausal symptoms. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev., (4), CD001395. URL (abstract): >http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17943751 (accessed 09.17.2010)

Moon, Y., et al. 2007. Effects of the flavonoid biochanin A on gene expression in primary human hepatocytes and human intestinal cells. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 51 (3), 317–323. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17340576 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Moon, Y., et al. 2007. Effects of flavonoids genistein and biochanin A on gene expression and their metabolism in human mammary cells. Nutr. Cancer., 57 (1), 48-58. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17516862 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Occhiuto, F., et al. 2007. Effects of phytoestrogenic isoflavones from red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) on experimental osteoporosis. Phytother. Res., 21 (2), 130–134. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17117453 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Rimoldi, G., et al. 2007. Effects of chronic genistein treatment in mammary gland, uterus, and vagina. Environ. Health Perspect., 115 (Suppl. 1), 62–68. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2174401/?tool=pubmed (accessed 01.04.2010).

Booth, N., et al. 2006. Clinical studies of red clover (Trifolium pratense) dietary supplements in menopause: A literature review. Menopause, 13 (2), 251–264. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16645539 (accessed 03.04.2010).

Booth, N., et al. 2005. Seasonal variation of red clover (Trifolium pratense L., Fabaceæ) isoflavones and estrogenic activity. J. Agric. Food Chem., 54 (4), 1277–1282. URL (abstract): (accessed 09.21.2010).

Carroll, D. 2006. Nonhormonal therapies for hot flashes in menopause. Am. Fam. Physician, 73 (3), 457–464. URL: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0201/p457.html (accessed 12.11.2009).

Geller, S., & Studee, L. 2006. Soy and red clover for midlife and aging. Climacteric, 9 (4), 245–263. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1780039/?tool=pubmed (accessed 01.04.2010).

Han, E., et al. 2006. Effect of biochanin A on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and cytochrome P450 1A1 in MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells. Arch. Pharm. Res., 29 (7), 570–576. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16903077 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Imhof, M., et al. 2006. Effects of a red clover extract (MF11RCE) on endometrium and sex hormones in postmenopausal women. Maturitas, 55 (1), 76–81.URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16513301 (accessed 03.04.2010).

Moon, Y., et al. 2006. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of the isoflavone biochanin A in rats. AAPS J., 8 (3), E433–E442. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2761049/?tool=pubmed (accessed 09.17.2010).

Nelson, H., et al. 2006. Nonhormonal therapies for menopausal hot flashes: Systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA, 295 (17), 2057–2071. URL: http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/295/17/2057 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Park, J., et al. 2006. Up-regulation of interleukin-4 production via NF-AT/AP-1 activation in T cells by biochanin A, a phytoestrogen and its metabolites. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 212 (3), 188–199. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16169028 (accessed 09.20.2010).

Rice, S., et al. 2006. Phytoestrogens and their low dose combinations inhibit mRNA expression and activity of aromatase in human granulosa-luteal cells. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 101 (4–5), 2160150225. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16965912 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Schrepfer, S., ET AL. 2006. The selective estrogen receptor-beta agonist biochanin A shows vasculoprotective effects without uterotrophic activity. Menopause, 13 (3), 489–499. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16735947 (accessed 09.20.2010).

Tsao, R., et al. 2006. Isoflavone profiles of red clovers and their distribution in different parts harvested at different growing stages. J. Agric. Food Chem., 54 (16), 5797–5805. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16881680 (accessed 09.21.2010).

Wang, H-P., et al. 2006. Endothelium-independent vasorelaxant effect of the phyto-oestrogen biochanin A on rat thoracic aorta. Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc., 3, 2244–2247. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17282679 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Beck, V., et al. 2005. Phytoestrogens derived from red clover: An alternative tohttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15876415 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Hidalgo, L. 2005. The effect of red clover isoflavones on menopausal symptoms, lipids and vaginal cytology in menopausal women: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Gynecol. Endocrinol., 21 (5), 257–264. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16373244(accessed 01.04.2010).

Lee, K-H., & Choi, E-M. 2005. Biochanin A stimulates osteoblastic differentiation and inhibits hydrogen peroxide-induced production of inflammatory mediators in MC3T3-E1 cells. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 28 (10), 1948–1953. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/28/10/28_1948/_article (accessed 09.20.2010).

Low Dog, T. 2005. Menopause: A review of botanical dietary supplements. Am. J. Med., 118 (Suppl. 12B), 98-108. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16414334 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Lukaczer, D., et al. 2005. Clinical effects of a proprietary combination isoflavone nutritional supplement in menopausal women: A pilot trial. Altern. Ther. Health Med., 11 (5), 60–65. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16189949 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Simoncini, T., et al. 2005. Activation of nitric oxide synthesis in human endothelial cells by red clover extracts. Menopause, 12 (1), 69–77. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15668603 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Somjen, D., et al. 2005. Membranal effects of phytoestrogens and carboxy derivatives of phytoestrogens on human vascular and bone cells: New insights ased on studies with carboxy-biochanin A. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 93 (2–5), 293–303. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15860273 (accessed 09.21.2010).

Ulbricht, C., & Basch, E., Eds. 2005. Natural Standard Herb & Supplement Reference: Evidence-based Clinical Reviews. Natural Standard Research Collaboration. NY: Elsevier Mosby.

Atkinson, C., et al. 2004. Red-clover-derived isoflavones and mammographic breast density: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial [ISRCTN42940165]. Breast Cancer Res., 6 (3), R170–R179.ver-derived isoflavone supplementation on insulin-like growth factor, lipid and antioxidant status in healthy female volunteers: A pilot study. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 58, 173–179. URL: http://breast-cancer-research.com/content/6/3/R170 (accessed 09.20.2010).

Atkinson, C., et al. 2004. The effects of phytoestrogen isoflavones on bone density in women: A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 79, 326–333. URL: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/79/2/326 (accessed 09.20.2010).

Campbell, M., et al. 2004. Effect of red clover-derived isoflavone supplementation on insulin-like growth factor, lipid and antioxidant status in healthy female volunteers: A pilot study. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 58, 173–179. URL: http://www.nature.com/ejcn/journal/v58/n1/full/1601764a.html (accessed 09.20.2010).

Huntley, A. 2004. Drug-herb interactions with herbal medicines for menopause. J. Br. Menopause Soc., 10 (4), 162–165. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15667753 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Krebs, E., et al. 2004. Phytoestrogens for treatment of menopausal symptoms: A systematic review. Obstet. Gynecol., 104 (10), 824–836. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15458907 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Lam, A., et al. 2004. Effect of red clover isoflavones on cox-2 activity in murine and human monocyte/macrophage cells. Nutr. Cancer, 49 (1), 89–93. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15456640 (accessed 09.20.2010).

Piersen, C., 2004. Chemical and biological characterization and clinical evaluation of botanical dietary supplements: A phase I red clover extract as a model. Curr. Med. Chem., 11 (11), 1361–1374. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15180571 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Powles, T. 2004. Isoflavones and women’s health. Breast Cancer Res., 6, 140–142. URL: http://breast-cancer-research.com/content/6/3/140 (accessed 09.20.2010).

Roberts, D., et al. 2004. Inhibition of extrahepatic human cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1B1 by metabolism of isoflavones found in Trifolium pratense (red clover). J. Agric. Food Chem., 52 (21), 6623–6632. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15479032 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Blakesmith, S., et al. 2003. Effects of supplementation with purified red clover (Trifolium pratense) isoflavones on plasma lipids and insulin resistance in premenopausal women. Br. J. Nutr., 89 (4), 467–474. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12654164 (accessed 09.20.2010).

Boué, et al. 2003. Evaluation of the estrogenic effects of legume extracts containing phytoestrogens. J. Agric. Food Chem., 51 (8), 2193–2199. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12670155 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Chan, H., et al. 2003. The red clover (Trifolium pratense) isoflavone biochanin A modulates the biotransformation pathways of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Br. (1), 87–92. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12844379 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Mallis, L., et al. 2003. Determination of rat oral bioavailability of soy-derived phytoestrogens using an automated on-column extraction procedure and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci., 796, 71–86. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14552818 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Tice, J., et al. 2003. Phytoestrogen supplements for the treatment of hot flashes: The Isoflavone Clover Extract (ICE) Study: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 290 (2), 207–214. URL: >http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/290/2/207 (accessed 03.04.2010).

Abebe, W. 2002. Herbal medication: Potential for adverse interactions with analgesic drugs. J. Clin. Pharm. Ther., 27 (6), 391–401. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12472978 (accessed 12.11.2009).

Adlercreutz, J. 2002. Phyto-oestrogens and cancer. Lacet Oncol., 3 (6), 364–373. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12107024 (accessed 09.21.2010).

Burdette, J., et al. 2002. Trifolium pratense (red clover) exhibits estrogenic effects in vivo in ovariectomized Sprague–Dawley rats. J. Nutr., 132 (1), 27–30. URL: http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/full/132/1/27 (accessed 09.21.2010).

Nelsen, J., et al. 2002. Red clover (Trifolium pratense) monograph: A clinical decision support tool. J. Herb. Pharm., 2 (3), 49–72. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15277090 (accessed 09.21.2010).

Peter, H. et al. 2002. Isoflavones from red clover (Promensil) significantly reduce menopausal hot flush symptoms compared with placebo. Maturitas., 42 (3), 187-193. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12161042(accessed 01.19.2011).

van de Weijer, P., & Barentsen, R. 2002. Isoflavones from red clover (Promensil) significantly reduce menopausal hot flush symptoms compared with placebo. Maturitas, 42 (3), 187–193. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12161042 (accessed 09.21.2010).

Wuttke, W., et al. 2002. Phytoestrogens for hormone replacement therapy? J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 83 (1–5), 133–147. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12650710 (accessed 09.16.2010).

Clifton–Bligh, P., et al. 2001. The effect of isoflavones extracted from red clover (Rimostil) on lipid and bone metabolism. Menopause, 8 (4), 259–265. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11449083 (accessed 09.21.2010).

Dornstauder, E., et al. 2001. Estrogenic activity of two standardized red clover extracts (Menoflavon) intended for large scale use in hormone replacement therapy. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 78 (1), 67–75. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11530286 (accessed 09.21.2010).

Fugh–Berman, A., & Kronenberg, F. 2001. Red clover (Trifolium pratense) for menopausal women: Current state of knowledge. Menopause, 8 (5), 333–337. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11528359 (accessed 09.20.2010).

Hale G., et al. 2001. A double-blind randomized study on the effects of red clover isoflavones on the endometrium. Menopause, 8, 338-346. URL (abstract): (accessed 01.04.2010). URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11528360 (accessed 09.21.2010).

Ashby, J., et al. 1999. Induction of hyperplasia and increased DNA content in the uterus of immature rats exposed to coumestrol. Environ. Health Perspect., 107 (10), 819–822. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1566597/?tool=pubmed (accessed 12.11.2009).

Hsu, J–T., et al. 1999. Effects of the dietary phytoestrogen biochanin A on cell growth in the mammary carcinoma cell line MCF-7. J. Nutr. Biochem., 10 (9), 510–517. URL (abstract): http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=1984990 (accessed 09.17.2010).

Boyd, N., et al. 1998. Mammographic densities and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers, 7 (12), 1133-1144. URL: http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/7/12/1133.long (accessed 01.19.2011).

Kelly, G., et al. 1998. Standardized red clover extract clinical monograph, pp 3–12. Seattle, WA: Natural Products Research Consultants, Inc.

Zava, D., et al. 1998. Estrogen and progestin bioactivity of foods, herbs, and spices. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 217 (3), 369–378. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9492350 (accessed 08.24.2010).


Wild yam ( Dioscorea villosa)

Yoshikawa, M., et al. 2007. Medicinal flowers. XII. (1). New spirostane-type steroid saponins with antidiabetogenic activity from Borassus flabellifer. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo), 55 (2), 308–316.

Jeon, J., et al. 2006. Effect of ethanol extract of dried Chinese yam (Dioscorea batatas) flour containing dioscin on gastrointestinal function in rat model. Arch. Pharm. Res., 29 (5), 348–353.

Sarchielli, P., et al. 2006. Practical considerations for the treatment of elderly patients with migraine. Drugs Aging, 23 (6), 461–489.

Ulbricht, C., & Basch, E., Eds. 2005. Natural Standard Herb & Supplement Reference: Evidence-based Clinical Reviews. Natural Standard Research Collaboration. NY: Elsevier Mosby.

Wu, W., et al. 2005. Estrogenic effect of yam ingestion in healthy postmenopausal women. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 24, 235–243.

[No authors listed.] 2004. Final report of the amended safety assessment of Dioscorea villosa (wild yam) root extract. Int. J. Toxicol., 23 (Suppl. 2), 49–54.

Rahmintoola, H., et al. 2004. Reduction in the therapeutic intensity of abortive migraine drug use during ACE inhibition therapy — a pilot study. Pharmacoepidemiol. Drug Saf., 13 (1), 41–47.

Benghuzzi, H., et al. 2003. The effects of sustained delivery of diosgenin on the adrenal gland of female rats. Biomed. Sci. Instrum., 39, 335–340.

Kwon, C., et al. 2003. Anti-obesity effect of Dioscorea nipponica Makino with lipase-inhibitory activity in rodents. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 67 (7), 1451–1456.

Hsu, F., et al. 2002. Both dioscorin, the tuber storage protein of yam (Dioscorea alata cv. Tainong No. 1), and its peptic hydrolysates exhibited angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activities. J. Agric. Food Chem., 50 (21) 6109-6113. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12358488 (accessed 06.26.2007).

Bender, W. 1995. ACE inhibitors for prophylaxis of migraine headaches. Headache, 35 (8), 470–471.


Our Adaptisol is doctor-formulated to be complete, natural, bioavailable, and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.

The following articles and studies, arranged in order of recency, represent a sampling of the research on the constituents of Adaptisol.

Astragalus membranaceus

Gao, X., et al. 2011. Qi-Shao-Shuang-Gan, a combination of Astragalus membranaceus saponins with Paeonia lactiflora glycosides, ameliorates polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture in mice. Inflammation, 34 (1), 10–21. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20237952 (accessed 03.04. 2011).

Li, M., et al. 2011. Meta-analysis of the clinical value of Astragalus membranaceus in diabetic nephropathy. J. Ethnopharmacol., 133 (2), 412–419. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.gov/pubmed/20951192 (accessed 03.04.02011).

Sevimli–Gür, C., et al. 2011. In vitro growth stimulatory and in vivo wound healing studies on cycloartane-type saponins of Astragalus genus. J. Ethnopharmacol. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21291980 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Wang, Y., & Yu, Y. 2011. [Protective effects of Astragalus membranaceus on free fatty acid-induced vascular endothelial cell dysfunction]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban., 42 (1), 48–51. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21355300 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Hong, F., et al. 2010. The known immunologically active components of Astragalus account for only a small proportion of the immunological adjuvant activity when combined with conjugate vaccines. Planta Med. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21128203 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Jiang, J., et al. 2010. Therapeutic effects of astragalus polysaccharides on inflammation and synovial apoptosis in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. Int. J. Rheum. Dis., 13 (4), 396–405. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21199477 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Li, M., et al. 2010. [Astragalus membranaceus improves endothelial-dependent vasodilator function in obese rats]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao, 30 (1), 7–10. URL (PDF): http://www.j-smu.com/pdf2/201001/2010017.pdf (accessed 03.04.02011).

Liu, Q., et al. 2010. Astragalus polysaccharides regulate T cell-mediated immunity via CD11c(high)CD45RB(low) DCs in vitro. J. Ethnopharmacol. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20620204 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Lu, M., et al. 2010. Effect of Astragalus membranaceus in rats on peripheral nerve regeneration: In vitro and in vivo studies. J. Trauma, 68 (2), 434–440. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20154555 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Yang, Q., et al. 2010. [Effects of astragalus on cardiac function and serum tumor neorosis factor-alpha level in patients with chronic heart failure]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 30 (7), 699–701. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20929124 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Yin, X., et al. 2010. Enhancement of the innate immune response of bladder epithelial cells by Astragalus polysaccharides through upregulation of TLR4 expression. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 397 (2), 232–238. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20546703 (accessed 03.04. 2011).

Zhang, D., & Wang, D. 2010. [Progressive studies on biological activity of total flavonoids of Astragalus]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi., 35 (2), 253–256. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi/nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20394306 (accessed 03.04.02011).

Kuo, Y., et al. 2009. Astragalus membranaceus flavonoids (AMF) ameliorate chronic fatigue syndrome induced by food intake restriction plus forced swimming. J. Ethnopharmacol., 122 (1), 28–34. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19103273 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Mao, X., et al. 2009. Hypoglycemic effect of polysaccharide enriched extract of Astragalus membranaceus in diet induced insulin resistant C57BL/6J mice and its potential mechanism. Phytomedicine, 16 (5), 416–425. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19201177 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Wang, S., et al. 2009. Anti-hepatitis B virus activities of astragaloside IV isolated from radix Astragali. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 32 (1), 132–135. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/32/1/32_132/_article (accessed 03.10.2009).

Xu, A., et al. 2009. Selective elevation of adiponectin production by the natural compounds derived from a medicinal herb alleviates insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in obese mice. Endocrinology, 150 (2), 625–633. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18927219 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Cho, W., & Leung, K. 2007. In vitro and in vivo immunomodulating and immunorestorative effects of Astragalus membranaceus. J. Ethnopharmacol., 113 (1), 132–141. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17611061 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Ai, P., et al. 2008. Aqueous extract of Astragali Radix induces human naturiuresis through enhancement of renal response to atrial natriuretic peptide. J. Ethnopharmacol., 116 (3), 413–421. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18243612 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Du, Q., et al. 2008. Inhibitory effects of astragaloside IV on ovalbumin-induced chronic experimental asthma. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 86 (7), 449–457. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18641694 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Li, R., et al. 2008. [Immunomodulatory effects of Astragalus polysaccharide in diabetic mice.] Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao, 6 (2), 166–170. URL (PDF): http://www.jcimjournal.com/articles/publishArticles/pdf/20082261195.pdf (accessed 03.12.2009).

Jiang, B., et al. 2008. Astragaloside IV attenuates lipolysis and improves insulin resistance induced by TNFalpha in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Phytother. Res., 22 (11), 1434–1439. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18972582 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Peng, X., et al. 2008. [Regulatory effect of Astragalus membranaceus on the immune disorder in rats with IgA nephropathy.] Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi, 46 (1), 55–60. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18353241 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Ryu, M., et al. 2008. Astragali Radix elicits anti-inflammation via activation of MKP-1, concomitant with attenuation of p38 and Erk. J. Ethnopharmacol., 115 (2), 184–193. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17996413 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Shen, H., et al. 2008. Astragalus membranaceus prevents airway hyperreactivity in mice related to Th2 response inhibition. J. Ethnopharmacol., 116 (2), 363–369. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18226482 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Sun, W., et al. 2008. Protective effect of extract from Paeonia lactiflora and Astragalus membranaceus against liver injury induced by bacillus Calmette–Guérin and lipopolysaccharide in mice. Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 103 (2), 143–149. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18816297 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Yuan, W., et al. 2008. Astragaloside IV inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis in rat vascular smooth muscle cells under high glucose concentration in vitro. Planta Med., 74 (10), 1259–1264. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18622899 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Zhang, G., et al. 2008. [Effects of Astragalus on renal tubulointerstitial lesions and expression of NF-kappaB and MCP-1 in renal tissues in rat experimental IgA nephropathy.] Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi, 10 (2), 173–178. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18433541 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Zhu, S., et al. 2008. Astragaloside IV inhibits spontaneous synaptic transmission and synchronized Ca2+ oscillations on hippocampal neurons. Acta Pharmacol. Sin., 29 (1), 57–64. URL: http://www.chinaphar.com/1671-4083/29/57.htm (accessed 03.10.2009).

Cho, W., & Leung, K. 2007. In vitro and in vivo immunomodulating and immunorestorative effects of Astragalus membranaceus. J. Ethnopharmacol., 113 (1), 132–141. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17611061 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Hu, J., et al. 2007. [Protective effects of Astragaloside and Quercetin on rat myocardial cells after hypoxia.] Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi, 23 (3), 175–178. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18019054 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Li, R., et al. 2007. The immunotherapeutic effects of Astragaluspolysaccharide in type 1 diabetic mice. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 30 (3), 470–476. URL (PDF): http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/30/3/470/_pdf (accessed 03.12.2009).

Luo, G., et al. 2007. [Effect of Astragalus membranaceus injection on activity of intestinal mucosal mast cells and inflammatory response after hemorrahagic shock-reperfusion in rats.] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, 32 (14), 1436–1440. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17966360 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Ma, W., et al. 2007. Combined effects of fangchinoline from Stephania tetrandra Radix and formononetin and calycosin from Astragalus membranaceus Radix on hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia in streptozotocin-diabetic mice. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 30 (11), 2079–2083. URL (PDF): http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/30/11/2079/_pdf (accessed 03.12.2009).

Roxas, M., & Jurenka, J. 2007. Colds and influenza: A review of diagnosis and conventional, botanical, and nutritional considerations. Altern. Med. Rev., 12 (1), 25-48. Review. URL (PDF): http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/12/1/25.pdf (accessed 03.12.2009).

Xu, H., et al. 2007. Effects of Astragalus polysaccharides and astragalosides on the phagocytosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by macrophages. J. Int. Med. Res., 35 (1), 84–90. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17408058 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Zhang, Z., et al. 2007. [Effect of astragaloside on myocardial fibrosis in chronic myocarditis.] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 27 (8), 728–731. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17879539 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Zhang, Z., et al. 2007. Merit of Astragalus polysaccharide in the improvement of early diabetic nephropathy with an effect on mRNA expressions of NF-kappaB and IkappaB in renal cortex of streptozotoxin-induced diabetic rats. J. Ethnopharmacol., 114 (3), 387–392. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17900838 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Zwickey, H., et al. 2007. The effect of Echinacea purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus and Glycyrrhiza glabra on CD25 expression in humans: A pilot study. Phytother. Res., 21 (11), 1109–1112. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17661330 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Cai, X., et al. 2006. [Experimental treatment of chronic pelvic inflammatory disease in rats with acupoint injection of Astragalus parenteral solution.] Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban., 35 (4), 430–434, 439. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16924709 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Gao, Q., et al. 2006. A Chinese herbal decoction, Danggui Buxue Tang, prepared from Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae Sinensis stimulates the immune responses. Planta Med., 72 (13), 1227–1231. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16902872 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Yu, J., et al. 2006. Inhibitory effects of astragaloside IV on diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rats. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 84 (6), 579–587. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16900242 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Wu, J., et al. 2006. Effect of Astragalus injection on serious abdominal traumatic patients’ cellular immunity. Chin. J. Integr. Med., 12 (1), 29–31. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16571280 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Xu, M., et al. 2006. Effects of astragaloside IV on pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome in vitro. Acta Pharmacol. Sin., 27 (2), 229–236. URL: http://www.chinaphar.com/1671-4083/27/229.htm (accessed 03.10.2009).

Yang, Y., et al. 2006. [Effects of Astragalus membranaceus on TH cell subset function in children with recurrent tonsillitis.] Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi, 8 (5), 376–378. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17052394 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Zhang, Y., et al. 2006. Astragaloside IV exerts antiviral effects against coxsackievirus B3 by upregulating interferon-gamma. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol., 47 (2), 190–195. 2006. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16495755 (accessed 03.10.2009).

Ko, J., et al. 2005. Amelioration of experimental colitis by Astragalus membranaceus through anti-oxidation and inhibition of adhesion molecule synthesis. World J. Gastroenterol., 11 (37), 5787–5794. URL: http://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/11/5787.asp (accessed 03.12.2009).

Lee, H., & Lee, J. 2005. Effects of medicinal herb tea on the smoking cessation and reducing smoking withdrawal symptoms. Am. J. Chin. Med., 33 (1), 127–138. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15844840 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Mao, X., et al. 2005. Effects of beta-glucan obtained from the Chinese herb Astragalus membranaceus and lipopolysaccharide challenge on performance, immunological, adrenal, and somatotropic responses of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci., 83 (12), 2775–2782. URL: http://jas.fass.org/cgi/content/full/83/12/2775 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Ning, K., et al. 2005. [Effects of Huangqi on phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophage of mice.] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, 30 (21), 1670–1672. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16400945 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Mao, S. et al. 2004. [Modulatory effect of Astragalus membranaceus on Th1/Th2 cytokine in patients with herpes simplex keratitis.] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 24 (2), 121–123. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15015443 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Shao, B., et al. 2004. A study on the immune receptors for polysaccharides from the roots of Astragalus membranaceus, a Chinese medicinal herb. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 320 (4), 1103–1111. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15249203 (accessed 03.12.2009).

[No author listed.] 2003. Astragalus membranaceus. Monograph. Altern. Med. Rev., 8 (1), 72–77. URL (PDF): http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/8/1/72.pdf (accessed 03.12.2009).

Mills, S., & Bone, K. 2000. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy, 273–279. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

Huang, Z., et al. 1995. Effect of Astragalus membranaceus on T-lymphocyte subsets in patients with viral myocarditis. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 15 (6), 328–330. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7549379 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Chu, D., et al. 1994. The in vitro potentiation of LAK cell cytotoxicity in cancer and AIDS patients induced by F3 – a fractionated extract of Astragalus membranaceus. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi, 16 (3), 167–171. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7956691 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Zhao, X. 1992. Effects of Astragalus membranaceus and Tripterygium hypoglancum on natural killer cell activity of peripheral blood mononuclear in systemic lupus erythematosus. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 12 (11), 679–671, 645. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1301849 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Qian, Z., et al. 1990. Viral etiology of chronic cervicitis and its therapeutic response to a recombinant interferon. Chin. Med. J. (Engl.), 103 (8), 647–651. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2173655 (accessed 03.16.2009).

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Yuan, W., et al. 1990. Effect of Astragalus membranaceus on electric activities of cultured rat beating heart cells infected with Coxsackie B-2 virus. Chin. Med. J. (Engl.), 103 (3), 177–182. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2164463 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Wang, D. 1989. Influence of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) polysaccharide FB on immunologic function of human periphery blood lymphocyte. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi, 11 (3), 180–183. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2612327 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Cordyceps sinensis

Sheng L., et al. 2011. An exopolysaccharide from cultivated Cordyceps sinensis and its effects on cytokine expressions of immunocytes. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 163 (5), 669–678. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20811959 (accessed 03.04.0211).

Chen, S., et al. 2010. Effect of Cs-4 (Cordyceps sinensis) on exercise performance in healthy older subjects: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 16 (5), 585–590. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20804368 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Chen, W., et al. 2010. Effects of the acid polysaccharide fraction isolated from a cultivated Cordyceps sinensis on macrophages in vitro. Cell Immunol., 262 (1), 69–74. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20138259 (accessed 03.04. 2011).

Xiao, G., et al. 2010. Activation of myeloid dendritic cells by deoxynucleic acids from Cordyceps sinensis via a Toll-like receptor 9-dependent pathway. Cell Immunol., 263 (2), 241–250. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20451901 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Cheung, J., et al. 2009. Cordysinocan, a polysaccharide isolated from cultured Cordyceps, activates immune responses in cultured T-lymphocytes and macrophages: Signaling cascade and induction of cytokines. J. Ethnopharmacol., 124 (1), 61–68. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19446414 (accessed 09.25.2009).

Guo, J., et al. 2009. A contemporary treatment approach to both diabetes and depression by Cordyceps sinensis, rich in vanadium. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19948751 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Ji, D., et al. 2009. Antiaging effect of Cordyceps sinensis extract. Phyther. Res., 23 (1), 116–122. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18803231 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Li, C., et al. 2009. Two-sided effect of Cordyceps sinensis on dendritic cells in different physiological stages. J. Leukoc. Biol., 85. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (PDF): http://www.jleukbio.org/cgi/rapidpdf/jlb.0908573v1 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Shi, B., et al. 2009. Immunoregulatory Cordyceps sinensis increases regulatory T cells to Th17 cell ratio and delays diabetes in NOD mice. Int. Immunopharmacol., 9 (5), 582–586. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19557879 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Zhou, X., et al. 2009. Cordyceps fungi: Natural products, pharmacological functions and developmental products. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 61 (3), 279–291. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19222900 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Park, D., et al. 2008. Immunoglobulin and cytokine production from mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes is regulated by extracts of Cordyceps sinensis in C57BI/6N mice. J. Med. Food, 11 (4), 784–787. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19053874 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Patterson, R. 2008. Cordyceps: A traditional Chinese medicine and another fungal therapeutic biofactory? Phytochemistry, 69 (7), 1469–1495. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18343466 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Wang, X., et al. 2008. Cordyceps mycelia extract decreases portal hypertension in rats with dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver cirrhosis: A study on its histological basis. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao, 6 (11), 1136–1144. URL: http://www.jcimjournal.com/en/FullText2.aspx?articleID=167219772008111136 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Wang, X., et al. 2008. [Intervening and therapeutic effect of Cordyceps mycelia extract on liver cirrhosis induced by dimethylnitrosamine in rats.] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 28 (7), 617–622. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18822912 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Yoon, T., et al. 2008. Innate immune stimulation of exo-polymers prepared from Cordyceps sinensis by submerged culture. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 80 (6), 1087–1093. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18690428 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Zhang, Z., et al. 2008. Chemical composition and bioactivity changes in stale rice after fermentation with Cordyceps sinensis. J. Biosci. Bioeng., 106 (2), 188–193. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jbb/106/2/106_188/_article (accessed 03.16.2009).

Zhou, X., et al. 2008. Cordycepin is an immunoregulatory active ingredient of Cordyceps sinensis. Am. J. Chin. Med., 36 (5), 967–980. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19051361 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Huang, H., et al. 2007. [Inhibitory effects of Cordyceps extract on growth of colon cancer cells.] Zhong Yao Cai, 30 (3), 310–313. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17634040 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Ko, K., & Leung, H. 2007. Enhancement of ATP generation capacity, antioxidant activity and immunomodulatory activities by Chinese Yang and Yin tonifying herbs. Chin. Med., 2 (1), 3. URL: http://www.cmjournal.org/content/2/1/3 (accessed 08.12.2009).

Kuo, C., et al. 2007. Abrogation of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B-mediated suppression of phagocytosis in U937 cells by Cordyceps sinensis mycelium via production of cytokines. Food Chem. Toxicol., 45 (2), 278–285. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17029726 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Kuo, M., et al. 2007. Immunomodulatory effect of exo-polysaccharides from submerged cultured Cordyceps sinensis: Enhancement of cytokine synthesis, CD11b expression, and phagocytosis. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 75 (4), 769–775. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17310399 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Nishizawa, K., et al. 2007. Antidepressant-like effect of Cordyceps sinensis in the mouse tail suspension test. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 30 (9), 1758–1762. URL (PDF): http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/30/9/1758/_pdf (accessed 03.16.2009).

Rao, Y., et al. 2007. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferation tumoral cells activities of Antrodia camphorata, Cordyceps sinensis, and Cinnamomum osmophloeum bark extracts. J. Ethnopharmacol., 114 (1), 78–85. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17822865 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Xiao, J., & Zhong, J. 2007. Secondary metabolites from Cordyceps species and their antitumor activity studies. Recent Pat. Biotechnol., 1 (2), 123–137. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19075836 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Yu, L., et al. 2007. Macrophage biospecific extraction and high performance liquid chromatography for hypothesis of immunological active components in Cordyceps sinensis. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 44 (2), 439–443. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17276646 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Zhang, Q., & Wu, J. 2007. Cordyceps sinensis mycelium extract induces human premyelocytic leukemia cell apoptosis through mitochondrion pathway. Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood), 232 (1), 52–57. URL: http://www.ebmonline.org/cgi/content/full/232/1/52 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Ka Wai Lee, S., et al. 2006. Immunomodulatory activities of HERBSnSENSES Cordyceps — in vitro and in vivo studies. Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol., 28 (2), 341–360. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16873101 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Li, F., et al. 2006. [Effects of Cordyceps sinensis alcohol extractive on serum interferon-gamma level and splenic T lymphocyte subset in mice with viral myocarditis.] Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi, 22 (3), 321–323.URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16643790 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Li, S., et al. 2006. Hypoglycemic activity of polysaccharide, with antioxidation, isolated from cultured Cordyceps mycelia. Phytomedicine, 13 (6), 428–433. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16716913 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Lo, H., et al. 2006. Anti-hyperglycemic activity of natural and fermented Cordyceps sinensis in rats with diabetes induced by nicotinamide and streptozotocin. Am. J. Chin Med., 34 (5), 819–832. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17080547 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Wu, Y., et al. 2006. Effect of various extracts and a polysaccharide from the edible mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on cellular and humoral immune response against ovalbumin in mice. Phytother. Res., 20 (8), 646–652. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16691546 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Zhang, G., et al. 2006. Hypoglycemic activity of the fungi Cordyceps militaris, Cordyceps sinensis, Tricholoma mongolicum, and Omphalia lapidescens in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 72 (6), 1152–1156. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16575562 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Buenz, E., et al. 2005. The traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps sinensis and its effects on apoptotic homeostasis. J. Ethnopharmacol., 96 (1–2), 19–29. Review. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15588646 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Colson, S., et al. 2005. Cordyceps sinensis- and Rhodiola rosea-based supplementation in male cyclists and its effect on muscle tissue oxygen saturation. J. Strength Cond. Res., 19 (2), 358–363. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.13.2009).

Kuo, C., et al. 2005. Cordyceps sinensis mycelium protects mice from group A streptococcal infection. J. Med. Microbiol., 54 (Pt. 8), 795–802. URL (accessed 03.16.2009).

Leu, S., et al. 2005. The in vivo effect of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium on plasma corticosterone level in male mouse. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 28 (9), 1722–1725. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/28/9/28_1722/_article (accessed 03.16.2009).

Ng, T., & Wang, H. 2005. Pharmacological actions of Cordyceps, a prized folk medicine. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 57 (12), 1509–1519. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16354395 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Wang, B., et al. 2005. Free radical scavenging and apoptotic effects of Cordyceps sinensis fractionated by supercritical carbon dioxide. Food Chem. Toxicol., 43 (4), 543–552. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15721201 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Zhang, W., et al. 2005. Immunomodulatory and antitumour effects of an exopolysaccharide fraction from cultivated Cordyceps sinensis (Chinese caterpillar fungus) on tumour-bearing mice. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem., 42 (Pt. 1), 9–15. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15574120 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Lo, H., et al. 2004. The anti-hyperglycemic activity of the fruiting body of Cordyceps in diabetic rats induced by nicotinamide and streptozotocin. Life Sci., 74 (23), 2897–2908. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15050427 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Siu, K., et al. 2004. Pharmacological basis of “yin-nourishing” and “yang-invigorating” actions of Cordyceps, a Chinese tonifying herb. Life Sci., 76 (4), 385–395. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15530501 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Wang, Y., et al. 2004. [An experimental study on anti-aging action of Cordyceps extract.] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, 29 (8), 773–776. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15506292 (accessed 03.16.2009).

Koh, J., et al. 2002. Activation of macrophages and the intestinal immune system by an orally administered decoction from cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 66 (2), 407–411. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bbb/66/2/66_407/_article/-char/en (accessed 09.25.2009).

Weng, S., et al. 2002. Immunomodulatory functions of extracts from the Chinese medicinal fungus Cordyceps cicadae. J. Ethnopharmacol., 83 (1–2), 79–85. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12413710 (accessed 09.25.2009).

Kuo, Y., et al. 2001. Regulation of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids cell function by the immunomodulatory agents from Cordyceps sinensis. Life Sci., 68 (9), 1067–1082. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11212870 (accessed 09.25.2009).

Sugar, A., & McCaffrey, R. 1998. Antifungal activity of 3'-deoxyadenosine (cordycepin). Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 42(6), 1424–1427. URL (full text): http://aac.asm.org/cgi/content/full/42/6/1424?view=long&pmid=9624488 accessed 11.09.2009).

Zhu, J., et al. 1998. The scientific rediscovery of an ancient Chinese herbal medicine: Cordyceps sinensis: part I. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 4 (3), 289–303. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9764768 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Zhu, J., et al. 1998. The scientific rediscovery of a precious ancient Chinese herbal regimen: Cordyceps sinensis: part II. J. Altern. Complement. Med., 4 (4), 429–457. URL: (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9884180 (accessed 02.26.2009).

Eleuthero (Eleutherococcus senticosus)

Bai, Y., et al. 2011. Active components from Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) for protection of amyloid ß(25-35)-induced neuritic atrophy in cultured rat cortical neurons. J. Nat. Med. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21301979 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Hwang, Y., et al. 2009. The effects of Acanthopanax senticosus extract on bone turnover and bone mineral density in Korean postmenopausal women. J. Bone Miner. Metab. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19452124 (accessed 05.26.2009).

Panossian, A., et al. 2009. Adaptogens exert a stress-protective effect by modulation of expression of molecular chaperones. Phytomedicine, 16 (6–7), 617–622. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19188053 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Schutgens, F., et al. 2009. The influence of adaptogens on ultraweak biophoton emission: A pilot experiment. Phytother. Res. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19170145 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Smalinskiene, A., et al. 2009. Estimation of the combined effect of Eleutherococcus senticosus extract and cadmium on liver cells. Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 1171, 314–320. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19723071 (accessed 03.04.2011).

Wiegant, F., et al. 2009. Plant adaptogens increase lifespan and stress resistance in C. elegans. Biogerontology, 10 (1), 27–42. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18536978 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Bleakney, T. 2008. Deconstructing an adaptogen: Eleutherococcus senticosus. Holist. Nurs. Pract., 22 (4), 220–224. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18607235 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Bocharov, E., et al. 2008. [Neuroprotective features of phytoadaptogens.] Vestn. Ross. Akad. Med. Nauk. (4), 47–50. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18488457 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Chen, T., et al. 2008. Antioxidant evaluation of three adaptogenic extracts. Am. J. Chin. Med., 36 (6), 1209–1217. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19051347 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Liu, K., et al. 2008. Release of acetylcholine by syringin, an active principle of Eleutherococcus senticosus, to raise insulin secretion in Wistar rats. Neurosci. Lett., 434 (2), 195–199. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18304730 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Niu, H., et al. 2008. Hypoglycemic effect of syringin from Eleutherococcus senticosus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Planta Med., 74 (2), 109–113. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18203055 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Soya, H., et al. 2008. Extract from Acanthopanax senticosus Harms (Siberian ginseng) activates NTS and SON/PVN in the rat brain. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 72 (9), 2476–2480. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bbb/72/9/72_2476/_article (accessed 03.12.2009).

Tohda, C., et al. 2008. Inhibitory effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus extracts on amyloid beta(25-35)-induced neuritic atrophy and synaptic loss. J. Pharmacol. Sci., 107 (3), 329–339. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jphs/107/3/107_329/_article (accessed 03.04.2011).

Jung, C., et al. 2007. Eleutherococcus senticosus extract attenuates LPS-induced iNOS expression through the inhibition of Akt and JNK pathways in murine macrophage. J. Ethnopharmacol., 113 (1), 183–187. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17644291 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Niu, H., et al. 2007. Increase of beta-endorphin secretion by syringin, an active principle of Eleutherococcus senticosus, to produce antihyperglycemic action in type 1-like diabetic rats. Horm. Metab. Res., 39 (12), 894–898. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18075969 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Roxas, M., & Jurenka, J. 2007. Colds and influenza: A review of diagnosis and conventional, botanical, and nutritional considerations. Altern. Med. Rev., 12 (1), 25–48. Review. URL (PDF): http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/12/1/25.pdf (accessed 03.12.2009).

[No author listed.] 2006. Monograph. Eleutherococcus senticosus. Altern. Med. Rev, 11 (2), 151–155. URL (PDF): http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/11/2/151.pdf (accessed 03.12.2009).

Narimanian, M., et al. 2005. Impact of Chisan (ADAPT-232) on the quality-of-life and its efficacy as an adjuvant in the treatment of acute non-specific pneumonia. Phytomedicine, 12 (10), 723–729. URL:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16323290 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Narimanian, M., et al. 2005. Randomized trial of a fixed combination (Kan Jang) of herbal extracts containing Adhatoda vasica, Echinacea purpurea and Eleutherococcus senticosus in patients with upper respiratory tract infections. Phytomedicine, 12 (8), 539–547. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16121513 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Panossian, A., & Wagner, H. 2005. Stimulating effect of adaptogens: An overview with particular reference to their efficacy following single-dose administration. Phytother. Res., 19 (10), 819–838. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16261511 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Hartz, A., et al. 2004. Randomized controlled trial of Siberian ginseng for chronic fatigue. Psychol. Med., 34 (1), 51–61. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14971626 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Kimura, Y., & Sumiyoshi, M. 2004. Effects of various Eleutherococcus senticosus cortex on swimming time, natural killer activity and corticosterone level in forced swimming stressed mice. J. Ethnopharmacol., 95 (2–3), 447–453. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15507373 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Arushanian, E., et al. 2003. [Effect of Eleutherococcus on short-term memory and visual perception in healthy humans.] Eskp. Klin. Farmakol., 66 (5), 10–13. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14650206 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Rogala, E., et al. 2003. The influence of Eleutherococcus senticosus on cellular and humoral immunological response of mice. Pol. J. Vet. Sci., 6 (Suppl.), 37–39. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14509359 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Drozd, J., et al. 2002. Estimation of humoral activity of Eleutherococcus senticosus. Acta Pol. Pharm., 59 (5), 395–401. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12602802 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Panossian, A., et al. 2002. Effect of andrographolide and Kan Jang — fixed combination of extract SHA-10 and extract SHE-3 — on proliferation of human lymphocytes, production of cytokines and immune activation markers in the whole blood cells culture. Phytomedicine, 9 (7), 598–605. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12487323 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Gaffney, B., et al. 2001. Panax ginseng and Eleutherococcus senticosus may exaggerate an already existing biphasic response to stress via inhibition of enzymes which limit the binding of stress hormones to their receptors. Med. Hypotheses, 56 (5), 567–572. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11388770 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Gaffney, B., et al. 2001. The effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus and Panax ginseng on steroidal hormone indices of stress and lymphocyte subset numbers in endurance athletes. Life Sci., 70 (4), 431–442. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11798012 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Schmolz, M., et al. 2001. The synthesis of Rantes, G-CSF, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-13 in human whole-blood cultures is modulated by an extract from Eleutherococcus senticosus L. roots. Phytother. Res., 15 (3), 268–270. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11351368 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Davydov, M., & Krikorian, A. 2000. Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae) as an adaptogen: A closer look. J.Ethnopharmacol., 72 (3), 345–393. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10996277 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Fujikawa, T., et al. 1996. Protective effects of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms from Hokkaido and its components on gastric ulcer in restrained cold-water-stressed rats. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 19 (9), 1227–1230. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8889047 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Nishibe, S., et al. 1990. Phenolic compounds from the stem bark of Acanthopanax senticosus and their pharmacological effect in chronic swimming stressed rats. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 38 (6), 1763–1765. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2208394 (accessed 03.13.2009).

Farnsworth. N., et al. 1985. “Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus): Current status as an adaptogen.” In Economic and Medicinal Plant Research. Vol. 1, eds. H. Wagner et al., 217–284. London: Academic Press.

Medon, P., et al. 1981. Hypoglycemic effect and toxicity of Eleutherococcus senticosus following acute and chronic administration in mice. Acta Pharmalogica Sinica, 2 (4), 281–285. URL (PDF): http://www.chinaphar.com/1671-4083/2/281.pdf (accessed 03.13.2009).

Brekhman, I., & Dardymov, J. 1969. Pharmacological investigation of glycosides from ginseng and Eleutherococcus. Lloydia, 32 (1), 46–51. URL (no abstract available): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5788767 (accessed 03.12.2009).

Rhodiola rosea

Hung, S., et al. 2011. The effectiveness and efficacy of Rhodiola rosea L.: A systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Phytomedicine, 18 (4), 235–244. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21036578 (accessed 02.21.2011).

Calcabrini, C., et al. 2010. Rhodiola rosea ability to enrich cellular antioxidant defenses of cultured human keratinocytes. Arch. Dermatol. Res., 302 (3), 191–200. URL (abstract): (accessed 03.04.2011).

Cifani, C., et al. 2010. Effect of salidroside, active principle of Rhodiola rosea extract, on binge eating. Physiol. Behav., 101 (5), 555–562. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20837037 (accessed 03.04.2011).

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