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Joint Health Combo

Joint Health Combo

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Joint Health Combo

Joint issues are extremely common — especially for women in menopause and beyond — and to feel better, you need a targeted solution that both protects and relieves. Whether the problem is in your neck, back, knees, hips, hands, feet, elbows or shoulders, your joints will benefit from getting the antioxidant support they need every day. Our Joint Health Combo packs twice the antioxidant power to help your body fend off free-radical damage and its consequences. Joint Complex Plus provides a base level of antioxidant protection and symptom relief. The Super Antioxidant formula contributes companion amounts of antioxidants to safely bolster your body’s ability to handle free radicals. Together the Combo nourishes and protects your joints. Both products come in easy-to-swallow capsules.

What you get with the Combo:

Joint Complex Plus — this effective natural formula addresses the most common joint issues affecting women and contains special ingredients for cartilage regeneration and joint flexibility and protection.

Joint Complex Plus includes:

  • Curcumin — from the turmeric plant (Curcuma longa). Recent research shows that curcumin provides excellent support for better joint health.
  • Green-lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus) — this shellfish-derived ingredient contains healthy omega-3 fatty acids, amino acids and minerals.
  • MSM (methylsulfonymethane) — MSM is a time-tested and safe, natural organosulfur compound often used for joint health.
  • Ginger root — Because of its strong phenol compounds, ginger root has been relied upon for thousands of years to support joint health and soothe digestion.
  • Quercetin and vitamin C — these powerful antioxidants support healthy joint function and cartilage maintenance.

Super Antioxidant — formulated to help protect your body from the effects of oxidative stress by working to neutralize free radicals, this powerful antioxidant delivers additional amounts of healing agents for healthy joint function.

Super Antioxidant includes:

  • Meriva® Curcumin Phytosome — this patented formulation of curcumin promotes joint comfort and flexibility and includes a special form of phosphatidylcholine with superior bioavailability to allow more curcumin to reach the cells.
  • Lycopene — this powerful carotenoid antioxidant is found in tomatoes and other fruits and vegetables. It supports healthy bone mineral density and a reduction in oxidative stress while helping to reduce bone resorption markers that indicate bone breakdown.

How to use:

For Joint Complex Plus: we recommend taking two tablets twice per day — at breakfast and then again at dinner.

For Super Antioxidant, take one vegetarian capsule twice a day, once with breakfast and another with lunch or dinner.

For best results, it’s essential to use both products together regularly every day as directed for at least 60 days before evaluating your results.

This Joint Health Combo is intended to last a full 30 days.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
Joint Health Combo Ingredients

Product References

Joint Complex Plus

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Quercetin

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Bromelain

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Rosemary

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Schilcher H, Kammerer S, Wegener T, 2000. Leitfaden Phytotherapie. Urban & Fischer Verlag, München, Jena.

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Wichtl M, 2002. Teedrogen und Phytopharmaka. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, Stuttgart.

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Green Tea Extract

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Ames BN, 2001. DNA damage from micronutrient deficiencies is likely to be a major cause of cancer. Mutation Research-Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, 475, 7-20.

Astill C, Birch MR, Dacombe C, Humphrey PG, Martin PT, 2001. Factors affecting the caffeine and polyphenol contents of black and green tea infusions. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49, 5340-5347.

Balentine DA, Wiseman SA, Bouwens LCM, 1997. The chemistry of tea flavonoids. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 37, 693-704.

Benzie IF and Strain JJ, 1999. Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay: direct measure of total antioxidant activity of biological fluids and modified version for simultaneous measurement of total antioxidant power and ascorbic acid concentration. Methods Enzymol, 299, 15-27.

Benzie IFF, Szeto YT, Strain JJ, Tomlinson B, 1999. Consumption of green tea causes rapid increase in plasma antioxidant power in humans. Nutrition and Cancer, 34, 83-87.

Blaschek W, Ebel S, Hackenthal E, Holzgrabe U, Keller K, Reichling J, Schulz V, 2006. Hager Rom Hagers Handbuch der Drogen und Arzneistoffe. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg.

Bohm V, Netzel M, Kler A, Marx S, Weiss M, Geiss KR, 2004. Antioxidant capacity of human plasma and serum as affected by a single dose of a beverage rich in antioxidants-use of three different assay systems. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment, 2, 74-78.

Bushman JL, 1998. Green tea and cancer in humans: A review of the literature. Nutrition and Cancer, 31, 151-159.

Cabrera C, Artacho R, Gimenez R, 2006. Beneficial effects of green tea - A review. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 25, 79-99.

Caffin N, D‘Arcy B, Yao L, Rintoul G, 2004. Developing an Index of Quality for Australian Tea. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Publication No. 04/033, Project No. UQ-88A.

Cao G, Verdon CP, Wu AHB, Wang H, Prior RL, 1995. Automated-Assay of Oxygen Radical Absorbency Capacity with the COBAS FARA II. Clinical Chemistry, 41, 1738-1744.

Cao GH, Sofic E, Prior RL, 1996. Antioxidant capacity of tea and common vegetables. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 44, 3426-3431.

Chantre P and Lairon D, 2002. Recent findings of green tea extract AR25 (Exolise) and its activity for the treatment of obesity. Phytomedicine, 9, 3-8.

Chen CH, Ho ML, Chang JK, Hung SH, Wang GJ, 2005. Green tea catechin enhances osteogenesis in a bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell line. Osteoporosis International, 16, 2039-2045.

Chhabra SK and Yang CS, 2001. Tea and prostate cancer. Epidemiologic Reviews, 23, 106-109.

Chung FL, Schwartz J, Herzog CR, Yang YM, 2003. Tea and cancer prevention: Studies in animals and humans. Journal of Nutrition, 133, 3268S-3274S.

Clark J and You M, 2006. Chemoprevention of lung cancer by tea. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 50, 144-151.

Coimbra S, Castro E, Rocha-Pereira P, Rebelo I, Rocha S, Santos-Silva A, 2006. The effect of green tea in oxidative stress. Clinical Nutrition, 25, 790-796.

Cooper R, Morre DJ, Morre DM, 2005. Medicinal benefits of green tea: Part I. Review of noncancer health benefits. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 11, 521-528.

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Dragsted LO, 2003. Antioxidant actions of polyphenols in humans. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research, 73, 112-119.

Duffy SJ, Keaney JF, Holbrook M, Gokce N, Swerdloff PL, Frei B, Vita JA, 2001. Short- and long-term black tea consumption reverses endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation, 104, 151-156.

Engelhardt UH, 1998. Polyphenole in Tee. Wissenschaftlicher Informationsdienst Tee.

Erba D, Riso P, Bordoni A, Foti P, Biagi PL, Testolin G, 2005. Effectiveness of moderate green tea consumption on antioxidative status and plasma lipid profile in humans. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 16, 144-149.

Felter H and Lloyd J, King‘s American dispensatory, 1898, www.henriettesherbal.com/eclectic/kings/index.html.

Feng WY, 2006. Metabolism of green tea catechins: An overview. Current Drug Metabolism, 7, 755-809.

Finger A, Kuhr S, Engelhardt UH, 1992. Chromatography of Tea Constituents. Journal of Chromatography, 624, 293-315.

Frei B and Higdon JV, 2003. Antioxidant activity of tea polyphenols in vivo: Evidence from animal studies. Journal of Nutrition, 133, 3275s-3284s.

Fujiki H, 1999. Two stages of cancer prevention with green tea. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, 125, 589-597.

Fujiki H, Suganuma M, Imai K, Nakachi K, 2002. Green tea: cancer preventive beverage and/or drug. Cancer Letters, 188, 9-13.

Fujiki H, 2005. Green tea: Health benefits as cancer preventive for humans. Chemical Record, 5, 119-132.

Gezgin S, Ozcan MM, Atalay E, 2006. Determination of minerals extracted from several commercial teas (Camellia sinensis) to hot water (Infusion). Journal of Medicinal Food, 9, 123-127.

Gruenwald J, Brendler T, Jaenicke C, 2004. PDR for herbal medicines. Thomson Reuters, Montvale.

Gupta S, Saha B, Giri AK, 2002. Comparative antimutagenic and anticlastogenic effects of green tea and black tea: a review. Mutation Research-Reviews in Mutation Research, 512, 37-65.

Hagen, 1992. Camellia sinensis.

Hakim IA, Harris RB, Brown S, Chow HHS, Wiseman S, Agarwal S, Talbot W, 2003. Effect of increased tea consumption on oxidative DNA damage among smokers: A randomized controlled study. Journal of Nutrition, 133, 3303S-3309S.

Halvorsen BL, Carlsen MH, Phillips KM, Bohn SK, Holte K, Jacobs DR, Blomhoff R, 2006. Content of redox-active compounds (ie, antioxidants) in foods consumed in the United States. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 84, 95-135.

Harbowy ME and Balentine DA, 1997. Tea chemistry. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 16, 415-480.

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Higdon JV and Frei B, 2003. Tea catechins and polyphenols: Health effects, metabolism, and antioxidant functions. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 43, 89-143.

Hodgson JM, Puddey IB, Croft KD, Burke V, Mori TA, Caccetta RA, Beilin LJ, 2000. Acute effects of ingestion of black and green tea on lipoprotein oxidation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71, 1103-1107.

Inagake M, Yamane T, Kitao Y, Oya K, Matsumoto H, Kikuoka N, Nakatani H, Takahashi T, Nishimura H, Iwashima A, 1995. Inhibition of 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine-Induced Oxidative DNA-Damage by Green Tea Extract in Rat. Japanese Journal of Cancer Research, 86, 1106-1111.

Jankun J, Selman SH, Swiercz R, Skrzypczak-Jankun E, 1997. Why drinking green tea could prevent cancer. Nature, 387, 561-561.

Ji BT, Chow WH, Hsing AW, McLaughlin JK, Dai Q, Gao YT, Blot WJ, Fraumeni JF, 1997. Green tea consumption and the risk of pancreatic and colorectal cancers. International Journal of Cancer, 70, 255-258.

Jovanovic SV, Steenken S, Hara Y, Simic MG, 1996. Reduction potentials of flavonoid and model phenoxyl radicals. Which ring in flavonoids is responsible for antioxidant activity? Perkin Transactions 2, 2497-2504.

Jovanovic SV, Hara Y, Steenken S, Simic MG, 1997. Antioxidant potential of theaflavins. A pulse radiolysis study. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 119, 5337-5343.

Katiyar SK, Bergamo BM, Vyalil PK, Elmets CA, 2001. Green tea polyphenols: DNA photodamage and photoimmunology. J Photochem Photobiol B, 65, 109-114.

Katiyar SK and Elmets CA, 2001. Green tea polyphenolic antioxidants and skin photoprotection. International Journal of Oncology, 18, 1307-1313.

Katiyar SK, 2003. Skin photoprotection by green tea: antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. Curr Drug Targets Immune Endocr Metabol Disord, 3, 234-242.

Koketsu M and Satoh YI, 1997. Antioxidative activity of green tea polyphenols in edible oils. Journal of Food Lipids, 4, 1-9.

Koo MWL and Cho CH, 2004. Pharmacological effects of green tea on the gastrointestinal system. European Journal of Pharmacology, 500, 177-185.

Lakenbrink C, Lapczynski S, Maiwald B, Engelhardt UH, 2000. Flavonoids and other polyphenols in consumer brews of tea and other caffeinated beverages. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48, 2848-2852.

Langley-Evans SC, 2000. Consumption of black tea elicits an increase in plasma antioxidant potential in humans. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 51, 309-315.

Lee IP, Kim YH, Kang MH, Roberts C, Shim JS, Roh JK, 1997. Chemopreventive effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis) against cigarette smoke-induced mutations (SCE) in humans. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 27, 68-75.

Leenen R, Roodenburg AJC, Tijburg LBM, Wiseman SA, 2000. A single dose of tea with or without milk increases plasma antioxidant activity in humans. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 54, 87-92.

Leung A and Foster S, 1980. Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Leung LK, Su YL, Chen RY, Zhang ZH, Huang Y, Chen ZY, 2001. Theaflavins in black tea and catechins in green tea are equally effective antioxidants. Journal of Nutrition, 131, 2248-2251.

Lewis JR, Davis AL, Cai Y, Davies AP, Wilkins JPG, Pennington M, 1998. Theaflavate B, isotheaflavin-3 '-O-gallate and neotheaflavin-3-O-gallate: Three polyphenolic pigments from black tea. Phytochemistry, 49, 2511-2519.

Luo M, Kannar K, Wahlqvist ML, OBrien RC, 1997. Inhibition of LDL oxidation by green tea extract. Lancet, 349, 360-361.

Mandel S and Youdim MBH, 2004. Catechin polyphenols: Neurodegeneration and neuroprotection in neurodegenerative diseases. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 37, 304-317.

Maxwell S and Thorpe G, 1996. Tea flavonoids have little short term impact on serum antioxidant activity. British Medical Journal, 313, 229-229.

McDermott JH, 2000. Antioxidant nutrients: current dietary recommendations and research update. J Am Pharm Assoc, 40, 785-799.

Miller NJ, Riceevans C, Davies MJ, Gopinathan V, Milner A, 1993. A Novel Method for Measuring Antioxidant Capacity and Its Application to Monitoring the Antioxidant Status in Premature Neonates. Clinical Science, 84, 407-412.

Miller NJ, Castelluccio C, Tijburg L, RiceEvans C, 1996. The antioxidant properties of theaflavins and their gallate esters - Radical scavengers or metal chelators? FEBS Letters, 392, 40-44.

Mitscher LA, Jung M, Shankel D, Dou JH, Steele L, Pillai SP, 1997. Chemoprotection: A review of the potential therapeutic antioxidant properties of green tea (Camellia sinensis) and certain of its constituents. Medicinal Research Reviews, 17, 327-365.

Miyazawa T, 2000. Absorption, metabolism and antioxidative effects of tea catechin in humans. Biofactors, 13, 55-59.

Morel I, Lescoat G, Cogrel P, Sergent O, Pasdeloup N, Brissot P, Cillard P, Cillard J, 1993. Antioxidant and Iron-Chelating Activities of the Flavonoids Catechin, Quercetin and Diosmetin on Iron-Loaded Rat Hepatocyte Cultures. Biochemical Pharmacology, 45, 13-19.

Morley N, Clifford T, Salter L, Campbell S, Gould D, Curnow A, 2005. The green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and green tea can protect human cellular DNA from ultraviolet and visible radiation-induced damage. Photodermatology Photoimmunology & Photomedicine, 21, 15-22.

Nagle DG, Ferreira D, Zhou YD, 2006. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG): Chemical and biomedical perspectives. Phytochemistry, 67, 1849-1855.

Nakagawa K, Ninomiya M, Okubo T, Aoi N, Juneja LR, Kim M, Yamanaka K, Miyazawa T, 1999. Tea catechin supplementation increases antioxidant capacity and prevents phospholipid hydroperoxidation in plasma of humans. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 47, 3967-3973.

Nakagawa T, Yokozawa T, Terasawa K, Shu S, Juneja LR, 2002. Protective activity of green tea against free radical- and glucose-mediated protein damage. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50, 2418-2422.

National Institute of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Herbs at a Glance: Green Tea, http://nccam.nih.gov/health/greentea/.

Obanda M and Owuor PO, 1995. Impact of Shoot Maturity on Chlorophyll Content, Composition of Volatile Flavor Compounds and Plain Black Tea Chemical-Quality Parameters of Clonal Leaf. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 69, 529-534.

Ohmori R, Iwamoto T, Tago M, Takeo T, Unno T, Itakura H, Kondo K, 2005. Antioxidant activity of various teas against free radicals and LDL oxidation. Lipids, 40, 849-853.

Okubo T, Juneja L, Yokozawa T, Shibata T, Hasegawa M, 2004. Antioxidative effect of Green Tea Catechins and their Clinical Efficacy in Hemodialysis Patients.

Osada K, Takahashi M, Hoshina S, Nakamura M, Nakamura S, Sugano M, 2001. Tea catechins inhibit cholesterol oxidation accompanying oxidation of low density lipoprotein in vitro. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C-Toxicology & Pharmacology, 128, 153-164.

Paganga G, Miller N, Rice-Evans CA, 1999. The polyphenolic content of fruit and vegetables and their antioxidant activities. What does a serving constitute? Free Radical Research, 30, 153-162.

Pastore RL and Fratellone P, 2006. Potential health benefits of green tea (camellia sinensis): A narrative review. Explore, 2, 531-539.

Peters U, Poole C, Arab L, 2001. Does tea affect cardiovascular disease? A meta-analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology, 154, 495-503.

Picard ND, 1996. The Biochemistry of Green Tea Polyphenols and Their Potential Application in Human Skin Cancer. Altern Med Rev, 1, 31-42.

Pietta P, Simonetti P, Gardana C, Brusamolino A, Morazzoni P, Bombardelli E, 1998. Relationship between rate and extent of catechin absorption and plasma antioxidant status. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology International, 46, 895-903.

Pietta PG, Simonetti P, Gardana C, Brusamolino A, Morazzoni P, Bombardelli E, 1998. Catechin metabolites after intake of green tea infusions. Biofactors, 8, 111-118.

Prior RL and Cao GH, 1999. Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic components of teas: Implications for altering in vivo antioxidant status. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 220, 255-261.

Proteggente AR, Pannala AS, Paganga G, Van Buren L, Wagner E, Wiseman S, Van De Put F, Dacombe C, Rice-Evans CA, 2002. The antioxidant activity of regularly consumed fruit and vegetables reflects their phenolic and vitamin C composition. Free Radical Research, 36, 217-233.

Rao TP, Juneja LR, Okubo T, Chu D, Yokosawa T, 2002-3. Green Tea Polyphenols Against Renal Disorders. International Journal of Tea Science, 2.

Rao TP, Yokozawa T, Juneja LR, 2004. Preventive effects of green tea polyphenols against oxidative stress of renal disease. International Journal of Tea Science.

Rice-Evans CA, Miller J, Paganga G, 1997. Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds. Trends in Plant Science, 2, 152-159.

Rice-Evans C, 1999. Implications of the mechanisms of action of tea polyphenols as antioxidants in vitro for chemoprevention in humans. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 220, 262-266.

Saffari Y and Sadrzadeh SMH, 2004. Green tea metabolite EGCG protects membranes against oxidative damage in vitro. Life Sciences, 74, 1513-1518.

Schmidt M, Schmitz H, Baumgart A, Guedon D, Netsch MI, Kreuter MH, Schmidlin CB, Schrenk D, 2005. Toxicity of green tea extracts and their constituents in rat hepatocytes in primary culture. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 43, 307-314.

Scholz E and Bertram B, 1995. Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze. Der Teestrauch. Zeitschrift für Phytotherapie, 17, 235-250.

Seely D, Mills EJ, Wu P, Verma S, Guyatt GH, 2005. The effects of green tea consumption on incidence of breast cancer and recurrence of breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 4, 144.

Seeram NP, Henning SM, Niu YT, Lee R, Scheuller HS, Heber D, 2006. Catechin and caffeine content of green tea dietary supplements and correlation with antioxidant capacity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54, 1599-1603.

Serafini M, Ghiselli A, Ferro Luzzi A, 1996. In vivo antioxidant effect of green and black tea in man. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 50, 28-32.

Serafini M, Laranjinha JAN, Almeida LM, Maiani G, 2000. Inhibition of human LDL lipid peroxidation by phenol-rich beverages and their impact on plasma total antioxidant capacity in humans. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 11, 585-590.

Shim JS, Kang MH, Kim YH, Roh JK, Roberts C, Lee IP, 1995. Chemopreventive Effect of Green Tea (Camellia-Sinensis) among Cigarette Smokers. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, 4, 387-391.

Stangl V, Lorenz M, Stangl K, 2006. The role of tea and tea flavonoids in cardiovascular health. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 50, 218-228.

Sueoka N, Suganuma M, Sueoka E, Okabe S, Matsuyama S, Imai K, Nakachi K, Fujiki H, 2001. A new function of green tea: prevention of lifestyle-related diseases. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 928, 274-280.

Sung H, Nah J, Chun S, Park H, Yang SE, Min WK, 2000. In vivo antioxidant effect of green tea. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 54, 527-529.

Ullmann U, Haller J, Decourt JD, Girault J, Spitzer V, Weber P, 2004. Plasma-kinetic characteristics of purified and isolated green tea catechin epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) after 10 days repeated dosing in healthy volunteers. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research, 74, 269-278.

University of Maryland Medical Centre, Green tea, http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/green-tea-000255.htm.

Unten L, Koketsu M, Kim M, 1997. Antidiscoloring activity of green tea polyphenols on beta-carotene. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 45, 2009-2012.

Valkonen M and Kuusi T, 1997. Spectrophotometric assay for total peroxyl radical-trapping antioxidant potential in human serum. Journal of Lipid Research, 38, 823-833.

Valtueña S, Pellegrini N, Franzini L, Bianchi M, Ardigò D, Del Rio D, Piatti P, Scazzina F, Zavaroni I, Brighenti F, 2008. Food selection based on total antioxidant capacity can modify antioxidant intake, systemic inflammation, and liver function without altering markers of oxidative stress. Am J Clin Nutr, 87, 1290-1297.

Van Amelsvoort JMM, Hof KHV, Mathot JNJJ, Mulder TPJ, Wiersma A, Tijburg LBM, 2001. Plasma concentrations of individual tea catechins after a single oral dose in humans. Xenobiotica, 31, 891-901.

van het Hof KH, de Boer HSM, Wiseman SA, Lien N, Weststrate JA, Tijburg LBM, 1997. Consumption of green or black tea does not increase resistance of low-density lipoprotein to oxidation in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 66, 1125-1132.

Vinson JA, Dabbagh YA, Serry MM, Jang JH, 1995. Plant Flavonoids, Especially Tea Flavonols, Are Powerful Antioxidants Using an in-Vitro Oxidation Model for Heart-Disease. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 43, 2800-2802.

Wang H, Cao GH, Prior RL, 1996. Total antioxidant capacity of fruits. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 44, 701-705.

Wang HF, Provan CJ, Helliwell K, 2000. Tea flavonoids: their functions, utilisation and analysis. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 11, 152-160.

Wichtl M, 1997. Teedrogen und Phytopharmaka. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, Stuttgart.

Wichtl M, 2001. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. Medpharm Scientific Publishers, Stuttgart.

Wichtl M, 2004. Herbal drugs and phytopharmaceuticals: a handbook for practice on a scientific basis. Medpharm GmbH Scientific Publishers, Stuttgart, Germany.

Wiseman SA, Balentine DA, Frei B, 1997. Antioxidants in tea. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 37, 705-718.

Wu AH and Yu MC, 2006. Tea, hormone-related cancers and endogenous hormone levels. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 50, 160-169.

Xue KX, Wang S, Ma GJ, Zhou P, Wu PQ, Zhang RF, Xu Z, Chen WS, Wang YQ, 1992. Micronucleus Formation in Peripheral-Blood Lymphocytes from Smokers and the Influence of Alcohol-Drinking and Tea-Drinking Habits. International Journal of Cancer, 50, 702-705.

Yang CS, Chung JY, Yang GY, Chhabra SK, Lee MJ, 2000. Tea and tea polyphenols in cancer prevention. Journal of Nutrition, 130, 472S-478S.

Yang CS, Maliakal P, Meng XF, 2002. Inhibition of carcinogenesis by tea. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 42, 25-54.

Yang CS, Sang SM, Lambert JD, Hou Z, Ju JY, Lu G, 2006. Possible mechanisms of the cancer-preventive activities of green tea. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 50, 170-175.

Yokozawa T, Oura H, Sakanaka S, Kim M, 1992. Effect of Tannins in Green Tea on the Urinary Methylguanidine Excretion in Rats Indicating a Possible Radical Scavenging Action. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 56, 896-899.

Yokozawa T, Oura H, Hattori M, Iwano M, Dohi K, Sakanaka S, Kim M, 1993. Inhibitory Effect of Tannin in Green Tea on the Proliferation of Mesangial Cells. Nephron, 65, 596-600.

Yokozawa T, Oura H, Sakanaka S, Ishigaki S, Kim M, 1994. Depressor Effect of Tannin in Green Tea on Rats with Renal-Hypertension. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 58, 855-858.

Yokozawa T, Oura H, Nakagawa H, Sakanaka S, Kim M, 1995. Effects of a Component of Green Tea on the Proliferation of Vascular Smooth-Muscle Cells. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 59, 2134-2136.

Yokozawa T, Chung HY, He LQ, Oura H, 1996. Effectiveness of green tea tannin on rats with chronic renal failure. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 60, 1000-1005.

Yokozawa T, Oura H, Shibata T, Ishida K, Kaneko M, Hasegawa M, Sakanaka S, Kim M, 1996. Effects of green tea tannin in dialysis patients. J Tradit Med, 13, 124-134.

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Yusuf N, Irby C, Katiyar SK, Elmets CA, 2007. Photoprotective effects of green tea polyphenols. Photodermatology Photoimmunology & Photomedicine, 23, 48-56.

Zhong Z, Froh M, Connor HD, Li XL, Conzelmann LO, Mason RP, Lemasters JJ, Thurman RG, 2002. Prevention of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury by green tea extract. American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, 283, G957-G964.

Super Antioxidant

Our Super Antioxidant is formulated to be complete, natural, bioavailable and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.

The following articles and studies, arranged alphabetically, represent a sampling of the research on the constituents of Super Antioxidant.

Vitamin C (Calcium ascorbate)

Anderson, P. A., et al. 2012. Correlations of capture, transport, and nutrition with spinal deformaties in sandtiger sharks, Carcharias Taurus, in public aquaria. J Zoo Wildl Med. 43(4): 750-8. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23272341 (accessed 2/6/2013).

Ceriello, A., et al. 2012. Evidence that hyperglycemia after recovery from hypoglycemia worsens endothelial function and increases oxidative stress and inflammation in healthy control subjects and subjects with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 61 (11): 2993-7. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22891214 (accessed 2/7/2013)

Cha, J., et al. 2013. Ascorbate supplementation inhibits growth and metastasis of B16FO melanoma and 4T1 breast cancer cells in vitamin C-deficient mice. Int J Oncol. 42(1): 55-64. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23175106 (accessed 2/6/2013).

De Pablo, P., et al. 2007. Antioxidants and other novel cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis in a large population sample. Arthritis Rheum., 57 (6), 953–962. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17665477 (accessed 2/4/2013).

Dennehy, C., & Tsourounis, C. 2010. A review of select vitamins and minerals used by postmenopausal women. Maturitas, 66 (4), 370–380. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20580500 (accessed 2/6/2013).

Farombi, E., & Onyema, O. 2006. Monosodium glutamate-induced oxidative damage and genotoxicity in the rat: Modulatory role of vitamin C, vitamin E and quercetin. Hum. Exp. Toxicol., 25 (5), 251–259. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16758767 (accessed 2/6/2013).

Frei, B., et al. 2012. Authors’ perspective: What is the optimum intake of vitamin C in humans? Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 52(9): 815-29. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22698272 (accessed 2/7/2013).

Gabbay, K., et al. 2010. Ascorbate synthesis pathway: Dual role of ascorbate in bone homeostasis. J. Biol. Chem., 285 (25), 19510–19520. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20410296 (accessed 2/6/2013).

Gunes, T., et al. a-tocopherol and ascorbic acid in early postoperative period of cardiopulmonary bypass. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown). 13(11): 691-9. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22885531 (accessed 2/7/2013).

Harikrishnan, R., et al. 2013. Protective effect of ascorbic acid against ethanol-induced reproductive toxicity in male guinea pigs. Br J Nutr. 21: 1-10 [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23336340 (accessed 2/6/2013).

Hie, M., & Tsukamoto, I. 2010. Vitamin C-deficiency stimulates osteoclastogenesis with an increase in RANK expression. J. Nutr. Biochem. 22(2): 164-71. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20444587 (accessed 2/6/2013).

Jelodar, G., et al. 2013. The prophylactic effect of vitamin C on induced oxidative stress in rat testis following exposure to 900 MHz radio frequency wave generated by a BTS antenna model. Electromagn Biol Med. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23323690 (accessed 2/6/2013).

Lee, C. H., et al. 2013. Involvement of Mitochondrial DNA Damage Elicited by Oxidative Stress in the Arsenical Skin Cancers. J Invest Dermatol. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23370535 (accessed 2/6/2013).

Lee, T. H., et al. 2013. The use of lyophilized plasma in severe multi-injury pig model. Transfusion. 53 Suppl 1:72S-9S. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23301977 (accessed 2/7/2013).

Maggio, D., et al. 2003. Marked decrease in plasma antioxidants in aged osteoporotic women: Results of a cross-sectional study. J. Clin. Endocrin. Metab., 88 (4), 1523–1527. URL: http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/88/4/1523 (accessed 2/6/2013).

Maïmoun, L., et al. 2008. Effect of antioxidants and exercise on bone metabolism. J. Sports Sci., 26 (3), 251–258. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18074298 (accessed 2/6/2013).

Massé, P., et al. 2008. Cardiovascular disease-risk factors in middle-aged osteopaenic women treated with calcium alone or combined to three nutrients essential to artery and bone collagen. J. Hum. Nutr. Diet., 21 (2), 117–128. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18339052 (accessed 2/6/2013).

McAlindon, T., et al. 1996. Do antioxidant micronutrients protect against the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis? Arthritis. Rheum., 39 (4), 648–656. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8630116 (accessed 2/6/2013).

Mikirova, N., et al. 2012. Effect of high-dose intravenous vitamin C on inflammation in cancer patients. J Transl Med. 10: 189. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22963460 (accessed 2/7/2013).

Morton, D. 2001. Vitamin C supplement use and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. J. Bone Miner. Res., 16 (1), 135–140. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11149477 (accessed 2/6/2013).

Neto, A., et al. 2010. Profiling the changes in signaling pathways in ascorbic acid/beta-glycerophosphate-induced osteoblastic differentiation. J. Cell. Biochem. 112(1): 71-7. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20626033 (accessed 2/6/2013).

de Oliveira, B. F., et al. 2012. Ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and beta-carotene reduce oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines in mononuclear cells of Alzheimer’s disease patients. Nutr Neurosci. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22710805 (accessed 2/7/2013).

Ruiz–Ramos, M., et al. 2010. Supplementation of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol is useful to preventing bone loss linked to oxidative stress in elderly. J. Nutr. Health Aging, 14 (6), 467–472. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20617290 (accessed 2/6/2013).

Sahni, S., et al. 2008. High vitamin C intake is associated with lower 4-year bone loss in elderly men. J. Nutr., 138 (10), 1931–1938. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18806103 (accessed 2/6/2013).

Stabler, T., & Kraus, V. 2003. Ascorbic acid accumulates in cartilage in vivo. Clin. Chim. Acta, 334, 157–62. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12867287 (accessed 2/6/2013).

Temu, T., et al. 2010. The mechanism of ascorbic acid-induced differentiation of ATDC5 chondrogenic cells. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab., 299 (2), E325–334. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20530736 (accessed 2/6/2013).

Zanoni, J. N., et al. 2013. Histological evaluation of the periodontal ligament from aged wistar rats supplemented with ascorbic acid. An Acad Bras Cienc. [Epub ahead of print.] URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23348562 (accessed 2/6/2013).

Meriva Curcumin Phytosome
(Curcuma longa, Phosphatidylcholine)

Ak, T. & Gülçin, I. 2008. Antioxidant and radical scavenging properties of curcumin. Chemico-biological Interactions. 174(1): 24-37. URL (abstract): DOI:10.1016/j.cbi.2008.05.003 (accessed 12/18/2012).

Allegri, P., et al. 2010. Management of chronic anterior uveitis relapses: efficacy of oral phospholipidic curcumin treatment. Long-term follow-up. Clin Ophthalmol. 4, 1201-1206. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2964958/ (accessed 11/27/2012).

Appendino, G., et al. 2011. Potential role of curcumin phytosome (Meriva) in controlling the evolution of diabetic microangiopathy. A pilot study. Panminerva Med. 53(3 Suppl 1), 43-9. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22108476 (accessed 11/26/2012)

Belcaro, G., et al. 2010. Efficacy and safety of Meriva®, a curcumin-phosphatidylcholine complex, during extended administration in osteoarthritis patients. Altern Med Rev. 15 (4), 337-44. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21194249 (accessed 11/27/2012)

Bradley, JR. 2008. TNF-mediated inflammatory disease. J Pathol. 214 (2): 149-60. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18161752 (accessed 12/18/2012)

Belcaro, G., et al. 2010. Product-evaluation registry of Meriva®, a curcumin-phosphatidylcholine complex, for the complementary management of osteoarthritis. Panminerva Med. 52 (2 Suppl 1), 55-62. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20657536 (accessed 11/27/20012)

Chandran, B. & Goel, A. 2012. A randomized, pilot study to assess the efficacy and safety of curcumin in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. Phytother Res.26(11):1719-25. doi: 10.1002/ptr.4639 (accessed 12/18/2012).

Cuomo, J., et al. 2011. Comparative absorption of a standardized curcuminoid mixture and its lecithin formulation. J Nat Prod. , 74(4):664-9. Epub 2011 Mar 17. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21413691 (accessed 11/26/2012)

Gupta, N.K. & Dixit, V.K. 2011. Bioavailability enhancement of curcumin by complexation with phosphatidyl choline. J Pharm Sci. 100(5): 1987-95. URL: doi: 10.1002/jps.22393 (accessed 12/20/2012).

Heeba, G. H., et al. 2012. Anti-inflammatory potential of curcumin and quercetin in rats: Role of oxidative stress, heme oxygenase-1 and TBF- a. Toxicol Ind Health. Sept 28 (Epub ahead of print). URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23024111 (accessed 12/18/2012).

Huang, G., et al. 2012. Curcumin Protects Against Collagen-Induced Arthritis via Suppression of BAFF Production. J Clin Immunol. November 27 (Epub ahead of print). URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23184090 (accessed 12/18/2012).

Ibrahim, A., et al. 2012. Effect of curcumin and Meriva on the lung metastasis of murine mammary gland adenocarcinoma. In Vivo. July-Aug. 24 (4), 401-8. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20668306 (accessed 11/27/2012)

Innes, J.F., et al. 2003. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study of P54FP for the treatment of dogs with osteoarthritis. Vet Rec. 152 (15): 547-60. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12723628 (accessed 12/18/2012).

Iqbal, M., et al. 2003. Dietary Supplementation of Curcumin Enhances Antioxidant and Phase II Metabolizing Enzymes in ddY Male Mice: Possible Role in Protection against Chemical Carcinogenesis and Toxicity. Pharmacology & Toxicology. 92: 33-38. URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1034/j.1600-0773.2003.920106.x/pdf (accessed 1/16/2012)

Jaco A., et al. 2007. Mechanism of the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Curcumin: PPAR-gamma Activation. PPAR Res. 2007: 89369. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18274631 (accessed 11/27/2012)

Khanna, S., et al. 2009. Neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties of a novel demethylated curcuminoid. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 11(3): 449-468. URL (abstract): DOI:10.1089/ars.2008.2230 (accesed 12/18/2012).

Kuptniratsaikul V., et al. 2009. Efficacy and safety of Curcuma domestica extracts in patients with knee osteoarthritis. J Altern Complement Med. 15(8):891-7. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19678780 (accessed 12/18/2012).

Lavrovsky, Y., et al. 2000. Role of redox-regulated transcription factors in inflammation, aging and age-related diseases. Exp Gerontol. Aug, 35 (5):521-32. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10978675 (accessed 12/18/2012).

Liu, A., et al. 2006. Validated LC/MS/MS assay for curcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin in rat plasma and application to pharmacokinetic study of phospholipid complex of curcumin. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 40(3): 720-7. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16316738 (accessed 12/20/2012).

Maiti, K., et al. 2007. Curcumin-phospholipid complex: Preparation, therapeutic evaluation and pharmacokinetic study in rats. Int J Pharm. 330(1-2): 155-63. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17112692 (accessed 12/20/2012).

Marczylo, T.H., et al. 2007. Comparison of systemic availability of curcumin with that of curcumin formulated with phosphatidylecholine. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 60 (2), 171-7. Epub 2006 Oct 19. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17051370 (accessed 11/27/2012)

Mazzolani, F. 2012. Pilot study of oral administration of a curcumin-phospholipid formulation for treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy. Clin Ophthalmol. 6, 801-6. Epub May 28, 2012. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22701080 (accessed 11/26/2012).

Mobasheri, A., et al. 2012. Scientific Evidence and Rationale for the Development of Curcumin and Resveratrol as Nutrceuticals for Joint Health. Int J Mol Sci. 13(4): 4202-4232. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3344210/ (accessed 12/20/2012).

Obrenovich, M.E., et al. 2010. The role of polyphenolic antioxidants in health, disease, and aging. Rejuvenation Research. 13(6): 631-643. URL (abstract): DOI:10.1089/rej.2010.1043 (accessed 12/18/2012).

Phan, T.-T., et al. 2001. Protective Effects of Curcumin against Oxidative Damage on Skin Cells In Vitro: Its Implications for Would Healing. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care. 51 (5): 927-931. URL (abstract): http://journals.lww.com/jtrauma/Abstract/2001/11000/Protective_Effects_of_Curcumin_against_Oxidative.17.aspx (accessed 1/16/2013).

Popa, C., et al. 2007. The role of TNF-a in chronic inflammatory conditions, intermediary metabolism, and cardiovascular risk. The Journal or Lipid Research. 48 (751-762). URL: doi: 10.1194/jlr.R600021-JLR200 (accessed 12/18/2012).

Priyadarsini, K. I., et al. 2003. Role of phenolic O-H and methylene hydrogen on the free radical reactions and antioxidant activity of curcumin. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 35(5): 475-484. URL (abstract): http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0891-5849(03)00325-3 (accessed 12/18/2012).

Ruby, A.J., et al. 1995. Anti-tumour and antioxidant activity of natural curcuminoids. Cancer Letters. 94(1): 79-83. URL (abstract): http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-3835(95)03827-J (accessed 12/18/2012).

Serpe, R., et al. 2011. Cucuma longa extract is effective in reducing blood levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increasing antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in patients with cancer-related cachexia and oxidative stress. Abstracts of the 6th Cachexia Conference, Milan, Italy, December 8-10, 2011. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2(4), 209-61. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3222823/ (accessed 11/27/2012)

Shen, C.L., et al. 2012. Dietary polyphenols and mechanisms of osteoarthritis. J Nutr Biochem. 23(11): 1367 – 77. URL (abstract): i: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2012.04.001 (accessed 12/18/2012).

Shehzad, A., et al. 2012. Curcumin in inflammatory disease. BioFactors. Epub ahead of print. doi: 10.1002/biof.1066. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23281076 (accessed 1/16/2013)

Shishodia S, Sethi G, Aggarwal BB. 2005. Curcumin: getting back to the roots. Ann N Y Acad Sci. Nov. 1056 (206-17). URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Curcumin%3A%20getting%20back%20to%20the%20roots%5BTitle%5D (accessed 12/18/2012).

Wolkmer, P., et al. 2012. Pre-treatment with curcumin modulates acetylcholinesterase activity and proinflammatory cytokines in rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi. Parasitol Int. Nov 29 (Epub ahead of print). URL: doi: 10.1016/j.parint.2012.11.004. (accessed 12/18/2012).

Lycopene

Aydin, S. et al. 2012. Antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of lycopene in obstructive jaundice. J Surg Res. 2012 Nov 7 [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23154037 (accessed 2/5/2013).

De Pablo, P., et al. 2007. Antioxidants and other novel cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis in a large population sample. Arthritis Rheum., 57 (6), 953–962. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17665477 (accessed 2/4/2013).

Fujita, K., et al. 2013. Lycopene inhibits ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal apoptosis in gerbil hippocampal tissue. Neurochem res. 2013 Jan 8 [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23296626 (accessed 2/5/2013).

Garrido, M., et al. 2012. A lycopene-enriched virgin olive oil enhances antioxidant status in humans. J Sci Food Agric. 2012 Oct 26 [Epub ahead of print]. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23225211 (accessed 2/5/2013).

Grainger, E. M., et al. 2008. A combination of tomato and soy products for men with recurring prostate cancer and rising prostate specific antigen. Nutr Cancer. 60(2): 145-54. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18444145 (accessed 2/5/2013).

Hsiao, G., et al. 2005. Inhibitory effects of lycopene on in vitro platelet activation and in vivo prevention of thrombus formation. J. Lab. Clin. Med., 146 (4), 216–226. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16194683 (accessed 2/4/2012).

Kim, G., et al. 2004. Lycopene suppresses the lipopolysaccharide-induced phenotypic and functional maturation of murine dendritic cells through inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-kappaB. Immunology, 113 (2), 203–211. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15379981 (accessed 4/2/2013).

Kremore, T.V., et al. 2012. Evaluation of the effect of newer antioxidant lycopene in the treatement of oral submucous fibrosis. Indian J Dent Res. 23 (4): 524-8. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23257490 (accessed 4/5/2013).

Kim, L., et al. 2003. Lycopene II — effect on osteoblasts: The carotenoid lycopene stimulates cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of SaOS-2 cells. J. Med. Food, 6 (2), 79–86. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12935317 (accessed 2/4/2013).

Liang, H., et al. 2012. Lycopene effects on serum mineral elements and bone strength in rats. Molecules. 17 (6): 7093-102. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22728373 (accessed 1/16/2013).

Mackinnon, E. S., et al. 2011. Dietary restriction of lycopene for a period of one month resulted in significantly increased biomarkers of oxidative stress and bone resorption in postmenopausal women. J Nutr Health Aging. 15(2): 133-8. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21365167 (accessed 1/16/2013).

Mackinnon, E. S., et al. 2011. Supplementation with antioxidant lycopene significantly decreases oxidative stress parameters and the bone resorption marker N-telepeptide of type 1 collagen in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int.22 (4): 1091-101. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20552330 (accessed 1/16/2013).

Marcotorchino, J., et al. 2012. Lycopene attenuates LPS-induced TNF-a secretion in macrophages and inflammatory markers in adipocytes exposed to macrophage-conditioned media. Mol Nutr Food Res. 56 (5): 725-32. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22648619 (accessed 2/4/2013).

Pattison, D., et al. 2005. Dietary beta-cryptoxanthin and inflammatory polyarthritis: Results from a population-based prospective study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 82 (2), 451–455. URL: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/82/2/451 (accessed 2/4/2013).

Quilliot, D., et al. 2011. Carotenoid deficiency in chronic pancreatitis: the effect of an increase in tomato consumption. Eur J Clin Nutr. 65(2): 262-8. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21119697 (accessed 2/5/2013).

Rao, L., et al. 2007. Lycopene consumption decreases oxidative stress and bone resorption markers in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos. Int., 18 (1), 109–115. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16941193 (accessed 2/4/2013).

Rao, L., et al. 2003. Lycopene I — effect on osteoclasts: Lycopene inhibits basal and parathyroid hormone-stimulated osteoclast formation and mineral resorption mediated by reactive oxygen species in rat bone marrow cultures. J. Med. Food., 6 (2), 69–78. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12935316 (accessed 2/4/2013).

Rauscher, R., et al. 1998. In vitro antimutagenic and in vivo anticlastogenic effects of carotenoids and solvent extracts from fruits and vegetables rich in carotenoids. Mutat. Res., 413 (2), 129–142. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9639691 (accessed 2/4/2013).

Renju, G.l., et al. 2012. Anti-inflammatory activity of lycopene isolated from Chlorella marina on type II collagen-induced arthritis in Sprague Dawley rats. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2012 Dec 14 (Epub ahead of print) URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23237458 (accessed 2/4/2013).

Sahni, S., et al. 2009. Inverse association of carotenoid intakes with 4–y change in bone mineral density in elderly men and women: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 89 (1), 416–424. URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19056581 (accessed 2/4/2013).

Sahni, S., et al. 2009. Protective effect of total carotenoid and lycopene intake on the risk of hip fracture: A 17-year follow-up from the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. J. Bone Miner. Res., 24 (6), 1086–1094. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2683648/?tool=pubmed (accessed 2/4/2013).

Shidfar, F., et al. 2012. Lycopene an adjunctive therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a quasi-control trial. J Complement Integr Med. 9:Article 14. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22850072 (accessed).

Shen, C. L., et al. 2012. Fruits and dietary phytochemicals in bone protection. Nutr Res. 32 (12): 897-910. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23244535 (accessed 1/16/2013).

Thies, F., et al. 2012. Effect of a tomato-rich diet on markers of cardiovascular disease risk in moderately overweight, disease-free, middle-aged adults: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 95(5): 1013-22. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22492370 (Accessed 2/5/2013).

Van Breemen, R. B., et al. 2002. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of cis- and all-trans-lycopene in human serum and prostate tissue after dietary supplementation with tomato sauce. J Agric Food Chem. 50(8): 2214-9. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11929273 (accessed 2/5/2013).

Wattanapenpaiboon, N., et al. 2003. Dietary carotenoid intake as a predictor of bone mineral density. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr., 12 (4), 467–473. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14672872 (accessed 2/4/2013).

Xaplanteris, P., et al. 2012. Tomato paste supplementation improves endothelial dynamics and reduces plasma total oxidative status in healthy subjects. Nutr Res. 32 (5): 390-4. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22652379 (accessed 2/4/2013).

Yang, Z., et al. 2008. Serum carotenoid concentrations in postmenopausal women from the United States with and without osteoporosis. Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res., 78 (3), 105–111. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19003732 (accessed 2/4/2013).

Zhao, X., et al. 2006. Modification of lymphocyte DNA damage by carotenoid supplementation in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 93(1): 163-9. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16400064 (accessed 2/5/2013).

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