Our Essential Nutrients is a comprehensive nutritional supplement that is doctor-formulated to be complete, bioavailable, and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.
The following articles and studies, arranged in order of recency, provide information about the clinical basis for using our Essential Nutrients.
Geohas, J., et al. 2007. Chromium picolinate and biotin combination reduces atherogenic index of plasma in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Am. J. Med. Sci., 333, 145–153.
Grobbee, D., & van der Graaf, Y. 2007. Vitamin K intake and calcifications in breast arteries. Maturitas, 56, 273–279.
Knight, J., et al. 2007. Vitamin D and reduced risk of breast cancer: A population-based case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 16, 422–429.
Lin, J., et al. 2007. Intakes of calcium and vitamin D and breast cancer risk in women. Arch. Intern. Med., 167, 1050–1059.
Pendas–Franco, N., et al. 2007. Vitamin D regulates the phenotype of human breast cancer cells. Differentiation, 75, 193–207.
Robien, K., et al. 2007. Vitamin D intake and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: The Iowa Women’s Health Study. Cancer Causes Control, 18, 775–782.
Schurgers, L., et al. 2007. Vitamin K-containing dietary supplements: Comparison of synthetic vitamin K1 and natto-derived menaquinone-7. Blood, 109, 3279-3283.
Ball, G. 2006. Chapter 11: Pantothenic Acid. In Vitamins in Foods: Analysis, Bioavailability, and Stability, 211–219. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Bischoff-Ferrari, H., et al. 2006. Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 84, 18–28.
Colli, E., et al. 2006. BXL628, a novel vitamin D3 analog arrests prostate growth in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: A randomized clinical trial. Eur. Urol., 49, 82–86.
Clarke, R. 2006. Vitamin B12, folic acid, and the prevention of dementia. NEJM, 354, 2817–2819.
Garland, C., et al. 2006. The role of vitamin D in cancer prevention. Am. J. Pub. Health, 96, 252–261.
Murray, M., & Pizzorno, J. 2006. Chapter 174: Herpes Simplex. In Textbook of Natural Medicine, vol. 2, 1723–1726. St. Louis, MO: Churchill Livingston.
Revilla–Monsalve, C., et al. 2006. Biotin supplementation reduces plasma triacylglycerol and VLDL in type 2 diabetic patients and in nondiabetic subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. Biomed. Pharmacother., 60, 182–185.
Adams, J., & Pepping, J. 2005. Vitamin K in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis and arterial calcification. Am. J. Health-Syst. Pharm, 62, 1574–1581.
Akbaraly, N., et al. 2005. Selenium and mortality in the elderly: Results from the EVA study. Clin. Chem., 51, 2117–2123.
Bischoff-Ferrari, H., et al. 2005. Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA, 293, 2257–2264.
Coppen, A., & Bolander-Gouaille, C. 2005. Treatment of depression: Time to consider folic acid and vitamin B12. J. Psychopharm., 19, 59–65.
DiSilvestro, R. 2005. Handbook of Minerals as Nutritional Supplements. NY: CRC Press.
Eussen, S., et al. 2005. Oral cyanocobalamin supplementation in older people with vitamin B12 deficiency: A dosefinding trial. Arch. Intern. Med., 165, 1167–1172.
Gropper, S., et al. 2005. Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Mathieu, C., et al. 2005. Vitamin D and diabetes. Diabetologia, 48, 1247–1257.
Miller, E., et al. 2005. Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Ann. Intern. Med., 142, 37–46.
Simon, L. 2005. Osteoporosis. Clin. Geriatr. Med., 21, 603–629.
Srivastava, A., & Mehdi, M. 2005. Insulino-mimetic and anti-diabetic effects of vanadium compounds. Diab. Med., 22, 2–13.
Van Guelpen, B., et al. 2005. Folate, vitamin B12, and risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke: A prospective, nested case-referent study of plasma concentrations and dietary intake. Stroke, 36, 1426–1431.
Baez–Saldana, A., et al. 2004. Effects of biotin on pyruvate carboxylase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, propionyl-CoA carboxylase, and markers for glucose and lipid homeostasis in type 2 diabetic patients and nondiabetic subjects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 79, 238–243.
Bendich, A. 2004. From 1989 to 2001: What have we learned about the “biological actions of beta-carotene”? J. Nutr., 134, 225S–230S.
Bischoff-Ferrari, H., et al. 2004. Effect of Vitamin D on falls: A meta-analysis. JAMA, 291, 1999–2006.
Crescioli, C., et al. 2004. Inhibition of prostate cell growth by BXL-628, a calcitriol analogue selected for a phase II clinical trial in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia. Eur. J. Endocrinol., 150, 591–603.
Flynn, C. 2004. Calcium supplementation in postmenopausal women. Am. Fam. Phys., 69, 2822–2823.
Geleijnse, J., et al. 2004. Dietary intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: The Rotterdam Study. J. Nutr., 134, 3100–3105.
Holick, M. 2004. Vitamin D: Importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 79, 362–371.
Hyun, T., et al. 2004. Zinc intakes and plasma concentrations in men with osteoporosis: The Rancho Bernardo Study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 80, 715–721.
Lee, B., et al. 2004. Folic acid and vitamin B12 are more effective than vitamin B6 in lowering fasting plasma homocysteine concentration in patients with coronary artery disease. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 58, 481–487.
Levine, S., & Saltzman, A. 2004. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) neurotoxicity: Enhancement by protein-deficient diet. J. Appl. Toxicol., 24, 497–500.
Millen, A., et al. 2004. Diet and melanoma in a case-control study. Cancer Epidem., Biomark. & Prevent., 13, 1042–1051.
Miller, J. 2004. Folate, cognition, and depression in the era of folic acid fortification. J. Food Sci., 69, 61–64.
Nielsen, F., & Milne, D. 2004. A moderately high intake compared to a low intake of zinc depresses magnesium balance and alters indices of bone turnover in postmenopausal women. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 58, 703–710.
Pattison, D., et al. 2004. Vitamin C and the risk of developing inflammatory polyarthritis: Prospective nested case-control study. Ann. Rheum. Dis., 63, 843–847.
Shekelle, P., et al. 2004. Effect of supplemental vitamin E for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. J. Gen. Intern. Med., 19, 380–389.
Stabler, S., & Allen, R. 2004. Vitamin B12 deficiency as a worldwide problem. Annu. Rev. Nutr., 24, 299–326.
Vermeer, C., et al. 2004. Beyond deficiency: Potential benefits of increased intakes of vitamin K for bone and vascular health. Eur. J. Nutr., 43, 325–335.
VanAmerongen, B., et al. 2004. Multiple sclerosis and vitamin D: An update. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 58, 1095–1109.
Yasuda, S., et al. 2004. Suppressive effects of ascorbate derivatives on ultraviolet-B-induced injury in HaCaT human keratinocytes. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim., 40, 71–73.
Bodiwala, D., et al. 2003. Susceptibility to prostate cancer: Studies on interactions between UVR exposure and skin type. Carcinogenesis, 24, 711–717.
Borissova, A., et al. 2003. The effect of vitamin D3 on insulin secretion and peripheral insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients. Int. J. Clin. Pract., 57, 258–261.
Crescioli, C., et al. 2003. Inhibition of spontaneous and androgen-induced prostate growth by a nonhypercalcemic calcitriol analog. Endocrinol., 144, 3046–3057.
Devirian, T., & Volpe, S. 2003. The physiological effects of dietary boron. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 43, 219–231.
Grau, M., et al. 2003. Vitamin D, calcium supplementation, and colorectal adenomas: Results of a randomized trial. J. Nat. Canc. Inst., 95, 1765–1771.
Heinrich, U., et al. 2003. Supplementation with beta-carotene or a similar amount of mixed carotenoids protects humans from UV-induced erythema. J. Nutr., 133, 98–101.
Hintikka, J., et al. 2003. High vitamin B12 level and good treatment outcome may be associated in major depressive disorder. BMC Psych., 3, 17.
Kohlmeier, M., Ed. 2003. Nutrient Metabolism. Food International and Technology International Series. NY: Academic Press.
Lewerin, C., et al. 2003. Reduction of plasma homocysteine and serum methylmalonate concentrations in apparently healthy elderly subjects after treatment with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6: A randomised trial. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 57, 1426–1436.
Maggio, D., et al. 2003. Marked decrease in plasma antioxidants in aged osteoporotic women: Results of a cross-sectional study. J. Clin. Endocrin. Metab., 88, 1523–1527.
Rampersaud, G., et al. 2003. Folate: A key to optimizing health and reducing disease risk in the elderly. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 22, 1–8.
Stabler, T., & Kraus, V. 2003. Ascorbic acid accumulates in cartilage in vivo. Clin. Chim. Acta, 334, 157–62.
Trivedi, D., et al. 2003. Effect of four monthly oral vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation on fractures and mortality in men and women living in the community: Randomised double blind controlled trial. BMJ, 326, 469.
Watson, R., & Preedy, V. 2003. Nutrition and Alcohol. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Czap, K., Ed. 2002. Alternative Medicine Review: Monographs. Dover, ID: Thorne Research, Inc.
Duan, W., et al. 2002. Dietary folate deficiency and elevated homocysteine levels endanger dopaminergic neurons in models of Parkinson’s disease. J. Neurochem., 80, 101–110.
Knekt, P., et al. 2002. Flavonoid intake and risk of chronic diseases. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 76, 560–568.
Mock, D., et al. 2002. Marginal biotin deficiency during normal pregnancy. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 75, 295–299.
Morris, M. 2002. Folate, homocysteine, and neurological function. Nutr. Clin. Care, 5, 124–132.
Rico, H., et al. 2002. Influence of boron supplementation on vertebral and femoral bone mass in rats on strenuous treadmill exercise. A morphometric, densitometric, and histomorphometric study. J. Clin. Densitomet., 5, 187–192.
Shealy, C. 2002. Correction of low body temperature with iodine supplementation. Front. Perspect., 11, 6–8.
Sigmund, C. 2002. Regulation of renin expression and blood pressure by vitamin D(3). J. Clin. Invest., 110, 155–156.
Chang, N., et al. 2001. Study of the relation between proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy metabolites in the brain regions and the B vitamin status in alcoholics. Nutr. Res., 21, 811–820.
Chatterjee, M. 2001. Vitamin D and genomic stability. Mutat. Res., 475, 69–87.
Hartwig, A. 2001. Role of magnesium in genomic stability. Mutat. Res., 475, 113–121.
Helmy, M., et al. 2001. Antioxidants as adjuvant therapy in rheumatoid disease. A preliminary study. Arzneimittelforschung, 51, 293–298.
Hendler, S., & Rorvik, D. 2001. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company.
Klipstein-Grobusch, K., et al. 2001. Dietary antioxidants and peripheral arterial disease: The Rotterdam Study. Am. J. Epidemiol., 154, 145–149.
Pfeifer, M., et al. 2001. Effects of a short-term vitamin D(3) and calcium supplementation on blood pressure and parathyroid hormone levels in elderly women. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 86, 1633–1637.
Takahashi, M., et al. 2001. Effect of vitamin K and/or D on undercarboxylated and intact osteocalcin in osteoporotic patients with vertebral or hip fractures. Clin. Endocrin., 54, 219–224.
Berchtold, M., et al. 2000. Calcium ion in skeletal muscle: Its crucial role for muscle function, plasticity, and disease. Phys. Res., 80, 1215–1265.
Brubaker, R., et al. 2000. Ascorbic acid content of human corneal epithelium. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 41, 1681–1683.
Christen, W., et al. 2000. Design of Physicians’ Health Study II — a randomized trial of beta-carotene, vitamins E and C, and multivitamins, in prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and eye disease, and review of results of completed trials. Ann. Epidemiol., 10, 125–134.
Coppen, A., & Bailey, J. 2000. Enhancement of the antidepressant action of fluoxetine by folic acid: A randomised, placebo controlled trial. J. Affect. Disord., 60, 121–130.
De la Fuente, M., et al. 2000. Changes in macrophage and lymphocyte functions in guinea-pigs after different amounts of vitamin E ingestion. Br. J. Nutr., 84, 25–29.
Glerup, H., et al. 2000. Commonly recommended daily intake of vitamin D is not sufficient if sunlight exposure is limited. J. Int. Med., 247, 260–268.
Heaney, R. 2000. Calcium, dairy products and osteoporosis. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 19, 83S–99S.
Hetzel, B. 2000. Iodine and neuropsychological development. J. Nutr., 130, 493S–495S.
Ilich, J., & Kerstetter, J. 2000. Nutrition in bone health revisited: A story beyond calcium. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 19, 715–737.
Kugelmas, M. 2000. Preliminary observation: Oral zinc sulfate replacement is effective in treating muscle cramps in cirrhotic patients. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 19, 13–15.
Platz, E., et al. 2000. Plasma 1,25-dihydroxy- and 25-hydroxyvitamin D and adenomatous polyps of the distal colorectum. Cancer Epidem. Biomark. Prev., 9, 1059–1065.
Preuss, H., et al. 2000. Effects of niacin-bound chromium and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on the lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic subjects: A pilot study. J. Med., 31, 227–246.
Stahl, W., et al. 2000. Carotenoids and carotenoids plus vitamin E protect against ultraviolet light-induced erythema in humans. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 71, 795–798.
Youdim, K., & Deans, S. 2000. Effect of thyme oil and thymol dietary supplementation on the antioxidant status and fatty acid composition of the ageing rat brain. Br. J. Nutr., 83, 87–93.
Zempleni, J., & Mock, D. 2000. Marginal biotin deficiency is teratogenic. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 223, 14–21.
Anderson, J., et al. 1999. Breast-feeding and cognitive development: A meta-analysis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 70, 525–535.
Bailey, L.. & Gregory, J. 1999. Folate metabolism and requirements. J. Nutr., 129, 779–782.
Baker, A., et al. 1999. Effect of dietary copper intakes on biochemical markers of bone metabolism in healthy adult males. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 53, 408–412.
Bendich, A., et al. 1999. Supplemental calcium for the prevention of hip fracture: Potential health-economic benefits. Clin. Ther., 21, 1058–1072.
Bland, J., et al. 1999. Chapter 3: Proteins and Amino Acids. In Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach, 42-53. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine.
Bronner, F., & Pansu, D. 1999. Nutritional aspects of calcium absorption. J. Nutr., 129, 9–12.
Celotti, F., & Bignamini, A. 1999. Dietary calcium and mineral/vitamin supplementation: A controversial problem. J. Int. Med. Res., 27, 1–14.
Crawford, V., et al. 1999. Effects of niacin-bound chromium supplementation on body composition in overweight African-American women. Diab. Obes. Metabol., 1, 331–337.
Creedon, A., et al. 1999. The effect of moderately and severely restricted dietary magnesium intakes on bone composition and bone metabolism in the rat. Br. J. Nutr., 82, 63–71.
Feskanich, D., et al. 1999. Vitamin K intake and hip fractures in women: A prospective study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 69, 74–79.
Green, A., et al. 1999. Daily sunscreen application and betacarotene supplementation in prevention of basal-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas of the skin: A randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 354, 723–729.
Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell’Infarto miocardico. 1999. Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: Results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Lancet, 354: 447–455.
Hassing, L., et al. 1999. Further evidence on the effects of vitamin B12 and folate levels on episodic memory functioning: A population-based study of healthy very old adults. Biol. Psych., 45, 1472–1480.
Jacques, P. 1999. The potential preventive effects of vitamins for cataract and age-related macular degeneration. Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res., 69, 198–205.
John, E., et al. 1999. Vitamin D and breast cancer risk: The NHANES I Epidemiologic follow-up study, 1971-1975 to 1992. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 8, 399–406.
LeBoff, M., et al. 1999. Occult vitamin D deficiency in postmenopausal US women with acute hip fracture. JAMA, 281, 1505–1511.
Lee, K., et al. 1999. Too much versus too little: The implications of current iodine intake in the United States. Nutr. Rev., 57, 177–181.
Meunier, P., et al. 1999. Diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: Clinical guidelines. International Committee for Osteoporosis Clinical Guidelines. Clin. Ther., 21, 1025–1044.
Patrick, L. 1999. Comparative absorption of calcium sources and calcium citrate malate for the prevention of osteoporosis. Altern. Med. Rev., 4, 74–85.
Venkatraman, J., & Chu, W.-C. 1999. Effects of dietary ?3 and ?6 lipids and vitamin E on proliferative response, lymphoid cell subsets, production of cytokines by spleen cells, and splenic protein levels for cytokines and oncogenes in MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr mice. J. Nutr. Biochem., 10, 582-597.
Vieth, R. 1999. Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 69, 842–856.
Zempleni, J., & Mock, D. 1999. Bioavailability of biotin given orally to humans in pharmacologic doses. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 69, 504–508.
Berdanier, C. D. 1998. Advanced Nutrition Micronutrients. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc.
Castelo-Branco, C. 1998. Management of osteoporosis. An overview. Drugs Aging, 12, 25–32.
Chapin, R., et al. 1998. The effects of dietary boric acid on bone strength in rats. Biol. Trace Elem. Res., 66, 395–399.
Falch, J., et al. 1998. Low levels of serum ascorbic acid in elderly patients with hip fracture. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest., 58, 225–228.
Hall, S., & Greendale, G. 1998. The relation of dietary vitamin C intake to bone mineral density: Results from the PEPI study. Calc. Tiss. Int., 63, 183–189.
Lakshmi, A. 1998. Riboflavin metabolism — relevance to human nutrition. Indian J. Med. Res., 108, 182-190.
Lin, Y., et al. 1998. Estimating the concentration of beta-carotene required for maximal protection of low-density lipoproteins in women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 67, 837-845.
Lukkarinen, M., et al. 1998. Varicella and varicella immunity in patients with lysinuric protein intolerance. J. Inherit.Metab. Dis., 21, 103–111.
Maas, A., et al. 1998. Riboflavin and vitamin B-6 intakes and status and biochemical response to riboflavin supplementation in free-living elderly people. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 68, 389–395.
Masse, P., et al. 1998. A cartilage matrix deficiency experimentally induced by vitamin B6 deficiency. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 217, 97–103.
Mathai, K. 1998. Vitamin E continuing education module. Nutr. Sci. News, 3, 8 pp.
Moriguchi, S. 1998. The role of vitamin E in T-cell differentiation and the decrease of cellular immunity with aging. Biofactors, 7, 77–86.
Nielsen, F. 1998. The justification for providing dietary guidance for the nutritional intake of boron. Biol. Trace Elem. Res., 66, 319–330.
O’Brien, K. 1998. Combined calcium and vitamin D supplementation reduces bone loss and fracture incidence in older men and women. Nutr. Rev., 56, 148–150.
Reid, I. 1998. The roles of calcium and vitamin D in the prevention of osteoporosis. Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am., 27, 389–398.
Rose, R., et al. 1998. Ocular oxidants and antioxidant protection. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 217, 397-407.
Tessier, F., et al. 1998. Decrease in vitamin C concentration in human lenses during cataract progression. Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res., 68, 309–315.
Urano, et al. 1998. Aging and oxidative stress in neurodegeneration. Biofactors, 7, 103–112.
Balch, J., & Balch, P. 1997. Prescription for Nutritional Healing (4th Ed.): A Practical A-to-Z Reference to Drug-Free Remedies Using Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs & Food Supplements, 12–21. Garden City Park, NJ: Avery Publishing Group.
Chapin, R., et al. 1997. The effects of dietary boron on bone strength in rats. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol., 35, 205–215.
Edmonds, S., et al. 1997. Putative analgesic activity of repeated oral doses of vitamin E in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Results of a prospective placebo controlled double blind trial. Ann. Rheum. Dis., 56, 649–655.
Gaby, A. 1997. Panthothenic acid: All-purpose vitamin, a member of the B-complex vitamin group. Nutr. Healing, 3 (4), 11.
Grant, K. et al. 1997. Chromium and exercise training: Effect on obese women. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 29, 992–998.
Shivakumar, K., & Kumar, B. 1997. Magnesium deficiency enhances oxidative stress and collagen synthesis in vivo in the aorta of rats. Int. J. Biochem. Cell. Biol., 29, 1273–1278.
van Poppel, G., & van den Berg, H. 1997. Vitamins and cancer. Cancer Letters, 114, 195–202.
Zhang, H., et al. 1997. Biotin administration improves the impaired glucose tolerance of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (Tokyo), 43, 271-280.
Albanes, D., et al. 1996. Alpha-tocopherol and beta carotene supplements and lung cancer incidence in the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cancer prevention study: Effects of base-line characteristics and study compliance. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 88, 1560–1570.
Cravo, M., et al. 1996. Hyperhomocysteinemia in chronic alcoholism: Correlation with folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 status. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 63, 220–224.
McAlindon, T., et al. 1996. Do antioxidant micronutrients protect against the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis? Arthritis. Rheum., 39, 648–656.
Murray, M. 1996. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing.
Omenn, G., et al. 1996. Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. NEJM, 334, 1150–1155.
Riggs, K., et al. 1996. Relations of vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, folate, and homocysteine to cognitive performance in the Normative Aging Study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 63, 306–314.
Bendich, A., & Langseth, L. 1995. The health effects of vitamin C supplementation: A review. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 14, 124–136.
Boucher, B., et al. 1995. Glucose intolerance and impairment of insulin secretion in relation to vitamin D deficiency in east London Asians. Diabetologia, 38, 1239–1245.
Dreosti, I. 1995. Magnesium status and health. Nutr. Rev., 53, S23–S27.
Groff, J., et al. 1995. Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.
Jie, K., et al. 1995. Vitamin K intake and osteocalcin levels in women with and without aortic atherosclerosis: A population-based study. Atherosclerosis, 116, 117-123.
Meacham, S., et al. 1995. Effect of boron supplementation on blood and urinary calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus, and urinary boron in athletic and sedentary women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 61, 341–345.
Nachbar, F., & Korting, H. 1995. The role of vitamin E in normal and damaged skin. J. Mol. Med., 73, 7–17.
Sojka, J., & Weaver, C. 1995. Magnesium supplementation and osteoporosis. Nutr. Rev., 53, 71–74.
Wilson, B., & Gondy, A. 1995. Effects of chromium supplementation on fasting insulin levels and lipid parameters in healthy, non-obese young subjects. Diabet. Res. Clin. Pract., 28, 179–184.
Barger–Lux, M., & Heaney, R. 1994. The role of calcium intake in preventing bone fragility, hypertension, and certain cancers. J. Nutr., 124, 1406S–1411S.
Bronner, F. 1994. Calcium and osteoporosis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 60, 831–836.
De Caterina R., et al. 1994. n-3 fatty acids and renal diseases. Am. J. Kidney Dis., 24, 397–415.
Masse, P., et al. 1994. Vitamin B6 deficiency experimentally-induced bone and joint disorder: Microscopic, radiographic and biochemical evidence. Br. J. Nutr., 71: 919–932.
Newnham, R. 1994. Essentiality of boron for healthy bones and joints. Environ. Health Perspect., 102 (Suppl. 7). 83-85.
Abbott, L., & Rude, R. 1993. Clinical manifestations of magnesium deficiency. Miner. Electrolyte Metab. 19, 314–322.
Beattie, J., & Peace, H. 1993. The influence of a low-boron diet and boron supplementation on bone, major mineral and sex steroid metabolism in postmenopausal women. Br. J. Nutr., 69, 871–884.
Hochman, L., et al. 1993. Brittle nails: Response to daily biotin supplementation. Cutis, 51, 303–305.
Hodges, S., et al. 1993. Circulating levels of vitamins K1 and K2 decreased in elderly women with hip fracture. J. Bone Miner. Res., 8, 1241–1245.
Saltman, P., & Strause, L. 1993. The role of trace minerals in osteoporosis. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 12, 384–389.
Volpe, S., et al. 1993. The relationship between boron and magnesium status and bone mineral density in the human: A review. Magnesium Res., 6, 291–296.
Chapuy, M., et al. 1992. Vitamin D3 and calcium to prevent hip fractures in the elderly women. NEJM, 327, 1637–1642.
Combs, G., 1992. Vitamin B6 (Chapter 13), and Vitamin B12 (Chapter 17). In The Vitamins: Fundamental Aspects in Nutrition and Health, 331–347; 403–419. San Diego: Academic Press.
Hankinson, S., et al. 1992. Nutrient intake and cataract extraction in women: A prospective study. BMJ, 305, 335–339.
Paunier, L. 1992. Effect of magnesium on phosphorus and calcium metabolism. Monatsschr. Kinderheilkd., 140, S17–S20.
Reynolds, T., et al. 1992. Hip fracture patients may be vitamin B6 deficient. Controlled study of serum pyridoxal-5’-phosphate. Acta Orthop. Scand., 63, 635–638.
Simon, J., et al. 1992. Calcium intake and blood pressure in elderly women. Am. J. Epidemiol., 136, 1241–1247.
Mock, D. 1991. Skin manifestations of biotin deficiency. Semin. Dermatol., 10, 296-302.
Tahiliani, A., & Beinlich, C. 1991. Pantothenic acid in health and disease. Vitam. Horm., 46, 165–228.
Anderson, J. 1990. Dietary calcium and bone mass through the lifecycle. Nutr. Today, 25 (2),9–14.
Colombo, V., et al. 1990. Treatment of brittle fingernails and onychoschizia with biotin: Scanning electron microscopy. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., 23, 1127–1132.
Davis, R., et al. 1990. Vitamin C influence on localized adjuvant arthritis. J. Am. Podiatr. Med. Assoc., 80, 414–418.
Koutsikos, D., et al. 1990. Biotin for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Biomed. Pharmacother., 44, 511–514.
Masse, P., et al. 1990. Morphological abnormalities in vitamin B6 deficient tarsometatarsal chick cartilage. Scanning Microsc., 4, 667–673; discussion 674.
Meydani, S., et al. 1990. Vitamin E supplementation enhances cell-mediated immunity in healthy elderly subjects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 52, 557-563.
Song, W. 1990. Pantothenic acid: How much do we know about this B-complex vitamin? Nutr. Today, 25 (2), 19–26.
Floersheim, G. 1989. [Treatment of brittle fingernails with biotin]. Z. Hautkr., 64, 41–48.
Frei, B., et al. 1989. Ascorbate is an outstanding antioxidant in human blood plasma. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 86, 6377–6381.
Mountokalakis, T. 1987. Effects of aging, chronic disease, and multiple supplements on magnesium requirements. Magnesium, 6, 5-11.
Nyhan, W. 1987. Inborn errors of biotin metabolism. Arch. Dermatol., 123, 1696–1698a.
Bendich, A., et al. 1986. Dietary vitamin E requirement for optimum immune responses in the rat. J. Nutr., 116, 675–681.
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Our Omega-3s is doctor-formulated to be complete, natural, bioavailable, and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.
The following articles and studies, arranged in order of recency, provide information concerning the clinical basis for using Omega-3s.
Bays, H. 2007. Safety considerations with omega-3 fatty acid therapy. Am. J. Cardiol., 99 (6A), 35C–43C.
Bourre, J. 2007. Dietary omega–3 fatty acids for women. Biomed. Pharmacother., 61 (3), 105–112.
Conklin, S., et al. 2007. Serum w-3 fatty acids are associated with variation in mood, personality and behavior in hypercholesterolemic community volunteers. Psych. Res., 152, 1–10.
Goldberg, R., & Katz, J. 2007. A meta-analysis of the analgesic effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for inflammatory joint pain. Pain, 129, 210–223.
Nguyen, C., et al. 2007. Dietary omega 3 fatty acids decrease intraocular pressure with age by increasing aqueous outflow. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 48 (2), 756–762.
Natural Standard Monograph. 2007. Omega-3 fatty acids, fish oil, alpha-linolenic acid. URL (limited access): http://naturalstandard.com/monographs/herbssupplements/fishoil.asp?printversion
Townend, B., et al. 2007. Dietary macronutrient intake and five-year incident cataract: The Blue Mountains Eye Study. Am. J. Ophthalmol., 143, 932–939.
Appleton, K., et al. 2006. Effects of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on depressed mood: Systematic review of published trials. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 84, 1308–1316.
Black, H., & Rhodes, L. 2006. The potential of omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer. Cancer Detect. Prev., 30 (3), 224–232.
Creuzot, C., et al. 2006. [Improvement of dry eye symptoms with polyunsaturated fatty acids.] J. Fr. Ophtalmol., 29 (8), 868–873.
Freeman, M., et al. 2006. Omega-3 fatty acids: Evidence basis for treatment and future research in psychiatry. J. Clin. Psych., 67 (12), 1954–1967.
German, O., et al. 2006. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents apoptosis of retina photoreceptors by activating the ERK/MAPK pathway. J. Neurochem., 98, 1507–1520.
Kamphuis, M., et al. 2006. Depression and cardiovascular mortality: A role for n-3 fatty acids? Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 84, 1513–1517.
Kim, H-H., et al. 2006. Photoprotective and anti-skin-aging effects of eicosapentaenoic acid in human skin in vivo. J. Lipid Res., 47, 921–930.
Lamotte, M., et al. 2006. A multi-country health-economic evaluation of highly concentrated n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the secondary prevention after myocardial infarction. Herz., 31 (Suppl. 3), 74–82.
Menéndez, J., et al. 2006. HER2 (erbB-2)-targeted effects of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3), in breast cancer cells: The “fat features” of the “Mediterranean diet” as an “anti-HER2 cocktail”. Clin. Transl. Oncol., 8 (11), 812–820.
Nemets, H., et al. 2006. Omega-3 treatment of childhood depression: A controlled, double-blind pilot study. Am. J. Psych., 163 (6), 1098–1100.
Seddon, J., et al. 2006. Cigarette smoking, fish consumption, omega-3 fatty acid intake, and associations with age-related macular degeneration. The US Twin Study of Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Arch. Ophthalmol., 124, 995–1001.
Severus, W. 2006. Effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on depression. Herz., 31 (Suppl. 3), 69–74.
Walzer, B., et al. 2006. Supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids augments brachial artery dilation and blood flow during forearm contraction. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., 97, 347–354.
Berbert, A., et al. 2005. Supplementation of fish oil and olive oil in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Nutrition, 21, 131–136.
Kim, H-H., et al. 2005. Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits UV-induced MMP-1 expression in human dermal fibroblasts. J. Lipid Res., 46, 1712–1720.
Lerman, R. 2005. Essential fatty acids. In Textbook of Functional Medicine, ed. D. S. Jones & S. Quinn, pp. 420–433. Gig Harbor, WA: The Institute for Functional Medicine.
Covington, M. 2004. Omega-3 fatty acids. Am. Fam. Phys., 70 (1), 133–140.
Iribarren, C., et al. 2004. Dietary intake of n-3, n-6 fatty acids and fish: Relationship with hostility in young adults — the CARDIA study. Eur. J. Clinc. Nutr., 58, 24–31.
Saldeen, P., & Saldeen, T. 2004. Women and omega-3 fatty acids. Obstet. Gynecol., 59 (10), 722–730.
US FDA/Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. 2004. What you need to know about mercury in fish and shellfish. EPA-823-R-04-005. URL: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/admeghg3.html
Harris, W., et al. 2003. Cardiovascular disease and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Curr. Opin. Lipidol., 14 (1), 9–14.
Helland, I., et al. 2003. Maternal supplementation with very long-chain n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation augments children’s IQ at 4 years of age. Pediatrics, 111 (1), E39-E44.
Logan, A. 2003. Neurobehavioral aspects of omega-3 fatty acids: Possible mechanisms and therapeutic value in major depression. Altern. Med. Rev., 8 (4), 410–425.
Zanarini, M., & Frankenburg, F. 2003. Omega-3 fatty acid treatment of women with borderline personality disorder: A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Am. J. Psych., 160, 167–169.
Bagga, D., et al. 2002. Long-chain n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratios in breast adipose tissue from women with and without breast cancer. Nutr. Cancer, 42, 180–185.
Carrie, I., et al. 2002. Docosahexaenoic acid-rich phospholipid supplementation: Effect on behavior, learning ability, and retinal function in control and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deficient old mice. Nutr. Neurosci., 5 (1):43–52.
Hu, F., et al. 2002. Fish and omega-3 fatty acid intake and risk of coronary heart disease in women. JAMA, 287 (14), 1815–1821.
Nestel, P. et al. 2002. The n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid increase systemic arterial compliance in humans. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 76, 326–330.
Chen, L., et al. 2000. Effect of stable fish oil on arterial thrombogenesis, platelet aggregation, and superoxide dismutase activity. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol., 35 (3), 502–505.
Curtis, C., et al. 2000. n-3 fatty acids specifically modulate catabolic factors involved in articular cartilage degradation. J. Biol. Chem., 275 (2), 721–724.
Stark, K., et al. 2000. Effect of a fish-oil concentrate on serum lipids in postmenopausal women receiving and not receiving hormone replacement therapy in a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 72, 389–394.
Yamada, T., et al. 2000. Atherosclerosis and w-3 fatty acids in the populations of a fishing village and a farming village in Japan. Atherosclerosis, 153, 469–481.
Austin, M., et al. 1998. Hypertriglyceridemia as a cardiovascular risk factor. Am. J. Cardiol., 81 (4A), 7B–12B.
Kruger, M., et al. 1998. Calcium, gamma-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation in senile osteoporosis. Aging [Milano], 10 (5), 385–394.
Berry, E. 1997. Dietary fatty acids in the management of diabetes mellitus. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 66 (4 Suppl.), S991–S997.
Bruckner, G. 1997. Microcirculation, vitamin E and omega 3 fatty acids: An overview. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 415, 195–208.
Katayama, Y. Effect of long-term administration of ethyl eicosapentate (EPA-E) on local cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Brain Res., 761 (2), 300–305.
Belluzzi, A., et al. 1996. Effect of an enteric-coated fish-oil preparation on relapses in Crohn’s disease. NEJM, 3334 (24), 1557–1560.
Caygill, C., et al. 1996. Fat, fish oil and cancer. Br. J. Cancer, 74, 159–164.
Harel, Z., et al. 1996. Supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the management of dysmenorrhea in adolescents. Am J. Obstet. Gynecol., 171 (4), 1335–1338.
Lau, C-S., et al. 1995. Effects of fish oil on plasma fibrinolysis in patients with mild rheumatoid arthritis. Clin. Exp. Rheumatol., 13 (1), 87–90.
Suzukawa, et al. 1995. Effects of fish oil fatty acids on low density lipoprotein size, oxidizability, and uptake by macrophages. J. Lipid Res., 36, 473–484.
Geusens, P., et al. 1994. Long-term effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in active rheumatoid arthritis. A 12–month, double-blind, controlled study. Arthritis Rheum., 37 (6), 824–829.
Kankaanpää, P., et al. 1993. Dietary fatty acids and allergy. Ann. Med., 31 (4), 282–287.
Escobar, S., et al. 1992. Topical fish oil in psoriasis — a controlled and blind study. Clin. Exp. Dermatol., 17 (3), 159–162.
Simopoulos, A. 1991. Omega-3 fatty acids in health and disease and in growth and development. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 54 (3), 438–463.
Ellis, E., et al. 1990. Effect of fish oil n-3 fatty acids on cerebral microcirculation. Am. J. Physiol., 258 (6 Pt. 2), H1780–H1785.
Haglund, O., et al. 1990. Effects of a new fluid fish oil concentrate, ESKIMO-3, on triglycerides, cholesterol, fibrinogen and blood pressure. J. Intern. Med., 227 (5), 347–353.
van der Temple, H., et al. 1990. Effects of fish oil supplementation in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann. Rheum. Dis., 49, 76–80.
Black, K., et al. 1984. Eicosapentaenoic acid: Effect on brain prostaglandins, cerebral blood flow and edema in ischemic gerbils. Stroke, 15 (1), 65–69.
Our Super Biotic is doctor-formulated to be complete, natural, bioavailable, and manufactured to pharmaceutical standards.
The following articles and studies, arranged in order of recency, provide information concerning the clinical basis for using Super Biotic.
Fujimori, S., et al. 2007. High dose probiotic and prebiotic cotherapy for remission induction of active Crohn’s disease. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 22 (8), 1199–1204. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=PubMed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=17688660 (accessed 10.24.2007).
Boyle, R., et al. 2006. Probiotic use in clinical practice: What are the risks? Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 83, 1256–1264. URL (full text): http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/83/6/1256 (accessed 10.24.2007).
Falagas, M. et al. 2006. Probiotics for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in women: A review of the evidence from microbiological and clinical studies. Drugs, 66 (9), 1253–1261. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=PubMed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=16827601 (accessed 10.04.2007).
Frankenfeld, C., et al. 2006. Postmenopausal bone mineral density in relation to soy isoflavone-metabolizing phenotypes. Maturitas, 53 (3), 315–324. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=PubMed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=16019168 (accessed 10.24.2007).
Parvez, S., et al. 2006. Probiotics and their fermented food products are beneficial for health. J. Appl. Microbiol., 100, 1171–1185. URL (full text): http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2006.02963.x (accessed 10.24.2007).
Uehara, S., et al. 2006. A pilot study evaluating the safety and effectiveness of Lactobacillus vaginal suppositories in patients with recurrent urinary tract infection. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents, 28, (Suppl. 1) S30–S34. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=16859900> (accessed 10.04.2007).
Marshall, B. 2005. The Lasker Awards: Celebrating scientific discovery. JAMA, 294, 1420–1421.
Adolfsson, O., et al. 2004. Yogurt and gut function. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 80, 245–256. URL (full text): http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/80/2/245 (accessed 10.24.2007).
Lin, H. 2004. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: A framework for understanding irritable bowel syndrome. JAMA, 292 (7), 852–858. URL (full text): http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/292/7/852 (accessed 10.24.2007).
Marelli, G., et al. 2004. Lactobacilli for prevention of urogenital infections: A review. Eur. Rev. Med. Pharmacol. Sci., 8 (2), 87–95. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=15267122 (accessed 10.04.2007).
Wang, K-Y., et al. 2004. Effects of ingesting Lactobacilus- and Bifidobacterium-containing yogurt in subjects with colonized Helicobacter pylori. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 80, 737–741. URL (full text): http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/80/3/737 (accessed 10.24.2007).
Halsted, C. 2003. Dietary supplements and functional foods: 2 sides of a coin? Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 77 (Suppl.), 1001S–1007S. URL (full text): http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/77/4/1001S (accessed 10.24.2007).
Fernández, M., et al. 2003. Probiotic properties of human lactobacilli strains to be used in the gastrointestinal tract. J. Appl. Microbiol., 94, 449–455. URL (abstract): http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1046/j.1365-2672.2003.01850.x (accessed 10.24.2007).
Reid, G., et al. 2003. Oral use of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and L. fermentum RC-14 significantly alters vaginal flora: Randomized, placebo-controlled trial. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol., 25 (20), 131–134. URL (abstract): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=12628548 (accessed 10.04.2007).
Reid, G., et al. 2003. Potential uses of probiotics in clinical practice. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 16 (4), 658–672. URL: (full text): http://cmr.asm.org/cgi/content/full/16/4/658?view=long&pmid=1455729 (accessed 10.24.2007).
Duggan, C., et al. 2002. Protective nutrients and functional foods for the gastrointestinal tract. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 75, 789–808. URL (full text): http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/75/5/789 (accessed 10.24.2007).
Ishikawa, H., et al. 2002. Randomized controlled trial of the effect of bifidobacteria-fermented milk on ulcerative colitis. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 22 (1), 56–63. URL (full text): http://www.jacn.org/cgi/content/full/22/1/56 (accessed 10.24.2007).
Holzapfel, W., et al. 2001. Taxonomy and important features of probiotic microorganisms in food and nutrition. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 73 (Suppl.), 365S–373S. URL (full text): http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/73/2/365S (accessed 10.24.2007).
Ishibashi, N., & Yamazaki, S. 2001. Probiotics and safety. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 73 (Suppl.), 465S–470S. URL (full text): http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/73/2/465S (accessed 10.24.2007).
Isolauri, E., et al. 2001. Probiotics: Effects on immunity. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 73 (Suppl.), 444S–450S. URL (full text): http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/73/2/444S (accessed 10.24.2007).
Isolauri, E. 2001. Probiotics in human disease. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 73 (Suppl.), 1142S–1146S. URL (full text): http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/73/6/1142S (accessed 10.24.2007).
Marteau, P., et al. 2001. Protection from gastrointestinal diseases with the use of probiotics. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 73 (Suppl.), 430S–436S. URL (full text): http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/73/2/430S (accessed 10.24.2007).
Saavedra, J. 2001. Clinical applications of probiotic agents. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 73 (Suppl.), 1147S–1151S. URL (full text): http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/73/6/1147S (accessed 10.24.2007).
Vanderhoof, J. 2001. Probiotics: Future directions. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 73 (Suppl.), 1152S–1155S. URL (full text): http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/73/6/1152S (accessed 10.24.2007).
Wollowski, I., et al. 2001. Protective role of probiotics and prebiotics in colon cancer. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 73 (Suppl.), 451S–455S. URL (full text): http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/73/2/451S (accessed 10.24.2007).
Roberfroid, M. 2000. Prebiotics and probiotics: Are they functional foods? Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 71 (Suppl.), 1682S–1687S. URL (full text): http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/71/6/1682S (accessed 10.24.2007).
Collins, M., & Gibson, G. 1999. Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics: Approaches for modulating the microbial ecology of the gut. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 69 (Suppl.), 1052S–1057S. URL (full text): http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/69/5/1052S (accessed 10.24.2007).